FANDOM


In human genetics, Haplogroup Q (M242) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ K
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
N O Q R
Footnotes 
  1. ^ (2014) "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. DOI:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A-L1085 (and previously as A0'1'2'3'4).
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T-M184 was known as "Haplogroup K2". That name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and its primary subclade K-M2313 were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: (2016) "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics '48' (6): 593–9. DOI:10.1038/ng.3559. PMID 27111036.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ K-M2313*, which as yet has no phylogenetic name, has been documented in two living individuals, who have ethnic ties to India and South East Asia. In addition, K-Y28299, which appears to be a primary branch of K-M2313, has been found in three living individuals from India. See: Poznik op. cit.; YFull YTree v5.08, 2017, "K-M2335", and; PhyloTree, 2017, "Details of the Y-SNP markers included in the minimal Y tree" (Access date of these pages: 9 December 2017)
  11. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  12. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  13. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  14. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)

Haplogroup Q is a branch of haplogroup P (M45). It is believed to have arisen in Siberia approximately 15,000 to 20,000 years ago.

This haplogroup contains the patrilineal ancestors of Siberians, Central Asians and many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Haplogroup Q Y-chromosomes are also found scattered at a low frequency throughout Eurasia.[1] This haplogroup is surprisingly diverse despite its low frequency among most populations outside of Siberia or the Americas, and at least six primary subclades have been sampled and identified in modern populations.

A migration from Asia into Alaska across the Bering Strait was done by haplogroup Q populations approximately 15,000 years ago. This founding population spread throughout the Americas. Once in the Americas, haplogroup Q underwent a mutation, producing its descendant population defined by the M3 SNP.

Geographical distribution Edit

In the Old World the Q lineage and its many branches is largely found within a huge triangle defined by Norway in the West, Iran in the South and Mongolia in the East. There is also a rough correlation between the Turkic-speaking peoples of Central Eurasia and Q. The frequency of Q in Norway and Mongolia is about 4% while in the Iranian cities of Shiraz and Esfahan, the frequency runs between 6% and 8%; Iranian samples of haplogroup Q belong almost exclusively to the M25 defined subclade. In the middle of this triangle, in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, the frequency of Q runs between 10% and 14%. Only two groups in the Old World are majority Q groups. These are the Selkups (~70%) and Kets (~95%). They live in western and middle Siberia and are small in number, being just under 5,000 and 1,500, respectively.

Technical specification of mutation Edit

The technical details of M242 are:

Nucleotide change: C to T
Position (base pair): 180
Total size (base pairs): 366
Forward 5′→ 3′: aactcttgataaaccgtgctg
Reverse 5′→ 3′: tccaatctcaattcatgcctc

Subgroups Edit

The subclades of Haplogroup Q with their defining mutation(s), according to the 2006 ISOGG tree:

Coming ChangesEdit

A major revision of the Q tree is expected to be published in early 2008. If no other SNPs are found then the new tree will look like this.

References Edit

  1. ^ High-Resolution SNPs and Microsatellite Haplotypes Point to a Single, Recent Entry of Native American Y Chromosomes into the Americas, Stephen L. Zegura, Tatiana M. Karafet et al., 2003
  2. ^ Supplementary Table 2: NRY haplogroup distribution in Han populations, from the online supplementary material for the article by Bo Wen et al., "Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture," Nature 431, 302-305 (16 September 2004)
  3. ^ Table 1: Y-chromosome haplotype frequencies in 49 Eurasian populations, listed according to geographic region, from the article by R. Spencer Wells et al., "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (August 28, 2001)
  4. ^ "Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas," Maria-Catira Bortolini et al., American Journal of Human Genetics 73:524-539, 2003
  5. ^ Supplementary Table 2: NRY haplogroup distribution in Han populations, from the online supplementary material for the article by Bo Wen et al., "Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture," Nature 431, 302-305 (16 September 2004)
  6. ^ Table 1: Y-chromosome haplotype frequencies in 49 Eurasian populations, listed according to geographic region, from the article by R. Spencer Wells et al., "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (August 28, 2001)
  7. ^ "Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas," Maria-Catira Bortolini et al., American Journal of Human Genetics 73:524-539, 2003

External links Edit

See AlsoEdit



This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Haplogroup Q (Y-DNA). The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.