In human genetics, Haplogroup NO (M214) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup NO is a descendant branch of the greater Haplogroup K (M9) and a phylogenetic sibling of Haplogroup K2, Haplogroup L, Haplogroup M, and Haplogroup P.

The M214 mutation that defines Haplogroup NO occurred in a gamete of a man who belonged to Haplogroup K and who probably lived somewhere in Eurasia east of the Aral Sea about 35,000 to 40,000 years ago. This man has become the direct patrilineal ancestor of a very large percentage of present-day humans, as he is the forefather of both Haplogroup N and Haplogroup O, which together are overwhelmingly dominant throughout North and East Eurasia.

Haplogroup NO*, which comprises all Y-chromosomes in the Haplogroup NO-M214 line that do not belong to either of the common descendant haplogroups N or O, is found extremely rarely among the males of modern human populations, with its highest reported sampled frequency being about 2.3%, or 6 of 259 individuals, in a sample of men from Japan.[1] The same study also reported finding Haplogroup NO* Y-chromosomes at even lower frequencies among males from Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, and Central Asia. However, a comparison with other studies of Y-chromosome variation in the East Eurasian region shows that Haplogroup NO* Y-chromosomes have actually been found only among populations of Xinjiang in western China near the border with Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan; among populations of Inner Mongolia that speak an Altaic language; among populations that reside in close proximity to the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau and speak a Tibeto-Burman language; and, of course, among populations of Japan. The general impression is that Haplogroup NO* patrilines persist at low but detectable frequencies on the (particularly western and northeastern) fringes of China or the greater Sinosphere. Nowhere do Haplogroup NO* Y-chromosomes comprise more than a tiny fraction of the total Y-chromosome diversity of any population.

The reason for the nearly complete extinction of Haplogroup NO* patrilines, in stark contrast with the preeminent success of Haplogroup NO-M214's other descendants, Haplogroup N in North Eurasia and Haplogroup O in East Eurasia, is unclear; however, this situation seems to be a good parallel to the near-extinction of Haplogroup P* patrilines in all regions except northern Central Asia despite the dominance of Haplogroup P's other descendants, Haplogroup R and Haplogroup Q, in West Eurasia and the Americas, respectively. It is likely that both repeated founder effects and strong genetic drift in small ancestral populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers are responsible for shaping the Y-chromosome distribution that is found in modern human populations.

Subgroups[edit | edit source]

The subclades of Haplogroup NO with their defining mutation, according to the 2006 ISOGG tree:

References[edit | edit source]

  1. ^

See also[edit | edit source]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Haplogroup NO (Y-DNA). The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.