In human genetics, Haplogroup N (LLY22G, M231) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

This haplogroup appears in Northern Europe, and throughout both the European and Asian parts of Russia.

Haplogroup N is a descendant haplogroup of Haplogroup NO, and is believed to have first appeared in Siberia, Mongolia, or China approximately 15,000 to 20,000 years ago. It is believed to have been transported across Eurasia by large-scale human migrations of peoples who, according to some theories, were speakers of Uralic languages.

In regards to the geographic origin of Haplogroup N, it is important to note that Y-chromosomes belonging to Haplogroup N as well as undifferentiated or paraphyletic Haplogroup NO* both occur at low frequencies among populations of East Asia, including the relatively isolated Japanese, and that Haplogroup O, which is the "brother" to Haplogroup N in the Y-chromosome phylogenetic tree, is found almost exclusively in East Asia, where it is the modal haplogroup. This may be taken to suggest a prehistoric relationship between the proto-Uralians and most of the ancestors of various peoples who are archaeologically and historically associated with the region of China. However, some commentators have noted that Haplogroup Q, which is the modal haplogroup among Native American populations, as well as Haplogroup R, which is the modal haplogroup among European populations, and even Haplogroup P*, which is ancestral to both Haplogroup Q and Haplogroup R, are found at low to moderate frequency throughout most of East Asia. Thus, the detection of Y-chromosomes that belong to Haplogroup N among populations as geographically and, otherwise, genetically distant as the Finns and the Vietnamese may not necessarily be indicative of a recent common ancestry of the two peoples.

Haplogroup N is the ancestral group for N1, N2, and N3. Y-chromosomes that display the LLY22g and M231 mutations that define Haplogroup N but do not display any of the downstream mutations that define the subclades N1, N2, and N3 are said to belong to Haplogroup N*. Haplogroup N* is rarely found among modern human populations, although it is relatively common among populations of southwestern China.

Subgroups Edit

The subclades of Haplogroup N with their defining mutation, according to the 2006 ISOGG tree:

External links Edit

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
  1. ^ (2014) "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. DOI:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A-L1085 (and previously as A0'1'2'3'4).
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T-M184 was known as "Haplogroup K2". That name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and its primary subclade K-M2313 were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: (2016) "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics '48' (6): 593–9. DOI:10.1038/ng.3559. PMID 27111036.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ K-M2313*, which as yet has no phylogenetic name, has been documented in two living individuals, who have ethnic ties to India and South East Asia. In addition, K-Y28299, which appears to be a primary branch of K-M2313, has been found in three living individuals from India. See: Poznik op. cit.; YFull YTree v5.08, 2017, "K-M2335", and; PhyloTree, 2017, "Details of the Y-SNP markers included in the minimal Y tree" (Access date of these pages: 9 December 2017)
  11. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  12. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  13. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  14. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Haplogroup N (Y-DNA). The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.