In human genetics, Haplogroup E (M96) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

This haplogroup is found in Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. Haplogroup E is found in Africa, Asia and Europe and it is divided into three clades: E1 and E2 are found exclusively in Africa, while E3 is observed in Africa, Europe and western Asia. E3 is further divided into E3a and E3b, but only E3b is observed in significant frequency in Europe and western Asia in addition to Africa. E3b is estimated to be 25 600 years old. [1] Most Sub-Saharan Africans belong to E(xE3b), while most non-Africans belong to the E3b clade of the E haplogroup.”


Subbranches include E1, E2, E3a (M2) and E3b (M35).

E1 Edit

E1 (M33) headed for West Africa and today it is mainly present in the region of Mali.

E2 Edit

E2 (M75) is present both in West and East Africa.

E3 Edit

E3, by far the most frequent subbranch of E, diverged into two main subbranches E3a (M2) and E3b (M35) approximately 24-27 000 years ago (Cruciani et al. 2004). The bearers of E3a populated the coastal region of West Africa and gave birth to modern West Africans speaking languages of the Niger-Congo family. As a result of the historical migrations of the agricultural Bantu that started ca. 3000 BC, E3a is the most frequent Y-haplogroup in Sub-Saharan Africa today. It is also the most common Y-haplogroup among African American men.

Within eastern Africa, the haplogroup appears to be restricted to Ethiopia but E-M34 chromosomes have been found in a large majority of the populations from the Near East. E-M34 chromosomes from Ethiopia show lower variances than those from the Near East and appear closely related in the E-M34 network. Thus, it is assumed that E-M34 chromosomes were introduced into Ethiopia from the Near East.[2]

In populations of Europe, particularly among those that reside near the Mediterranean, Haplogroup E3b is believed to represent ancient genetic influence from Near East, mediated by West Asian populations entering Europe during the Neolithic revolution (the spread of agriculture from Asia Minor).[3] The subbranch E3b1 is present at high frequencies among the Greeks, Albanians, and South Italians (up to 25%), but its percentage gradually falls below 10% in the Carpathian basin and Iberia, and is negligible in other parts of Europe. Some E3b is instead explained by more recent genetic influence from North Africa.

References Edit

  1. ^ Fulvio Cruciani et al, Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa, Am. J. Hum. Genet., p. 74
  2. ^ Cruciani, 2004
  3. ^ Cruciani, 2004
  • B. Arredi et al.: A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa. American Journal Of Human Genetics, 2004, p. 338–345
  • F. Cruciani et al.: A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal Of Human Genetics, 2002, p. 1197–1214
  • F. Cruciani et al.: Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa. American Journal Of Human Genetics, 2004, p. 1014–1022
  • F. Cruciani et al.: Molecular Dissection of the Y Chromosome Haplogroup M-78
  • J. R. Luis et al.: The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations. American Journal Of Human Genetics, 2004, p. 523-544
  • J. J. Sanchez et al.: High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males. European Journal of Human Genetics, 2005, p. 856–86
  • A. Salas et al.: The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape. American Journal Of Human Genetics, 2002, p. 1082–1111
  • O. Semino et al.: Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area. American Journal of Human Genetics, 2004, p. 1023-1034
  • E. T. Wood et al.: Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes. European Journal of Human Genetics, 2005, p. 867–876

External links Edit

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
  1. ^ (2014) "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. DOI:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A-L1085 (and previously as A0'1'2'3'4).
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T-M184 was known as "Haplogroup K2". That name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and its primary subclade K-M2313 were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: (2016) "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics '48' (6): 593–9. DOI:10.1038/ng.3559. PMID 27111036.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ K-M2313*, which as yet has no phylogenetic name, has been documented in two living individuals, who have ethnic ties to India and South East Asia. In addition, K-Y28299, which appears to be a primary branch of K-M2313, has been found in three living individuals from India. See: Poznik op. cit.; YFull YTree v5.08, 2017, "K-M2335", and; PhyloTree, 2017, "Details of the Y-SNP markers included in the minimal Y tree" (Access date of these pages: 9 December 2017)
  11. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  12. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  13. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  14. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)

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