|— City —|
|Nickname(s): Cotton Capital of the World|
|• Total||13 sq mi (33.7 km2)|
|• Land||12.4 sq mi (32.1 km2)|
|• Water||0.6 sq mi (1.6 km2)|
|Elevation||131 ft (40 m)|
|Time zone||Central (CST) (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|ZIP codes||38930, 38935|
|GNIS feature ID||0670714|
Greenwood is a city in and the county seat of Leflore County, Mississippi, located at the eastern edge of the Mississippi Delta approximately 96 miles north of Jackson, Mississippi, and 130 miles south of Memphis, Tennessee. The population was 16,087 at the 2010 census. It is the principal city of the Greenwood Micropolitan Statistical Area. The Tallahatchie River and the Yalobusha River meet at Greenwood to form the Yazoo River. Throughout the 1960s Greenwood was the site of major protests and conflicts over racial integration and voting rights during the civil rights movement.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Mississippi Blues Trail markers
- 5 Government and infrastructure
- 6 Media and publishing
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Education
- 9 Notable people
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
History[edit | edit source]
The flood plain of the Mississippi River has long been an area rich in vegetation and wildlife, feeding off the Mississippi and its numerous tributaries. Long before Europeans migrated to America, the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indian nations settled in the Delta's bottomlands and throughout what is now central Mississippi. They were descended from indigenous peoples who had lived in the area for thousands of years.
In the nineteenth century, the Five Civilized Tribes suffered increasing encroachment on their territory by European-American settlers from southeastern states. Under pressure from the United States government, in 1830 the Choctaw principal chief Greenwood Leflore and other Choctaw leaders signed the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, ceding most of their remaining land to the United States in exchange for land in what is now southeastern Oklahoma. The government opened the land to settlement by European Americans. LeFlore came to regret his decision to sign away his people's land, stating in 1843 that he was "sorry to say that the benefits realized from [the treaty] by my people were by no means equal to what I had a right to expect, nor to what they were justly entitled."
The first Euro-American settlement on the banks of the Yazoo River was a trading post founded by John Williams in 1834:7 and known as Williams Landing. The settlement quickly blossomed, and in 1844 was incorporated as "Greenwood," named after Chief Greenwood Leflore. Growing in the midst of a strong cotton market, the city's success was based on its strategic location in the heart of the Delta; on the easternmost point of the alluvial plain and astride the Tallahatchie and the Yazoo rivers. The city served as a shipping point for cotton to major markets in New Orleans, Louisiana, Vicksburg, Mississippi, Memphis, Tennessee, and St. Louis, Missouri. Greenwood continued to prosper, based on slave labor on the cotton plantations and in shipping, until the latter part of the American Civil War.
The end of the Civil War in 1865 and the following years of Reconstruction changed the labor market to one of free labor. The state was mostly undeveloped frontier, and many freedmen withdrew from working for others. In the nineteenth century, many blacks managed to clear and buy their own farms in the bottomlands. With the disruption of war and changes to labor, cotton production initially declined, reducing the city's previously thriving economy.
The construction of railroads through the area in the 1880s revitalized the city,:8 with two rail lines running to downtown Greenwood, close to the Yazoo River, and shortening transportation to markets. Greenwood again emerged as a prime shipping point for cotton. Downtown's Front Street bordering the Yazoo filled with cotton factors and related businesses, earning that section the name Cotton Row. The city continued to prosper in this way well into the 1940s, although cotton production suffered during the infestation of the boll weevil in the early 20th century. For many years, the bridge over the Yazoo displayed the sign, "World's Largest Inland Long Staple Cotton Market".
The industry was largely mechanized in the 20th century before World War II. Since the late 20th century, some Mississippi farmers have begun to replace cotton with corn and soybeans as commodity crops, because of the shift of the textile industry overseas, and stronger prices for those crops.
Greenwood's Grand Boulevard was once named one of America's 10 most beautiful streets by the U.S. Chambers of Commerce and the Garden Clubs of America. Sally Humphreys Gwin, a charter member of the Greenwood Garden Club, planted the 1,000 oak trees lining Grand Boulevard. In 1950, Gwin received a citation from the National Congress of the Daughters of the American Revolution in recognition of her work in the conservation of trees.
The civil rights era in Greenwood[edit | edit source]
In 1955, following the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education, the White Citizens' Council was founded by Robert B. Patterson in Greenwood to fight against racial integration. Local chapters formed across the state, and the white-dominated legislature voted to give the Councils financial support. Having been disfranchised since 1890, when the state passed a new constitution and related electoral and Jim Crow laws, the black community had not been able to elect representatives since then to the state or federal legislature, and could not protest such actions. The Council paid staff to collect information on black professionals and activists who worked for the restoration of American constitutional civil rights.
1962–1965[edit | edit source]
From 1962 until 1964, Greenwood was a center of protests and voter registration struggles during the Civil Rights Movement. The SNCC, COFO, and the MFDP were all active in Greenwood. During this period, hundreds were arrested in nonviolent protests; civil rights activists were subjected to repeated violence, and whites used economic retaliation against African Americans who attempted to register to vote. The city police set their police dog, Tiger, on protesters while white counter-protesters yelled "Sic 'em" from the sidewalk.
The civil rights protesters in Greenwood in the mid-1960s were supported by an economic boycott organized by the Catholic peace organization Pax Christi, which had a chapter in the city. Pax Christi's ultimately successful efforts were encouraged by the Bishop of Jackson, native Mississippian Joseph Bernard Brunini.
In 1964 and 1965 respectively, the United States Congress passed the Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act to enforce constitutional rights of African Americans and other minorities. For some time, voter registration and elections were monitored by the federal government because of historic discrimination against blacks in the state. The proportion of black citizens of Mississippi who were registered to vote finally roughly matched their proportion of the population in the late 1980s.
1966–present[edit | edit source]
In June 1966, James Meredith, the first African-American to attend the University of Mississippi, announced that he was going to walk from Memphis, Tennessee to Jackson, Mississippi to protest racism. Meredith was shot two days into his "March Against Fear," and a number of high profile civil rights leaders, including Stokely Carmichael, vowed to continue his protest. When the group reached Greenwood on June 17, Carmichael was arrested but released after a few hours. Later, in Greenwood's Broad Street Park, Carmichael gave his famous Black power speech, stating:
This is the twenty-seventh time I have been arrested—and I ain't going to jail no more! The only way we gonna stop them white men from whuppin' us is to take over. We been sayin' "freedom" for six years and we ain't got nothin'. What we gonna start saying now is Black Power!
The speech was a turning point in the civil rights movement in the sense that younger members took up Carmichael's slogan, taking it to support the use of violence in the defense of their freedom. The speech has been said to have marked the beginning of the fragmentation of the civil rights movement in the mid 1960s.
On December 3, 2010, Frederick Jermaine Carter, an African-American man from Sunflower County with a history of mental illness, was found dead, hanging from a tree in north Greenwood. The Leflore county coroner ruled the death a suicide, but the NAACP was concerned that foul play may have been involved. The NAACP explicitly tied the black community's suspicions about the verdict to the state's history of racial violence against blacks. The reporter Larry Copeland for USA Today noted that the young Emmett Till had been lynched 12 miles away in 1955; state Senator David Jordan said, "We're not drawing any conclusions. We're skeptical, and rightfully we should be, given our history. We can't take this lightly. We just have to wait and see."
Geography[edit | edit source]
Greenwood is located at . According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.5 square miles (25 km2), of which 9.2 square miles (24 km2) is land and 0.3 square miles (0.78 km2) is water.(33.518719, -90.183883)
As of 1998, the northern portion of Greenwood is almost all White and the southern half is mostly black. Greenwood is 30 miles (48 km) from the nearest interstate highway. It is 90 miles (140 km) north of Jackson.
Demographics[edit | edit source]
2010 census[edit | edit source]
At the 2010 census, there were 15,205 people and 6,022 households in the city. The population density was 1,237.7 per square mile (771.6/km²). There were 6,759 housing units. The racial makeup of the city was 30.7% White, 67.2% Black, 0.1% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, and 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population.
Among the 6,022 households 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.8% are married couples living together, 29.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.6% had a male householder with no wife present, and 36.6% were non-families. 32.5% of all households were made up of individuals living alone and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.16.
2000 census[edit | edit source]
At the 2000 census, there were 18,425 people, 6,916 households and 4,523 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,997.8 per square mile (771.6/km²). There are 7,565 housing units at an average density of 820.3 per square mile (316.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 32.82% White, 65.36% Black, 0.11% Native American, 0.91% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, and 0.48% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.03% of the population.
There were 6,916 households of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.4% are married couples living together, 27.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.6% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.29.
31.0% of the population were under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64, and 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 84.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.9 males.
The median household income was $21,867 and the median family income was $26,393. Males had a median income of $27,267 versus $18,578 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,461. 33.9% of the population and 28.8% of families are below the poverty line. Of the total population, 47.0% of those under the age of 18 and 20.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
Mississippi Blues Trail markers[edit | edit source]
Radio station WGRM on Howard Street was the location of B.B. King's first live broadcast in 1940. On Sunday nights, King performed live gospel music as part of a quartet. In memory of this event, the Mississippi Blues Trail has placed its third historic marker in this town at the site of the former radio station. Another Mississippi Blues trail marker is placed near the grave of the blues singer Robert Johnson. There is also a Blues Trail marker at the Elks Lodge.
Government and infrastructure[edit | edit source]
Local government[edit | edit source]
State and federal representation[edit | edit source]
The Delta Correctional Facility, operated by the Corrections Corporation of America on behalf of the Mississippi Department of Corrections, was located in Greenwood. It is a medium-security prison, owned by the state of Mississippi, and privately operated. As of 1998 the largest employer to have moved into the area in that period of time was the prison. In 1998 it had 1,000 prisoners. About 950 of them were black. The facility closed on January 14, 2012.
Media and publishing[edit | edit source]
Newspapers, magazines and journals[edit | edit source]
- The Greenwood Commonwealth (published daily except Saturday)
- Leflore Illustrated (quarterly)
Television[edit | edit source]
AM/FM radio[edit | edit source]
- WABG, 960 AM (blues)
- WGNG, 106.3 FM (hip-hop/urban contemporary)
- WGNL, 104.3 FM (urban adult contemporary/blues)
- WGRM, 1240 AM (gospel)
- WGRM-FM, 93.9 FM (gospel)
- WKXG, 1540 AM (silent pending transfer)
- WMAO-FM, 90.9 FM (NPR broadcasting)
- WYMX, 99.1 FM (oldies)
Transportation[edit | edit source]
Railroads[edit | edit source]
Air transportation[edit | edit source]
Greenwood is served by Greenwood-Leflore Airport (GWO) to the east and is located midway between Jackson, Mississippi, and Memphis, Tennessee, and about halfway between Dallas, Texas, and Atlanta, Georgia.
Highways[edit | edit source]
- U.S. Route 82 runs through Greenwood on its way from the White Sands of New Mexico (east of Las Cruces) east to Georgia's Atlantic coast (Brunswick, Georgia).
- U.S. Route 49 passes through Greenwood as it stretches between Piggott, Arkansas, south to Gulfport.
- Other Greenwood highways include Mississippi Highway 7.
Education[edit | edit source]
Greenwood Public School District operates public schools. Greenwood High School is the only public high school in Greenwood. Around 1988 it was split almost evenly between black and white students,and in 1998, it was 92% black. As of 2014, it is 99% black. 
Notable people[edit | edit source]
- Valerie Brisco-Hooks, Olympic athlete
- Fred Carl, Jr., founder/CEO of Viking Range Corp.
- William V. Chambers, personality psychologist
- Louis Coleman, Major League Baseball pitcher
- Byron De La Beckwith, white supremacist, assassin of Civil Rights leader Medgar Evers
- Carlos Emmons, professional football player
- Betty Everett, R&B vocalist and pianist
- Alphonso Ford, professional basketball player
- Webb Franklin, United States Congressman
- Morgan Freeman, actor
- Jim Gallagher, Jr., professional golfer
- Bobbie Gentry, singer/songwriter
- Gerald Glass, professional basketball player
- Guitar Slim, blues musician
- Lusia Harris, basketball player
- Kent Hull, professional football player
- Tom Hunley, ex-slave and the inspiration for the character "Hambone" in J. P. Alley's syndicated cartoon feature, Hambone's Meditations
- Robert Johnson, blues musician
- Jermaine Jones, soccer player for Blackburn Rovers and United States national team
- Cleo Lemon, Toronto Argonauts quarterback
- Walter "Furry" Lewis, blues musician
- Bernie Machen, president of University of Florida
- Paul Maholm, baseball pitcher
- Matt Miller, baseball pitcher
- Mulgrew Miller, jazz pianist
- Carrie Nye, actress
- W. Allen Pepper, Jr., US federal judge
- Fenton Robinson, blues singer/guitarist
- Richard Rubin, writer and journalist
- Donna Tartt, novelist
- Tonea Stewart, actress
- Hubert Sumlin, blues guitarist
- Willye B. White, Olympic athlete 
- Booker Wright, restaurant owner (Booker's Place)
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- ^ Greg O'Brien (2008). Pre-removal Choctaw History: Exploring New Paths. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-8061-3916-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=jGFmNPevedUC&pg=PA221. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- ^ a b Donny Whitehead; Mary Carol Miller (14 September 2009). Greenwood. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-6786-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=mTL6TxmacCwC. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- ^ John C. Willis, Forgotten Time: The Yazoo-Mississippi Delta after the Civil War. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2000
- ^ Krauss, Clifford. "Mississippi Farmers Trade Cotton Plantings for Corn", The New York Times, May 5, 2009
- ^ Delta Democrat-Times, November 26, 1956.
- ^ Kirkpatrick, Mario Carter. Mississippi Off the Beaten Path. GPP Travel, 2007
- ^ "White Citizens' Councils aimed to maintain 'Southern way of life'". Jackson Sun. http://orig.jacksonsun.com/civilrights/sec2_citizencouncil.shtml.
- ^ Stephen Edward Cresswell, Rednecks, Redeemers and Race: Mississippi after Reconstruction, Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2006, p. 124
- ^ Mississippi Voter Registration — Greenwood ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans
- ^ Hendrickson, Paul (2003). Sons of Mississippi. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40461-9.
- ^ Michael V. Namorato (1998). The Catholic Church in Mississippi: 1911 - 1984 ; a History. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-313-30719-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=yt0Xrt7vcVYC&pg=PA111. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- ^ Chandler Davidson; Bernard Grofman (27 May 1994). Quiet Revolution in the South: The Impact of the Voting Rights Act, 1965-1990. Princeton University Press. p. 354. ISBN 978-0-691-02108-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=IAoBiCSt2Q0C&pg=PA354. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- ^ "On this day June 6, 1966: Black civil rights activist shot". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/6/newsid_3009000/3009967.stm. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- ^ Matthew C. Whitaker Ph.D. (1 March 2011). Icons of Black America: Breaking Barriers and Crossing Boundaries [Three Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-313-37643-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=RSGhEUq5bp0C&pg=PA152. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- ^ Richard T. Schaefer (20 March 2008). Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. SAGE Publications. p. 246. ISBN 978-1-4129-2694-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=YMUola6pDnkC&pg=PA246. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- ^ Williams, Horace Randall and Ben Beard (2009). This Day in Civil Rights History. NewSouth Books. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-58835-241-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=0jwWrG4V1XQC&pg=PA187. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- ^ Larry Copeland (6 December 2010). "NAACP contests suicide as cause of hanged man's death". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2010-12-06-suicide-mississippi_N.htm. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- ^ a b c Rubin, Richard. "Should the Mississippi Files Have Been Re-opened? No, because." The New York Times. August 30, 1998. Retrieved on March 25, 2012.
- ^ Dufresne, Marcel. "Exposing the Secrets of Mississippi Racism." American Journalism Review. October 1991. Retrieved on March 25, 2012.
- ^ "Greenwood Mississippi". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- ^ Cloues, Kacey. "Great Southern Getaways - Mississippi". www.atlantamagazine.com. Archived from the original on 2008-06-25. http://web.archive.org/web/20080625011127/http://www.atlantamagazine.com/uploadedFiles/Atlanta/Travel/November07+Travel.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-31.
- ^ "Historical marker placed on Mississippi Blues Trail". Associated Press. January 25, 2007. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/07025/756420-37.stm. Retrieved 2007-02-09.
- ^ "Film crew chronicles blues markers" (PDF). The Greenwood Commonwealth. http://www.myvelodrome.org/NMI/Greenwood_Commonwealth_11.14.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
- ^ Widen, Larry. "JS Online: Blues trail". www.jsonline.com. Archived from the original on 2007-12-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20071215034624/http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=347773. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- ^ "Mississippi Blues Commission - Blues Trail". www.msbluestrail.org. http://www.msbluestrail.org/blues_trail/. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- ^ "Private Prisons." Mississippi Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 12, 2010.
- ^ "Ward Map." City of Greenwood. Retrieved on August 12, 2010.
- ^ "Post Office Location - GREENWOOD." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on August 12, 2010.
- ^ "Post Office Location - LEFLORE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on August 12, 2010.
- ^ "Greenwood High Student Body", News and World Report LP, March 17, 2014
- ^ Lynch, Adam (18 November 2009). "Ceara’s Season". Jackson Free Press. http://www.jacksonfreepress.com/index.php/site/comments/cearas_season_111809/. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- ^ Mike Celizic (February 11, 1985). "Stardom Comes too Slowly for Speedster". The Record. p. s09.
- ^ a b c "Carl Small Town Center Continues Making a Difference in the Delta". US Fed News. December 4, 2013.
- ^ "Louis Coleman Stats". Baseball Almanac. http://www.baseball-almanac.com/players/player.php?p=colemlo01. Retrieved July 18, 2013.
- ^ (July 5, 1963) "A Little Abnormal: The Life of Byron De La Beckwith". Time. Retrieved on January 26, 2014.
- ^ "Football Signings in the Mid-South". The Commercial Appeal. February 7, 1991. p. D5.
- ^ "Betty Everett, 61, of 'The Shoop Shoop Song'". New York Times. August 23, 2001. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00817F63F550C708EDDA10894D9404482. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- ^ Bryan Crawford (October 29, 2009). "Ford left huge legacy in Euroleague basketball". Greenwood Commonwealth.
- ^ "Franklin, William Webster, (1941 - )". U.S. Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=F000347. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- ^ Bill Burrus (July 19, 2012). "A hectic week for golfing Gallaghers". Greenwood Commonwealth.
- ^ John Howard (10 October 2001). Men Like That: A Southern Queer History. University of Chicago Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-226-35470-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=q077jM9qDvwC&pg=PA176.
- ^ Scott Stanton (1 September 2003). The Tombstone Tourist: Musicians. Gallery Books. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-7434-6330-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=9eEPAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA134.
- ^ David Kenneth Wiggins (2010). Sport in America: From Colonial Leisure to Celebrity Figures and Globalization. Human Kinetics. p. 370. ISBN 978-1-4504-0912-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=LwdEP9ISuCEC&pg=PA370.
- ^ Sal Maiorana (January 2005). Memorable Stories of Buffalo Bills Football. Sports Publishing LLC. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-58261-963-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=dq5_vwrBUoEC&pg=PA82.
- ^ "Mississippi Slave Narratives from the WPA Records". MSGenWeb. http://msgw.org/slaves/hunley-xslave.htm. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- ^ Filip Bondy (27 April 2010). Chasing the Game: America and the Quest for the World Cup. Da Capo Press, Incorporated. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-306-81905-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=NCbgEG0HFegC&pg=PA253.
- ^ "Cleo Lemon". nfl.com. http://www.nfl.com/player/cleolemon/2504793/profile. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- ^ Paul Oliver (27 September 1984). Songsters and Saints: Vocal Traditions on Race Records. Cambridge University Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-521-26942-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=0bz5xm_m3dMC&pg=PA232.
- ^ "The President". University of Florida. http://president.ufl.edu/about/machen/. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
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- ^ Bob Doerschuk (2001). 88: The Giants of Jazz Piano. Backbeat Books. p. 287. ISBN 978-0-87930-656-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=odQy4t6U5wIC&pg=PA287.
- ^ Max Apple (1976). Mom, the Flag, and Apple Pie: Great American Writers on Great American Things. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-385-11459-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=zGQ0AAAAMAAJ.
- ^ The Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory. 10. LexisNexis.. 1996. p. 1135. http://books.google.com/books?id=_AI8AQAAIAAJ.
- ^ Nigel Williamson; Robert Plant (2 April 2007). The rough guide to the blues. Rough Guides. p. 308. ISBN 978-1-84353-519-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=AgE8AQAAIAAJ.
- ^ Richard Rubin (15 June 2010). Confederacy of Silence: A True Tale of the New Old South. Simon and Schuster. p. 2. ISBN 1-4516-0265-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=dDVx2iBppCgC.
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- ^ Martha Ward Plowden (January 1996). Olympic Black Women. Pelican Publishing. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-4556-0994-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=B7ZfePFBLk0C&pg=PA143.
- ^ John T. Edge (2007). Southern Belly: The Ultimate Food Lover's Companion to the South. Algonquin Books. p. 304. ISBN 978-1-56512-547-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=JjKbAbcTfAYC&pg=PA304.
[edit | edit source]
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