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Gettysburg
—  Borough  —
DowntownGettysburgPA.jpg
The 1906 Beaux-Arts architecture (left) on the borough's Lincoln Square[1] was the First National Bank building used as a WWII spotter post for aircraft[2] and became the Adams County National Bank after the 1962 merger with the Littlestown State Bank and Trust Company.
Map of Gettysburg, Adams County, Pennsylvania Highlighted.png
Location of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Map of Pennsylvania highlighting Adams County.svg
Map showing Adams County in Pennsylvania



USA Pennsylvania location map
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Gettysburg
Location of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Coordinates: 39°49′42″N 77°13′56″W / 39.82833, -77.23222Coordinates: 39°49′42″N 77°13′56″W / 39.82833, -77.23222[3]
Country United States
State Pennsylvania
County Adams
Settled 1780
Incorporated 1806
Government
 • Type Borough Council
 • Mayor William Troxell[4]
Area
 • Total 4.3 sq mi (11 km2)
 • Land 4.2 sq mi (11 km2)
 • Water 0.1 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation 558 ft (170 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 7,620
 • Density 4,562.3/sq mi (1,761.5/km2)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Zip code 17325
Area code(s) 717
Website Borough of Gettysburg

Gettysburg is a borough in and the county seat of Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States,[5] and the eponym for the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg and President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. The town hosts visitors to the Gettysburg National Battlefield in the Gettysburg National Military Park and has three institutions of higher learning: Lutheran Theological Seminary, Gettysburg College, and Harrisburg Area Community College.

Many roads radiate from Gettysburg, providing hub-like access to Washington, D.C. 75 miles (121 km), Baltimore 55 miles (89 km), Harrisburg 37 miles (60 km), Carlisle 27 miles (43 km), Frederick and Hagerstown, Maryland 32 miles (51 km) and Hanover, Pennsylvania 14 miles (23 km). York is 30 miles (48 km) east on the Lincoln Highway (U.S. Route 30) and Chambersburg is 25 miles (40 km) west on the Lincoln Highway (U.S. Route 30), the first transcontinental U.S. highway. Today the borough is a 2Template:1/2 hour drive from Philadelphia and a 3Template:1/2 hour drive from Pittsburgh via the Pennsylvania Turnpike and U.S. Route 15. Gettysburg Regional Airport, a small general aviation airport, is located 2 miles (3.2 km) west of Gettysburg.

HistoryEdit

Samuel Gettys settled on the Shippensburg – Baltimore and Philadelphia – Pittsburgh cross roads with a 1761 tavern where soldiers and traders came to rest, and to the southwest is the 1776 Dobbin House Tavern within the subsequent 1786 border established for the borough. After a [sic]"Strabane" township location between Hunter's and Getty's towns was planned as the county seat in 1790. In 1791, Revd. Alexander Dobbin and David Moore Sr. were appointed trustees for the county of Adams to erect public buildings in…Gettysburg"[6]:520 The founder of the Studebaker Corporation was born 1833 in Gettysburg.

In 1858 the Gettysburg Railroad completed construction of a railroad line from Gettysburg to Hanover. The Gettysburg Railroad Station opened in 1859. Passenger train service to the town ended in 1942. The station was restored in 2006. In 2011, Senator Robert Casey introduced S. 1897, which would include the railroad station within the boundary of Gettysburg National Military Park.[7]

By 1860, the borough "had ~450 buildings [which] housed carriage manufacturing, shoemakers, and tanneries".[8]

In June 2009, the Adams County Transit Authority implemented local transportation service to the borough operating under the name Freedom Transit[9] In June 2011, a Rabbit Transit commuter bus to Harrisburg began service.[10]

Civil WarEdit

The Battle of Gettysburg, one of the largest battles during the American Civil War, was fought between 1–3 July 1863 across the fields and heights south of the town. In the end, Confederate General Lee and his other generals retreated. Casualties were high; there were over 27,000 Confederate, and 31,000 Union losses. The residents of Gettysburg were left to care for the wounded and bury the dead following the Confederate retreat. Approximately 8,000 men and 3,000 horses lay under the summer sun. The soldiers' bodies were gradually reinterred in what is today known as Gettysburg National Cemetery, where, on November 19, 1863, Abraham Lincoln attended a ceremony to officially consecrate the grounds and delivered his famous Gettysburg Address.

A 20-year-old woman, Ginnie Wade, was the only civilian killed during the battle. She was hit by a stray bullet that passed through her kitchen door while she was making bread on July 3.

Physical damage can still be seen in some of the houses throughout the town, notably the Schmucker House located on Seminary Ridge.

GeographyEdit

Gettysburg is located on U.S. Route 30 about 25 miles (40 km) west of York, Pennsylvania in the Cumberland Valley. Rock Creek flows along its eastern edge. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 4.3 km² (1.6 mi²), all land.

ClimateEdit

Gettysburg has a humid continental climate with hot, humid summers and cool winters. On average, January is the coldest month, July is the warmest month, and June is the wettest month. The hottest temperature recorded in Gettysburg was 104 °F (40 °C) in 1988; the coldest temperature recorded was −25 °F (−32 °C) in 1994.[11]

Climate data for Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 72
(22)
78
(26)
87
(31)
93
(34)
93
(34)
98
(37)
104
(40)
104
(40)
98
(37)
92
(33)
83
(28)
79
(26)
104
(40)
Average high °F (°C) 39
(4)
43
(6)
52
(11)
64
(18)
73
(23)
82
(28)
86
(30)
84
(29)
77
(25)
66
(19)
55
(13)
43
(6)
63.7
(17.6)
Average low °F (°C) 21
(−6)
23
(−5)
30
(−1)
40
(4)
49
(9)
58
(14)
63
(17)
61
(16)
53
(12)
41
(5)
33
(1)
25
(−4)
41.4
(5.2)
Record low °F (°C) −25
(−32)
−14
(−26)
0
(−18)
16
(−9)
27
(−3)
35
(2)
43
(6)
35
(2)
31
(−1)
20
(−7)
12
(−11)
−5
(−21)
−25
(−32)
Precipitation inches (mm) 3.24
(82.3)
3.00
(76.2)
3.54
(89.9)
3.53
(89.7)
4.33
(110)
4.29
(109)
3.36
(85.3)
3.81
(96.8)
4.22
(107.2)
3.28
(83.3)
3.40
(86.4)
3.23
(82)
43.23
(1,098)
Source: The Weather Channel;[11]

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1970 7,275
1980 7,194 −1.1%
1990 7,025 −2.3%
2000 7,490 +6.6%
2010 7,620 +1.7%
[12][13][14]

At the 2000 census[15], the Gettysburg Urban Cluster population was 15,532.[16] However, at the 2010 census[15], Gettysburg was included within the Hanover Urban Area, which had a population of 66,301.[17][18] Gettysburg is the principal city of the Gettysburg, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area.

At the 2000 census[15], there were 7,490 people, 2,541 households and 1,229 families residing in the borough. The racial makeup of the borough was 85.46% White, 5.79% Black or African American, 0.37% Native American, 1.28% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.67% from other races, and 2.38% from two or more races. 8.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 2,541 households of which 22.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.6% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 51.6% were non-families. 42.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.94.

16.2% of the population were under the age of 18, 36.2% from 18 to 24, 19.1% from 25 to 44, 15.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females there were 88.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males.

The median household income was $29,840 and the median family income was $40,489. Males had a median income of $30,341 compared with $21,111 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $14,157. About 13.2% of families and 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.0% of those under age 17 and 5.2% of those age 77 or over.

IndustryEdit

The main industry of the borough is tourism associated with such historic sites as Gettysburg National Military Park (including the Gettysburg National Cemetery) and Eisenhower National Historic Site. Gettysburg has many activities and tours to offer to vacationers and tourists who are interested in the Gettysburg area and the history of the community and the battle. Tourists for the annual reenactment of the Battle of Gettysburg use borough facilities, which include the Dobbin House Tavern and Hotel Gettysburg.

Colleges and universitiesEdit

Gettysburg College, Harrisburg Area Community College, and the Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg employ thousands of people in the borough.

TransportationEdit

The main east-west road through downtown Gettysburg is U.S. Route 30, which is known as York Street east of Lincoln Square and Chambersburg Street west of Lincoln Square.

York Adams Transportation Authority (YATA) operates public transportation in Adams County. Freedom Transit is a local bus system with three routes in the Gettysburg area.[19] The hub of the bus system, the new Gettysburg Transit Center, is under construction on Carlisle Street.[20] A Rabbit Transit commuter bus to Harrisburg runs four times each weekday in each direction.[21]

MediaEdit

Sister citiesEdit

Gettysburg's sister cities are:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Gettysburg Borough". LivingPlaces.com. http://www.livingplaces.com/PA/Adams_County/Gettysburg_Borough.html. Retrieved 2011-05-08. "the Reuning House built as the Academy Building at 66 West High Street. It was built in 1813–15 for the Gettysburg Academy, but its architecture displays characteristics of the vernacular residential style … Adams County National Bank which was constructed in 1906. The structure is an excellent example of Beaux Arts Classicism" 
  2. ^ Gettysburg Times - Google News Archive Search
  3. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  4. ^ Troxell's term expires in 2014. See: http://gettysburg-pa.gov/mayor_council.htm
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  6. ^ Cite book. |last=Rupp |first=Israel Daniel |year=1846 |origyear=written 1844 |chapter=History of Adams County: Chapter XXXIX |chapterurl=http://books.google.com/books?id=LvZb8kntVtkC&q=Chapter+XXXIX#v=snippet&q=Chapter%20XXXIX&f=false |title=The History and Topography of 6 Pennsylvania Counties |location=Lancaster, Pennsylvania|Lancaster City |publisher=Gilbert Hills |accessdate=2011-07-30 |quote=At present 1844Rp|527
  7. ^ "Bill Text 112th Congress (2011–2012) S.1897.IS". http://www.gpo.gov. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-112s1897is/pdf/BILLS-112s1897is.pdf. Retrieved 2012-03-25. 
  8. ^ "History of Gettysburg". History of Adams County. Gettysburg.Travel. http://www.gettysburg.travel/about/history.asp. Retrieved 2011-09-17. 
  9. ^ "Freedom Transit, Gettysburg's new bus system, launched Monday". Evening Sun. http://www.eveningsun.com/ci_12715035?source=most_emailed. Retrieved 2012-02-17. 
  10. ^ "rabbitEXPRESS | Route 15N". Rabbittransit.org. http://www.rabbittransit.org/express/pages/fifteen.html. Retrieved 2012-02-17. 
  11. ^ a b "Average weather for Gettysburg, PA". The Weather Channel. http://www.weather.com/outlook/health/fitness/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USPA0604. Retrieved 2011-06-12. 
  12. ^ "1990 Census of Population and Housing Population and Housing Unit Counts". census.gov. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen1990/cph2/cph-2-1-1.pdf. Retrieved 2012-06-18. 
  13. ^ "Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (PA) ~ population data, races, housing & economy". Usbeacon.com. http://www.usbeacon.com/Pennsylvania/Gettysburg.html. Retrieved 2012-02-17. 
  14. ^ "Gettysburg (borough) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/42/4228960.html. Retrieved 2012-02-17. 
  15. ^ a b c "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  16. ^ "Alphabetically-sorted list of UCs". census.gov. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/ua/uc2k.txt. Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  17. ^ "2010 CENSUS – URBANIZED AREA REFERENCE MAP: Hanover, PA". census.gov. http://www2.census.gov/geo/maps/dc10map/UAUC_RefMap/ua/ua36784_hanover_pa/DC10UA36784.pdf. Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  18. ^ "Qualifying Urban Areas for the 2010 Census". federalregister.gov. https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2012/03/27/2012-6903/qualifying-urban-areas-for-the-2010-census#h-10. Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  19. ^ "Freedom Transit | Home". Ridethetrolley.com. 2011-12-31. http://www.ridethetrolley.com/. Retrieved 2012-02-17. 
  20. ^ "Groundbreaking at New Gettysburg Transit Center". Rabbittransit.org. 2011-10-19. http://www.rabbittransit.org/pressreleases/2011/pr_newcenter.html. Retrieved 2012-02-17. 
  21. ^ "rabbitEXPRESS | Route 15N". Rabbittransit.org. http://www.rabbittransit.org/express/routes/15n_route.html. Retrieved 2012-02-17. 

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