A federated state (often referred to simply as a state) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federal union.[1] Such states differ from sovereign states, in that they have transferred a portion of their sovereign powers to a federal government.[2] A federated state holds administrative jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory and is a form of regional government.

In some cases, a federation is created from a union of political entities, which are either independent, or dependent territories of another sovereign entity (most commonly a colonial power). In other cases, states have been created by a previously unitary government in a devolution of powers in order to allow for a federal constitution. Once a federal constitution is formed, the rules governing the relationship between federal and regional powers become part of the country's municipal law and not international law.

In countries with federal constitutions, sovereignty is shared between the federal government and its component states. These states are partially self-governing and are usually afforded a considerable degree of autonomy. In most cases, within its own territory, a federated state's administrative rights and powers cannot be over-ruled or vetoed by the federal government. However, the laws governing the relationship between federal and regional powers can be amended through the federal constitution and state constitutions.

List of constituents by federationEdit

The "federated units" in the table below have inherent governmental authority in the federation's constitutional system, while the "other units" are delegated authority by the federal government or are administered directly by it.

Federation Federated units Other units
Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina [3] 23 provinces:
Bandera de la Provincia de Buenos Aires.svg Buenos Aires
Bandera de la Provincia de Catamarca.svg Catamarca
Bandera de la Provincia del Chaco.svg Chaco
Bandera de la Provincia del Chubut.svg Chubut
Bandera de la Provincia de Córdoba.svg Córdoba

Bandera de la Provincia de Corrientes.svg Corrientes
Bandera de la Provincia de Entre Ríos.svg Entre Ríos
Bandera de la Provincia de Formosa.svg Formosa
Bandera de la Provincia de Jujuy.svg Jujuy
Bandera de la Provincia de La Pampa.svg La Pampa

Bandera de la Provincia de La Rioja.svg La Rioja
Bandera de la Provincia de Mendoza.svg Mendoza
Bandera de la Provincia de Misiones.svg Misiones
Bandera de la Provincia de Neuquén.svg Neuquén
Bandera de la Provincia del Río Negro.svg Río Negro

Bandera de la Provincia de Salta.svg Salta
Bandera de la Provincia de San Juan.svg San Juan
Bandera de la Provincia de San Luis.svg San Luis
Bandera de la Provincia de Santa Cruz.svg Santa Cruz
Bandera de la Provincia de Santa Fe.svg Santa Fe

Bandera de la Provincia de Santiago del Estero.svg Santiago del Estero
Bandera de la Provincia de Tierra del Fuego.svg Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur
Bandera de la Provincia de Tucumán.svg Tucumán

1 autonomous city:
Bandera de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.svg Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
Flag of Australia.svg Australia [4] 6 states:
Flag of New South Wales.svg New South Wales
Flag of Queensland.svg Queensland
Flag of South Australia.svg South Australia  

Flag of Tasmania.svg Tasmania
Flag of Victoria (Australia).svg Victoria
Flag of Western Australia.svg Western Australia

10 territories:
Flag of the Australian Capital Territory.svg Australian Capital Territory
Flag of the Northern Territory.svg Northern Territory
Flag of Christmas Island.svg Christmas Island
Flag of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.svg Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Flag of Norfolk Island.svg Norfolk Island[5]
 Jervis Bay Territory
 Ashmore and Cartier Islands
 Australian Antarctic Territory
 Coral Sea Islands Territory
 Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Flag of Austria.svg Austria [6] 9 states:
Flag of Wien.svg Vienna
Flag of Niederösterreich.svg Lower Austria
Flag of Oberösterreich.svg Upper Austria  

Flag of Steiermark.svg Styria
Flag of Tirol.svg Tyrol
Flag of Carinthia.svg Carinthia

Flag of Salzburg.svg Salzburg
Flag of Vorarlberg.svg Vorarlberg
Flag of Burgenland.svg Burgenland

Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium [7] 3 regions:
Flanders Flemish Region
Wallonia Walloon Region
Brussels-Capital Region Brussels-Capital Region
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Bosnia and Herzegovina 2 entities: [5]
Flag of the Republika Srpska.svg Republika Srpska
Flag of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996–2007).svg Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
1 self-governing district:
Brčko (officially codominium of both constituents)
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself a federation with 10 cantons:
Una-Sana • Posavina • Tuzla • Zenica-Doboj • Bosnian Podrinje • Central Bosnia • Herzegovina-Neretva • West Herzegovina • Sarajevo • West Bosnia
Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil [8] 26 states:
Bandeira do Acre.svgAcre
Bandeira do Amapá.svg Amapá
Bandeira do Amazonas.svg Amazonas
Bandeira do Pará.svg Pará
Bandeira de Rondônia.svg Rondônia
Bandeira de Roraima.svg Roraima

Bandeira do Tocantins.svg Tocantins
Bandeira de Alagoas.svg Alagoas
Bandeira da Bahia.svg Bahia
Bandeira do Ceará.svg Ceará
Bandeira do Maranhão.svg Maranhão
Bandeira da Paraíba.svg Paraíba

Bandeira de Pernambuco.svg Pernambuco
Bandeira do Piauí.svg Piauí
Bandeira do Rio Grande do Norte.svg Rio Grande do Norte
Bandeira de Sergipe.svg Sergipe
Flag of Goiás.svg Goiás

Bandeira de Mato Grosso.svg Mato Grosso
Bandeira de Mato Grosso do Sul.svg Mato Grosso do Sul
Bandeira do Espírito Santo.svg Espírito Santo
Bandeira de Minas Gerais.svg Minas Gerais
Bandeira do estado do Rio de Janeiro.svg Rio de Janeiro

Bandeira do estado de São Paulo.svg São Paulo
Bandeira do Paraná.svg Paraná
Bandeira do Rio Grande do Sul.svg Rio Grande do Sul
Bandeira de Santa Catarina.svg Santa Catarina

1 federal district:
Federal District (Brazil) Distrito Federal (Brasília)[Federated states 1]
5,564 municipalities[9]
Flag of Canada.svg Canada [10] 10 provinces:
Flag of Alberta.svg Alberta
Flag of British Columbia.svg British Columbia
Flag of Manitoba.svg Manitoba
Flag of New Brunswick.svg New Brunswick
Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg Newfoundland and Labrador  

Flag of Nova Scotia.svg Nova Scotia
Flag of Ontario.svg Ontario
Flag of Prince Edward Island.svg Prince Edward Island
Flag of Quebec.svg Quebec
Flag of Saskatchewan.svg Saskatchewan

3 territories:
Flag of the Northwest Territories.svg Northwest Territories
Flag of Nunavut.svg Nunavut
Flag of Yukon.svg Yukon
Flag of the Comoros.svg Comoros 3 islands: [5]
Flag of Anjouan (official).svg Anjouan
Flag of Grande Comore.svg Grande Comore
Flag of Mohéli (official).svg Mohéli
Flag of Ethiopia.svg Ethiopia [11] 9 regions:
Afar • Amhara • Benishangul-Gumuz • Gambela • Harari • Oromiya • Somali • Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region • Tigray
2 chartered cities:
Addis Ababa • Dire Dawa
Flag of Germany.svg Germany [12] 16 states:
Flag of Baden-Württemberg.svg Baden-Württemberg
Flag of Bavaria (lozengy).svg Bavaria
Flag of Berlin.svg Berlin
Flag of Brandenburg.svg Brandenburg

Flag of Bremen.svg Bremen
Flag of Hamburg.svg Hamburg
Flag of Hesse.svg Hesse
Flag of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.svg Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Flag of Lower Saxony.svg Lower Saxony
Flag of North Rhine-Westphalia.svg North Rhine-Westphalia
Flag of Rhineland-Palatinate.svg Rhineland-Palatinate
Flag of Saarland.svg Saarland

Flag of Saxony.svg Saxony
Flag of Saxony-Anhalt.svg Saxony-Anhalt
Flag of Schleswig-Holstein.svg Schleswig-Holstein
Flag of Thuringia.svg Thuringia

Flag of India.svg India [13] 28 states:
Andhra Pradesh • Arunachal Pradesh • Assam • Bihar • Chhattisgarh • Goa • Gujarat • Haryana • Himachal Pradesh • Flag of Jammu and Kashmir (1952-2019) Jammu and Kashmir • Jharkhand • Karnataka • Kerala • Madhya Pradesh • Maharashtra • Manipur • Meghalaya • Mizoram • Nagaland • Orissa • Punjab • Rajasthan • Sikkim • Tamil Nadu • Tripura • Uttar Pradesh • Uttarakhand • West Bengal
7 union territories:
Andaman and Nicobar Islands • Chandigarh • Dadra and Nagar Haveli • Daman and Diu • Lakshadweep • National Capital Territory • Puducherry
Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia 33 provinces:
Aceh • Flag of Bali Bali • Bangka-Belitung • Banten • Bengkulu • Central Java • Central Kalimantan • Central Sulawesi • East Java • East Kalimantan • East Nusa Tenggara • Gorontalo • Jakarta Special Capital Region • Jambi • Lampung • Maluku • North Maluku • North Sulawesi • North Sumatra • Papua • Riau • Riau Islands • South East Sulawesi • South Kalimantan • South Sulawesi • South Sumatra • West Java • West Kalimantan • West Nusa Tenggara • West Papua • West Sulawesi • West Sumatra • Special Region of Yogyakarta
Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq [14] 18 governorates:
Baghdād • Salāh ad-Dīn • Diyālā • Wāsit • Maysān • Al-Basrah • Dhī Qār • Al-Muthannā • Al-Qādisiyyah • Bābil • Karbalā' • An-Najaf • Al-Anbar • Nīnawā • Duhok • Arbīl • Kirkuk (or At-Ta'mim) • As-Sulaymāniyyah
Autonomous region:
Flag of Kurdistan.svg Iraqi Kurdistan [5]
(The region overlaps the area of the governorates)
Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia [15] 13 states:
Template:Country data Johor
Template:Country data Kedah
Template:Country data Kelantan
Template:Country data Malacca
Template:Country data Negeri Sembilan  

Template:Country data Pahang
Template:Country data Penang
Template:Country data Perak
Template:Country data Perlis

Template:Country data Sabah
Template:Country data Sarawak
Template:Country data Selangor
Template:Country data Terengganu

3 federal territories:
Template:Country data Kuala Lumpur
Template:Country data Labuan
Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico [16] 31 states:
Flag of Aguascalientes.svg Aguascalientes
Flag of Baja California.svg Baja California
Flag of Baja California Sur.svg Baja California Sur
Flag of Campeche.svg Campeche
Flag of Chiapas.svg Chiapas
Flag of Chihuahua.svg Chihuahua

Flag of Coahuila.svg Coahuila
Flag of Colima.svg Colima
Flag of Durango.png Durango
Flag of Guanajuato.png Guanajuato
Flag of Guerrero.svg Guerrero
Flag of Hidalgo.svg Hidalgo

Flag of Jalisco.svg Jalisco
Mexico stateflags Estado de Mexico.pngMéxico State
Flag of Michoacan.svg Michoacán
Flag of Morelos.svg Morelos
Flag of Nayarit.svg Nayarit
Flag of Nuevo Leon.svg Nuevo León

Flag of Oaxaca.svg Oaxaca
Flag of Puebla.svg Puebla
Flag of Queretaro.svg Querétaro
Flag of Quintana Roo.svg Quintana Roo
Flag of San Luis Potosi.svg San Luis Potosí
Flag of Sinaloa.svg Sinaloa

Flag of Sonora.svg Sonora
Flag of Tabasco.svg Tabasco
Flag of Tamaulipas.svg Tamaulipas
Flag of Tlaxcala.svg Tlaxcala
Flag of Veracruz.svg Veracruz
Flag of Yucatan.svg Yucatán
Mexico stateflags Zacatecas.png Zacatecas

1 federal district:
Flag of Mexico City, Mexico.svgDistrito Federal (Ciudad de México)
Flag of the Federated States of Micronesia.svg Micronesia, Federated States of [17] 4 states:
Flag of Chuuk.svg Chuuk
Flag of Kosrae.svg Kosrae
Flag of Pohnpei.svg Pohnpei
Flag of Yap.svg Yap
Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal 14 zones:
Bagmati • Bheri • Dhawalagiri • Gandaki • Janakpur • Karnali • Koshi • Lumbini • Mahakali • Mechi • Narayani • Rapti • Sagarmatha • Seti
Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria [18] 36 states:
Anambra • Enugu • Akwa Ibom • Adamawa • Abia • Bauchi • Bayelsa • Benue • Borno • Cross River • Delta • Ebonyi • Edo • Ekiti • Gombe • Imo • Jigawa • Kaduna • Kano • Katsina • Kebbi • Kogi • Kwara • Lagos • Nasarawa • Niger State • Ogun • Ondo • Osun • Oyo • Plateau • Rivers • Sokoto • Taraba • Yobe • Zamfara
1 capital territory:
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan [19] 4 provinces:
Flag of Balochistan, PK Balochistan • Flag of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa • Punjab • 25px Sindh
2 autonomous areas: [5]
Azad Kashmir Azad Kashmir
2 territories:
Islamabad Capital Territory • Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Flag of Russia.svg Russian Federation [20][21] 21 republics: [5]
Flag of Adygea.svg Adygea
Flag of Altai Republic.svg Altai Republic
Flag of Bashkortostan.svg Bashkortostan
Flag of Buryatia.svg Buryatia
Flag of the Chechen Republic.svg Chechnya
Template:Country data Chuvashia

Template:Country data Dagestan
Template:Country data Ingushetia
Template:Country data Kabardino-Balkaria
Template:Country data Kalmykia
Template:Country data Karachay-Cherkessia  

Template:Country data Karelia
Template:Country data Khakassia
Template:Country data Komi
Template:Country data Mari El
Template:Country data Mordovia

Template:Country data North Ossetia-Alania
Template:Country data Sakha Republic
Template:Country data Tatarstan
Template:Country data Tuva
Template:Country data Udmurtia

46 oblasts:
Flag of Amur Oblast.svg Amur
Flag of Arkhangelsk Oblast.png Arkhangelsk
Flag of Astrakhan Oblast.svg Astrakhan
Flag of Belgorod Oblast.png Belgorod
Flag of Bryansk Oblast.png Bryansk
Flag of Chelyabinsk Oblast.svg Chelyabinsk
Flag of Irkutsk Oblast.png Irkutsk
Flag of Ivanovo Oblast.png Ivanovo
Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast.png Kaliningrad
Flag of Kaluga Oblast.png Kaluga

Flag of Kemerovo oblast.gif Kemerovo
Kirov Oblast Flag.gif Kirov
Flag of kostroma oblast.gif Kostroma
Flag of Kurgan Oblast.svg Kurgan
Flag of Kursk Oblast.png Kursk
Flag of Leningrad Oblast.svg Leningrad
Flag of Lipetsk Oblast.gif Lipetsk
Flag of Magadan Oblast.png Magadan
Flag of Moscow Oblast.png Moscow Oblast

Flag of Murmansk Oblast.svg Murmansk
Flag of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg Nizhny Novgorod
Flag of Novgorod oblast.png Novgorod
Flag of Novosibirsk Oblast.gif Novosibirsk
Flag of Omsk Oblast.svg Omsk
Flag of Orenburg Oblast.png Orenburg
Flag of Oryol Oblast.png Oryol
Flag of Penza Oblast.png Penza
Coat of Arms of Pskov oblast.png Pskov

Flag of Rostov Oblast.svg Rostov
Flag of Ryazan Oblast.png Ryazan
Flag of Sakhalin Oblast.svg Sakhalin
Flag of Samara Oblast.svg Samara
Flag of Saratov Oblast.png Saratov
Flag of Smolensk Oblast.png Smolensk
Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast.svg Sverdlovsk
Flag of Tambov Oblast.svg Tambov
TomskOblastFlag.png Tomsk

Flag of Tver Oblast.png Tver
Flag of Tula Oblast.svg Tula
Flag of Tyumen Oblast.svg Tyumen
Flag of Ulyanovsk Oblast.png Ulyanovsk
Flag of Vladimiri Oblast.gif Vladimir
Flag of Volgograd Oblast.svg Volgograd
Flag of Vologda Oblast.png Vologda
Flag of Voronezh Oblast.svg Voronezh
Flag of Yaroslavl Oblast.png Yaroslavl

9 krais:
Flag of Altai Krai.png Altai
Flag of Kamchatka Krai.svg Kamchatka
Flag of Khabarovsk Krai.svg Khabarovsk

Flag of Krasnodar Krai.png Krasnodar
KrasnoyarskKray-Flag.svg Krasnoyarsk
Perm Oblast Flag.gif Perm

Flag of Primorsky Krai.svg Primorsky
Flag of Stavropol Krai.png Stavropol
Flag of Zabaykalsky Krai.svg Zabaykalsky

1 autonomous oblast: [5]
Flag of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.svg Jewish Autonomous Oblast
4 autonomous okrugs: [5]
Flag of Chukotka.svg Chukotka
Flag of Yugra.svg Khanty-Mansi

Flag of Nenets Autonomous District.svg Nenets
Flag of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District.svg Yamalo-Nenets

2 federal-level cities:
Flag of Moscow.svg Moscow
Flag of St Petersburg (Russia).pngSaint Petersburg
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg Saint Kitts and Nevis 2 states:
Saint Kitts[Federated states 2]
Template:Country data Nevis

Flag of Sudan.svg Sudan [22] 25 states:
Al Jazirah  • Blue Nile/Central  • Sennar  • White Nile  • North Darfur  • South Darfur  • West Darfur  • Lakes  • Northern Bahr el Ghazal  • Western Bahr el Ghazal  • Warrap  • Central Equatoria  • Eastern Equatoria  • Western Equatoria  • Kassala  • Al Qadarif  • Red Sea  • Khartoum  • North Kurdufan  • South Kurdufan  • Northern  • River Nile  • Jonglei  • Unity  • Upper Nile
Autonomous regions: [5]
Flag of South Sudan.svg Southern Sudan
Transitional Darfur Regional Authority
(The regions are formed by some of the states)
Flag of Switzerland.svg Switzerland [23] 26 cantons:
Flag of Canton of Zürich.svg Zürich
Flag of Canton of Bern.svg Bern
Template:Country data Lucerne
Template:Country data Uri
Template:Country data Schwyz
Template:Country data Obwalden

Template:Country data Nidwalden
Template:Country data Glarus
Template:Country data Zug
Template:Country data Fribourg
Template:Country data Solothurn

Flag of Canton of Basel.svg Basel-Stadt
Flag of Canton of Basel Land.svg Basel-Landschaft
Template:Country data Schaffhausen
Flag of Canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden.svg Appenzell Ausserrhoden
Flag of Canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden.svg Appenzell Innerrhoden  

Template:Country data St. Gallen
Template:Country data Graubünden
Flag of Canton of Aargau.svg Aargau
Template:Country data Thurgau
Template:Country data Ticino

Flag of Canton of Vaud.svg Vaud
Template:Country data Valais
Template:Country data Neuchâtel
Template:Country data Geneva
Template:Country data Jura

Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates [24] 7 emirates:
Flag of Abu Dhabi.svg Abu Dhabi
Flag of Ajman.svg Ajman

Flag of Dubai.svg Dubai
Template:Country data Fujairah

Template:Country data Ras al-Khaimah
Template:Country data Sharjah

Template:Country data Umm al-Quwain

Flag of the United States.svg United States [25] 50 states:
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas
Flag of California.svg California
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware
Flag of Florida.svg Florida
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia

Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana
Flag of Maine.svg Maine
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland

Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota
Flag of Mississippi.svg Mississippi
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri
Flag of Montana.svg Montana
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey

Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico
Flag of New York.svg New York
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina

Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee
Flag of Texas.svg Texas
Flag of Utah.svg Utah
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia
Flag of Washington.svg Washington
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming

Unincorporated territories:
Flag of American Samoa.svg American Samoa
Flag of Guam.svg Guam
Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg Northern Mariana Islands
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico
Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg U.S. Virgin Islands
Baker Island  • Howland Island  • Jarvis Island  • Johnston Atoll  • Kingman Reef  • Midway Atoll  • Navassa Island  • Wake Island
(The United States also claims Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank).
1 federal district:
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg District of Columbia (Washington)
1 incorporated territory:
Palmyra Atoll
Flag of Venezuela.svg Venezuela [26] 23 states:
22x20px Amazonas
Flag of Anzoátegui State.svg Anzoátegui
Flag of Apure State.svg Apure
Flag of Aragua State.svg Aragua
Flag of Barinas State.svg Barinas
Bolivar State flag.png Bolívar

Flag of Carabobo State.svg Carabobo
Flag of Cojedes State.svg Cojedes
Flag of Delta Amacuro State.svg Delta Amacuro
Flag of Falcon State.png Falcón
22x20px Guárico
Flag of Lara State.svg Lara

Flag of Mérida State.svg Mérida
Flag of Miranda state.svg Miranda
Flag of Monagas State.png Monagas
Flag of Nueva Esparta.svg Nueva Esparta
Flag of Portuguesa.svg Portuguesa
Flag of Sucre State.svg Sucre

Tachira flag.gif Táchira
Flag of Trujillo State.svg Trujillo
Flag of Vargas State.svg Vargas
Flag of Yaracuy State.svg Yaracuy
Flag of Zulia State.svg Zulia

1 federal district:
Flag of Caracas.png Capital District (Caracas)
1 federal dependency:
Federal dependencies of Venezuela's Flag.svgVenezuelan Federal Dependencies
  1. ^ The federal city has a level of self-ruling equal to the other main federal units.
  2. ^ Saint Kitts is governed directly by the federal government.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ The Australian National Dictionary: Fourth Edition, pg 1395. (2004) Canberra. ISBN 978-0-19-551771-2.
  2. ^ Constitution of the United States of America: Tenth Amendment, Reserved Powers
  3. ^ Daniel, Kate; Special Broadcasting Service Corporation (2008). SBS World Guide: The Complete Fact File on Every Country, 16th ed.. Prahran, Victoria, Australia: Hardie Grant Books. p. 827. p26. ISBN 978-1-74066-648-0. 
  4. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p38
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Autonomous region. See more atList of autonomous areas by country
  6. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p46
  7. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p74
  8. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p101
  9. ^ The 1988 Brazilian Constitution treats the municipalities as parts of the Federation and not simply dependent subdivisions of the states.Article 18
  10. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p132
  11. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p239
  12. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p275
  13. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p328
  14. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p346
  15. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p460
  16. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p481
  17. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p486
  18. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p537
  19. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p549
  20. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p600
  21. ^ Federal structure of Russia, Article 65 of Russian Constitution.
  22. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p687
  23. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p700
  24. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p760
  25. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p774
  26. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p798

Template:Autonomous types of first-tier administration

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