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Russia is a federation which, as of March 1, 2008, consists of 83 "federal subjects" (members of the Federation; Russian singular субъект федерации, subyekt federatsii).[1] In 1993, when the Constitution was adopted, there were 89 federal subjects listed. By 2008 the number of federal subjects had been decreased to 83 because of mergers.

The federal subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Federal Assembly). They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy.

TypesEdit

Russian Regions-EN

Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:

21 republics (Russian singular республика, respublika)—nominally autonomous, each has its own constitution, president, and parliament; is represented by the federal government in international affairs; and is meant to be home to a specific ethnic minority.
46 oblasts (provinces; Russian singular область, oblast')—most common type of federal subjects with federally appointed governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centers.
krais (territories; Russian singular край, kray)—essentially the same as oblasts. The title "territory" is historic, originally given because they were once considered frontier regions.
autonomous oblast (autonomous province; Russian singular автономная область, avtonomnaya oblast')—the only autonomous oblast is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast
autonomous okrugs (autonomous districts; Russian singular автономный округ, avtonomny okrug)—with substantial or predominant ethnic minority.
federal cities (cities under direct jurisdiction of the Federation; Russian singular город федерального значения, gorod federal'nogo znacheniya)—major cities that function as separate regions.

List of federal subjectsEdit

Federal subjects of Russia (by number)

The subjects have both numerical codes and two- or three-letter ISO 3166-2:RU codes. The numerical codes span from 01 to 92, although nine of them are no longer in use after mergers.

Code Name Capital/administrative centre
(Largest city given if not capital)
Flag Coat of arms Federal district Economic region Area (km²)[2] Population[3]
REPUBLICS
01 Republic of Adygea Maykop Flag of Adygea Adygeya - Coat of Arms Southern North Caucasus 7,600 447,109
04 Altai Republic Gorno-Altaysk Flag of Altai Republic Coat of Arms of Altai Republic Siberian West Siberian 92,600 202,947
02 Republic of Bashkortostan Ufa Flag of Bashkortostan Coat of Amrs of Bashkortostan Volga Urals 143,600 4,104,336
03 Republic of Buryatia Ulan-Ude Flag of Buryatia Coat of Arms of Buryatiya Siberian East Siberian 351,300 981,238
20 Chechen Republic Grozny Flag of the Chechen Republic Coat of arms of Chechnya North Caucasian North Caucasus 15,300 1,103,686
21 Chuvash Republic Cheboksary Flag of Chuvashia Coat of Arms of Chuvashia Volga Volga-Vyatka 18,300 1,313,754
05 Republic of Dagestan Makhachkala Flag of Dagestan Coat of Arms of Dagestan North Caucasian North Caucasus 50,300 2,576,531
06 Republic of Ingushetia Magas
(Largest city: Nazran)
Flag of Ingushetia Coat of Arms of Ingushetia North Caucasian North Caucasus 4,000 467,294
07 Kabardino-Balkar Republic Nalchik Flag of Kabardino-Balkaria Coat of Arms of Kabardino-Balkaria North Caucasian North Caucasus 12,500 901,494
08 Republic of Kalmykia Elista Flag of Kalmykia Coat of Arms of Kalmykia Southern Volga 76,100 292,410
09 Karachay-Cherkess Republic Cherkessk Flag of Karachay-Cherkessia Coat of Arms of Karachay-Cherkessia North Caucasian North Caucasus 14,100 439,470
10 Republic of Karelia Petrozavodsk Flag of Karelia Coat of Arms of Republic of Karelia Northwestern Northern 172,400 716,281
19 Republic of Khakassia Abakan Flag of Khakassia Coat of arms of Khakassia Siberian East Siberian 61,900 546,072
11 Komi Republic Syktyvkar Flag of Komi Coat of Arms of the Komi Republic Northwestern Northern 415,900 1,018,674
12 Mari El Republic Yoshkar-Ola Flag of Mari El Coat of Arms of Mari El Volga Volga-Vyatka 23,200 727,979
13 Republic of Mordovia Saransk Flag of Mordovia Coat of Arms of Mordovia Volga Volga-Vyatka 26,200 888,766
14 Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Yakutsk Flag of Sakha Coat of Arms of Sakha (Yakutia) Far Eastern Far Eastern 3,103,200 949,280
15 Republic of North Ossetia-Alania Vladikavkaz Flag of North Ossetia Coat of Arms of North Ossetia-Alania North Caucasian North Caucasus 8,000 710,275
16 Republic of Tatarstan Kazan Flag of Tatarstan Coat of Arms of Tatarstan Volga Volga 68,000 3,779,265
17 Tuva Republic Kyzyl Flag of Tuva Coat of arms of Tuva Siberian East Siberian 170,500 305,510
18 Udmurt Republic Izhevsk Flag of Udmurtia Coat of arms of Udmurtia Volga Urals 42,100 1,570,316


KRAI
22 Altai Krai Barnaul Flag of Altai Krai Coat of Arms of Altai Krai Siberian West Siberian 169,100 2,607,426


91 Kamchatka Krai Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Flag of Kamchatka Krai Coat of Arms of Kamchatka Krai Far Eastern Far Eastern 472,300 358,801
27 Khabarovsk Krai Khabarovsk Flag of Khabarovsk Krai Coat of Arms of Khabarovsky kray (N2) Far Eastern Far Eastern 788,600 1,436,570
23 Krasnodar Krai Krasnodar Flag of Krasnodar Krai Coat of Arms of Krasnodar kray Southern North Caucasus 76,000 5,125,221
24 Krasnoyarsk Krai Krasnoyarsk KrasnoyarskKray-Flag Coat of arms of Krasnoyarsk Krai Siberian East Siberian 2,339,700 2,966,042
90 Perm Krai Perm Perm Oblast Flag Coat of Arms of Perm Volga Urals 160,600 2,819,421
25 Primorsky Krai Vladivostok Flag of Primorsky Krai Coat of arms of Primorsky Krai Far Eastern Far Eastern 165,900 2,071,210
26 Stavropol Krai Stavropol Flag of Stavropol Krai Coat of Arms of Stavropol kray North Caucasian North Caucasus 66,500 2,735,139


92 Zabaykalsky Krai Chita Flag of Zabaykalsky Krai Chita Oblast coat of arms Siberian East Siberian 431,500 1,155,346
OBLAST
28 Amur Oblast Blagoveshchensk Flag of Amur Oblast Coat of Arms of Amur oblast Far Eastern Far Eastern 363,700 902,844
29 Arkhangelsk Oblast Arkhangelsk Flag of Arkhangelsk Oblast Coat of Arms of Arkhangelsk oblast (2003) Northwestern Northern 587,400 1,336,539
30 Astrakhan Oblast Astrakhan Flag of Astrakhan Oblast Coat of Arms of Astrakhan Oblast Southern Volga 44,100 1,005,276
31 Belgorod Oblast Belgorod Flag of Belgorod Oblast Герб Белгородской области Central Central Black Earth 27,100 1,511,620
32 Bryansk Oblast Bryansk Flag of Bryansk Oblast Coat of arms of Bryansk Oblast Central Central 34,900 1,378,941
74 Chelyabinsk Oblast Chelyabinsk Flag of Chelyabinsk Oblast Coat of arms of Chelyabinsk Oblast Urals Urals 87,900 3,603,339
37 Ivanovo Oblast Ivanovo Flag of Ivanovo Oblast Coat of Arms of Ivanovo oblast Central Central 21,800 1,148,329
38 Irkutsk Oblast Irkutsk Flag of Irkutsk Oblast Coat of arms of Irkutsk Oblast Siberian East Siberian 767,900 2,581,705
39 Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast Coat of Arms 2006 Northwestern Kaliningrad 15,100 955,281
40 Kaluga Oblast Kaluga Flag of Kaluga Oblast Gerb kalug obl Central Central 29,900 1,041,641
42 Kemerovo Oblast Kemerovo
(Largest city: Novokuznetsk)
Flag of Kemerovo oblast Coat of arms of Kemerovo Oblast Siberian West Siberian 95,500 2,899,142
43 Kirov Oblast Kirov Kirov Oblast Flag Kirov COA Volga Volga-Vyatka 120,800 1,503,529
44 Kostroma Oblast Kostroma Flag of kostroma oblast Coat of arms of Kostroma oblast Central Central 60,100 736,641
45 Kurgan Oblast Kurgan Flag of Kurgan Oblast Coat of Arms of Kurgan oblast Urals Urals 71,000 1,019,532
46 Kursk Oblast Kursk Flag of Kursk Oblast Coat of Arms of Kursk oblast Central Central Black Earth 29,800 1,235,091
47 Leningrad Oblast Largest city: Gatchina[a] Flag of Leningrad Oblast Coat of arms of Leningrad Oblast Northwestern Northwestern 84,500 1,669,205
48 Lipetsk Oblast Lipetsk Flag of Lipetsk Oblast Coat of Arms of Lipetsk oblast Central Central Black Earth 24,100 1,213,499
49 Magadan Oblast Magadan Flag of Magadan Oblast Coat of Arms of Magadan oblast Far Eastern Far Eastern 461,400 182,726
50 Moscow Oblast Largest city: Balashikha[b] Flag of Moscow Oblast Coat of Arms of Moscow oblast Central Central 45,900 6,618,538
51 Murmansk Oblast Murmansk Flag of Murmansk Oblast Coat of Arms of Murmansk oblast (2004) Northwestern Northern 144,900 892,534
52 Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Nizhny Novgorod Flag of Nizhny Novgorod Region Coat of Arms of Nizhniy Novgorod Oblast Volga Volga-Vyatka 76,900 3,524,028
53 Novgorod Oblast Veliky Novgorod Flag of Novgorod oblast Novgorodi oblasti vapp Northwestern Northwestern 55,300 694,355
54 Novosibirsk Oblast Novosibirsk Flag of Novosibirsk Oblast Coat of arms of Novosibirsk Oblast Siberian West Siberian 178,200 2,692,251
55 Omsk Oblast Omsk Flag of Omsk Oblast Coat of arms of Omsk Oblast Siberian West Siberian 139,700 2,079,220
56 Orenburg Oblast Orenburg Flag of Orenburg Oblast Coat of Arms of Orenburg oblast Volga Urals 124,000 2,179,551
57 Oryol Oblast Oryol Flag of Oryol Oblast Coat of arms of Oryol Oblast Central Central 24,700 860,262
58 Penza Oblast Penza Flag of Penza Oblast Coat of Arms of Penza oblast Volga Volga 43,200 1,452,941
60 Pskov Oblast Pskov No official flag Coat of Arms of Pskov oblast Northwestern Northwestern 55,300 760,810
61 Rostov Oblast Rostov-on-Don Flag of Rostov Oblast Rostov oblast coa Southern North Caucasus 100,800 4,404,013
62 Ryazan Oblast Ryazan Flag of Ryazan Oblast Coat of Arms of Ryazan oblast Central Central 39,600 1,227,910
63 Samara Oblast Samara Flag of Samara Oblast Coat of Arms of Samara oblast Volga Volga 53,600 3,239,737
64 Saratov Oblast Saratov Flag of Saratov Oblast Coat of Arms of Saratov oblast Volga Volga 100,200 2,668,310
65 Sakhalin Oblast Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Flag of Sakhalin Oblast Sakhalin Oblast Coat of Arms Far Eastern Far Eastern 87,100 546,695
66 Sverdlovsk Oblast Yekaterinburg Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast Coat of Arms of Sverdlovsk oblast (2005) Urals Urals 194,800 4,486,214
67 Smolensk Oblast Smolensk Flag of Smolensk Oblast Coat of arms of Smolenskaya Oblast Central Central 49,800 1,049,574
68 Tambov Oblast Tambov Flag of Tambov Oblast Coat of arms of Tambovskaya Oblast Central Central Black Earth 34,300 1,178,443
69 Tver Oblast Tver Flag of Tver Oblast Coat of Arms of Tver oblast Central Central 84,100 1,471,459
70 Tomsk Oblast Tomsk TomskOblastFlag Coat of arms of Tomsk Oblast Siberian West Siberian 316,900 1,046,039
71 Tula Oblast Tula Flag of Tula Oblast Coat of Arms of Tula oblast Central Central 25,700 1,675,758
72 Tyumen Oblast Tyumen Flag of Tyumen Oblast Coat of arms of Tyumen Oblast Urals West Siberian 1,435,200 3,264,841
73 Ulyanovsk Oblast Ulyanovsk Flag of Ulyanovsk Oblast Coat of Arms of Ulyanovsk Oblast Volga Volga 37,300 1,382,811


33 Vladimir Oblast Vladimir Flag of Vladimiri Oblast Coat of arms of Vladimiri Oblast Central Central 29,000 1,523,990
34 Volgograd Oblast Volgograd Flag of Volgograd Oblast Coat of Arms of Volgograd oblast Southern Volga 113,900 2,699,223
35 Vologda Oblast Vologda
(Largest city: Cherepovets)
Flag of Vologda Oblast Coat of Arms of Vologda oblast Northwestern Northern 145,700 1,269,568
36 Voronezh Oblast Voronezh Flag of Voronezh Oblast Coat of Arms of Voronezh oblast (2005) Central Central Black Earth 52,400 2,378,803
76 Yaroslavl Oblast Yaroslavl Flag of Yaroslavl Oblast Coat of arms of Yaroslavl Oblast Central Central 36,400 1,367,398
CITIES OF FEDERAL IMPORTANCE
77 Moscow Flag of Moscow (Russia) Coat of Arms of Moscow Central Central 1,100 10,382,754
78 Saint Petersburg Flag of St Petersburg (Russia) Coat of Arms of Saint Petersburg (2003) Northwestern Northwestern 1,439 4,662,547
AUTONOMOUS OBLASTS
79 Jewish Autonomous Oblast Birobidzhan Flag of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast Coat of Arms of Jewish AO Far Eastern Far Eastern 36,000 190,915
AUTONOMOUS OKRUG
87 Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Anadyr Flag of Chukotka Coat of Arms of Chukotka Far Eastern Far Eastern 737,700 53,824
86 Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra Khanty-Mansiysk
(Largest city: Surgut)
Flag of Yugra Coat of Arms of Yugra Urals West Siberian 523,100 1,432,817
83 Nenets Autonomous Okrug Naryan-Mar Flag of Nenets Autonomous District Coat of Arms of Nenetsia Northwestern Northern 176,700 41,546


89 Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Salekhard
(Largest city: Novy Urengoy)
Flag of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District Coat of Arms of Yamal Nenetsia Urals West Siberian 750,300 507,006

MergersEdit

Russian Subjects merged

Federal subjects of Russia

Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories. The merging process was finished on March 1, 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008.

Original territories Date of referendum Date of merger Merger
1, 1a December 7, 2003 December 1, 2005 Perm Oblast (1) + Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a) → Perm Krai
2, 2a, 2b April 17, 2005 January 1, 2007 Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b) → Krasnoyarsk Krai
3, 3a October 23, 2005 July 1, 2007 Kamchatka Oblast (3) + Koryak Autonomous Okrug (3a) → Kamchatka Krai
4, 4a April 16, 2006 January 1, 2008 Irkutsk Oblast (4) + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a) → Irkutsk Oblast
5, 5a March 11, 2007 March 1, 2008 Chita Oblast (5) + Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a) → Zabaykalsky Krai

Further proposals for mergersEdit

The following merger proposals have been made in recent years; most have since become inactive.

Proposals Federal subjects Map
6, 6a Arkhangelsk Oblast + Nenets Autonomous Okrug = Pomorsky Krai Map of Russia - Arkhangelsk Oblast (2008-03) Map of Russia - Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2008-03)
7, 7a, 7b Khabarovsk Krai + Jewish Autonomous Oblast + Amur Oblast = Amur Krai Map of Russia - Khabarovsk Krai (2008-03) Map of Russia - Jewish Autonomous Oblast (2008-03) Map of Russia - Amur Oblast (2008-03)
8, 8a Magadan Oblast + Chukotka Autonomous Okrug = Magadan Krai Map of Russia - Magadan Oblast (2008-03) Map of Russia - Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (2008-03)
9, 9a, 9b Irkutsk Oblast + Buryat Republic + Zabaykalsky Krai = Baykalsky Krai Map of Russia - Irkutsk Oblast (2008-03) Map of Russia - Buryat Republic (2008-03) Map of Russia - Zabaykalsky Krai (2008-03)
10, 10a, 10b Tyumen Oblast + Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug + Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug = Tyumen Krai 2000px-Map of Russia - Tyumen Oblast (2008-03) Map of Russia - Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2008-03) Map of Russia - Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (2008-03)
11, 11a, 11b Novosibirsk Oblast + Omsk Oblast + Tomsk Oblast = Novosibirsk Krai Map of Russia - Novosibirsk Oblast (2008-03) Map of Russia - Omsk Oblast (2008-03) Map of Russia - Tomsk Oblast (2008-03)
12, 12a, 12b Kemerovo Oblast + Altai Republic + Altai Krai = Altai Krai Map of Russia - Kemerovo Oblast (2008-03) Map of Russia - Altai Republic (2008-03) Map of Russia - Altai Krai (2008-03)
13 St. Petersburg + Leningrad Oblast = Leningrad Oblast Map of Russia - St. Petersburg (federal city) (2008-03) Map of Russia - Leningrad Oblast (2008-03)
14 Moscow + Moscow Oblast = Moscow Oblast Map of Russia - Moscow (federal city) (2008-03) Map of Russia - Moscow Oblast (2008-03)
15, 15a Yaroslavl Oblast + Kostroma Oblast = Yaroslavl Krai Map of Russia - Yaroslavl Oblast (2008-03) Map of Russia - Kostroma Oblast (2008-03)
16, 16a Novgorod Oblast + Pskov Oblast = Novgorod Krai Map of Russia - Novgorod Oblast (2008-03) Map of Russia - Pskov Oblast (2008-03)
17, 17a Krasnodar Krai + Republic of Adygea = Krasnodar Krai Map of Russia - Krasnodar Krai (2008-03) Map of Russia - Republic of Adygea (2008-03)
18, 18a Republic of Ingushetia + Chechen Republic = Checheno-Ingushetia Map of Russia - Republic of Ingushetia (2008-03) Map of Russia - Chechen Republic (2008-03)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Constitution, Article 65
  2. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_03.xls. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  3. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_04_1.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-23. 

SourcesEdit

Template:Federal subjects of Russia

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