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Erie County, New York
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Left to right from top: Erie County Hall, Wendt Beach Park, Akron Falls Park, Chestnut Ridge Park, Canisius College, Gateway Park, Buffalo and Erie County Botanical Gardens
Seal of Erie County, New York
Seal
Map of New York highlighting Erie County
Location in the state of New York (state)
Map of the U.S. highlighting New York
New York's location in the U.S.
Founded 1821
Named for Eriechronon
Seat Buffalo
Largest city Buffalo
Area
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

1,227 sq mi (3,178 km²)
1,043 sq mi (2,701 km²)
184 sq mi (477 km²), 15
Population
 - (2020)
 - Density

954,236 increase
914.9/sq mi (353/km²)
Congressional districts 26th, 27th
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Website http://www.erie.gov

Erie County is a county along the shore of Lake Erie in western New York State. As of the 2020 census, the population was 954,236.[1] The county seat is Buffalo, which makes up about 28% of the county's population.[2] Both the county and Lake Erie were named for the regional Iroquoian language-speaking Erie tribe of Native Americans, who lived in the area before 1654. They were later pushed out by the more powerful Iroquoian nations tribes.

Erie County, along with its northern neighbor Niagara County, makes up the Buffalo-Niagara Falls metropolitan area, the second largest in New York State behind New York City. The county's southern part is known as the Southtowns.[3] The county has seen one of the highest growth rates of any county in New York State from the 2010 to 2020 census.

History[]

When counties were established by the English colonial government in the Province of New York in 1683, present-day Erie County was part of Indian territory occupied by Iroquoian-speaking peoples. It was administered as part of New York colony. Significant European-American settlement did not begin until after the United States had gained independence with the end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783. They forced the Iroquois to cede most of their lands, as many had been allies of the British.

About 1800, the Holland Land Company, formed by Americans and Dutch associates, extinguished Indian claims by purchasing the land from New York, acquired the title to the territory of what are today the eight westernmost counties of New York, surveyed their holdings, established towns and began selling lots to individuals. The state was eager to attract settlers and have farms and businesses developed. At this time, all of western New York was included in Ontario County.

As the population increased, the state legislature created Genesee County in 1802 out of part of Ontario County. In 1808, Niagara County was created out of Genesee County. In 1821, Erie County was created out of Niagara County, encompassing all the land between Tonawanda Creek and Cattaraugus Creek.[4] The first towns formed in present-day Erie County were the Town of Clarence and the Town of Willink. Clarence and Willink comprised the northern and southern portions of Erie county, respectively. Clarence is still a distinct town, but Willink was quickly subdivided into other towns. When Erie County was established in 1821, it consisted of the towns of Amherst, Aurora, Boston, Clarence, Collins, Concord, Eden, Evans, Hamburg, Holland, Sardinia and Wales.

The county has a number of houses and other properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Erie County, New York.[5]

In 1861, the hamlet of Town Line in the Town of Lancaster voted 85–40 to secede from the Union.[6] Town Line never sought admission into the Confederate States of America and there is no evidence that men from the community ever fought for the Confederacy. Some reporting from that time indicates the vote was a joke. On January 24, 1946, as part of a nationally reported event, Town Line voted to officially return to the Union after 85 years of Union secession.[7]

Geography[]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,227 square miles (3,180 km2), of which 1,043 square miles (2,700 km2) (85%) is land and 184 square miles (480 km2) (15%) is water.[8]

Erie County is in the western portion of upstate New York, bordering on the lake of the same name. Part of the industrial area that has included Buffalo, it is the most populous county in upstate New York outside of the New York City metropolitan area. The county also lies on the international border between the United States and Canada, bordering the Province of Ontario.

The northern border of the county is Tonawanda Creek. Part of the southern border is Cattaraugus Creek. Other major streams include Buffalo Creek (Buffalo River), Cayuga Creek, Cazenovia Creek, Scajaquada Creek, Eighteen Mile Creek and Ellicott Creek. The county's northern half, including Buffalo and its suburbs, is known as the Northtowns and is relatively flat and rises gently up from the lake. The southern half, known as the Southtowns,[3] is much hillier. It has the northwesternmost foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. The highest elevation in the county is a hill in the Town of Sardinia that tops out at around 1,940 feet (591 m) above sea level. The lowest ground is about 560 feet (171 m), on Grand Island at the Niagara River. The Onondaga Escarpment runs through the northern part of Erie County.

Rivers, streams and lakes[]

  • Buffalo River
  • Cattaraugus Creek
  • Cayuga Creek
  • Cazenovia Creek
  • Eighteen Mile Creek
  • Ellicott Creek
  • Lake Erie
  • Niagara River
  • Scajaquada Creek
  • Tonawanda Creek

Adjacent counties and municipality[]

Major highways[]

  • I-90.svg NYS Thruway Sign.svg Interstate 90 (New York State Thruway)
  • I-190 (long).svg Interstate 190 (Niagara Thruway)
  • I-290 (long).svg Interstate 290 (Youngmann Expressway)
  • I-990 (long).svg Interstate 990 (Lockport Expressway)
  • US 20.svg U.S. Route 20 (Southwestern Boulevard/Transit Road/Broadway)
  • US 20A (NY).svg U.S. Route 20A (Big Tree Road)
  • US 62.svg U.S. Route 62 (South Park Avenue/Bailey Avenue/Niagara Falls Boulevard)
  • US 219.svg U.S. Route 219 (Southern Expressway)
  • NY-5.svg New York State Route 5 (Hamburg Turnpike/Buffalo Skyway/Main Street)
  • NY-16.svg New York State Route 16 (Seneca Street)
  • NY-33.svg New York State Route 33 (Kensington Expressway/Genesee Street)
  • NY-39.svg New York State Route 39
  • NY-78.svg New York State Route 78 (Transit Road)
  • NY-179.svg New York State Route 179 (Milestrip Expressway/Road)
  • NY-198.svg New York State Route 198 (Scajaquada Expressway)
  • NY-263.svg New York State Route 263 (Grover Cleveland Highway/Millersport Highway)
  • NY-240.svg New York State Route 240 (Orchard Park Road/Harlem Road)
  • NY-277.svg New York State Route 277 (Union Road)
  • NY-324.svg New York State Route 324 (Grand Island Boulevard/Sheridan Drive)
  • NY-354.svg New York State Route 354 (Clinton Street)
  • NY-400.svg New York State Route 400 (Aurora Expressway)

Erie County routes[]

National protected area[]

  • Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site

State protected areas[]

  • Amherst State Park, Town of Amherst.
  • Beaver Island State Park, Town of Grand Island.
  • Buckhorn Island State Park, Town of Grand Island.
  • Buffalo Harbor State Park, City of Buffalo.
  • Evangola State Park, Towns of Brant and Evans.
  • Great Baehre Swamp Wildlife Management Area, Town of Amherst.
  • Hampton Brook Woods Wildlife Management Area, Village of Hamburg.
  • Knox Farm State Park, Town of East Aurora.
  • Motor Island Wildlife Management Area, Town of Grand Island.
  • Onondaga Escarpment Unique Area, Town of Akron.
  • Reinstein Woods Nature Preserve, Town of Cheektowaga.
  • Spicer Creek Wildlife Management Area, Town of Grand Island.
  • Strawberry Island State Park, Town of Townawanda.
  • Tillman Road Wildlife Management Area, Town of Clarence.
  • Woodlawn Beach State Park, Town of Hamburg.
  • Zoar Valley Multiple Use Area, Town of Collins.

Demographics[]

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1830 35,719
1840 62,465 74.9%
1850 100,993 61.7%
1860 141,971 40.6%
1870 178,699 25.9%
1880 219,884 23.0%
1890 322,981 46.9%
1900 433,686 34.3%
1910 528,985 22.0%
1920 634,688 20.0%
1930 762,408 20.1%
1940 798,377 4.7%
1950 899,238 12.6%
1960 1,064,688 18.4%
1970 1,113,491 4.6%
1980 1,015,472 −8.8%
1990 968,532 −4.6%
2000 950,265 −1.9%
2010 919,040 −3.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]
1790-1960[10] 1900-1990[11]
1990-2000[12] 2010-2014[1]

As of the 2010 census,[13] there were 919,040 people living in the county. The population density was 910 people per square mile (351/km2). There were 415,868 housing units at an average density of 398 per square mile (154/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 82.18% White, 13% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 1.46% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.42% from other races and 1.31% from two or more races. 3.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19.6% were of German, 17.2% Polish, 14.9% Italian, 11.7% Irish and 5.0% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 91.1% spoke English, 3% Spanish and 1.6% Polish as their first language.

File:ErieCountyPopulation 2.jpg

Erie County, NY Population[14]

There were 380,873 households, out of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.5% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present and 36.1% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out, with 24.3% under 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64 and 15.9% older than 65. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $38,567 and the median income for a family was $49,490. Males had a median income of $38,703 versus $26,510 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,357. About 9.2% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.3% of those under 18 and 7.8% of those older than 65.

County government and politics[]

Plans to merge Erie County with the City of Buffalo have been suggested, which proponents say would eliminate much of the extensive bureaucracy and political and municipal subdivisions among the various towns, cities and villages in the county. The result would be a consolidated city-county controlled by a single government, effectively making Buffalo's borders and population contiguous with that of Erie County's. These plans have proven controversial; there is controversy on the impact of the city's debt on a regional government. Concerns have also been raised that a regional government would dilute minority representation in government.[15]

Prior to 1936, Erie County predominantly backed Republican Party candidates, with only two Democratic Party candidates winning the county in a presidential election-- Grover Cleveland in 1892 and Woodrow Wilson in 1912. However, starting with the 1936 election, it has turned predominantly Democratic since then, with only two Republicans carrying the county in a presidential election-- Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952 and 1956 and Richard Nixon in 1972, with Nixon being the most recent. Since Democratic candidates have since won the county by double digit margins, except in 1984 and 2016 when they won it by single-digit margins.[16]

United States presidential election results for Erie County, New York[17]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 197,552 41.73% 267,270 56.46% 8,596 1.82%
2016 188,303 44.45% 215,456 50.86% 19,866 4.69%
2012 169,675 40.97% 237,356 57.31% 7,164 1.73%
2008 178,815 40.46% 256,299 57.99% 6,871 1.55%
2004 184,423 41.43% 251,090 56.41% 9,625 2.16%
2000 160,176 37.72% 240,176 56.56% 24,302 5.72%
1996 132,343 32.26% 224,554 54.74% 53,337 13.00%
1992 129,444 28.67% 196,233 43.46% 125,819 27.87%
1988 188,796 43.83% 238,779 55.43% 3,217 0.75%
1984 222,882 48.28% 237,631 51.47% 1,158 0.25%
1980 169,209 40.24% 215,283 51.20% 35,981 8.56%
1976 220,310 48.65% 229,397 50.66% 3,136 0.69%
1972 256,462 53.88% 218,105 45.82% 1,456 0.31%
1968 167,853 37.04% 250,054 55.18% 35,258 7.78%
1964 125,962 26.71% 344,910 73.14% 704 0.15%
1960 211,957 43.30% 277,203 56.62% 404 0.08%
1956 292,657 63.68% 166,930 36.32% 0 0.00%
1952 253,927 56.32% 196,378 43.56% 550 0.12%
1948 175,118 45.68% 197,618 51.55% 10,636 2.77%
1944 185,975 48.53% 195,905 51.12% 1,355 0.35%
1940 183,664 49.05% 189,779 50.68% 992 0.26%
1936 152,312 44.51% 183,555 53.64% 6,341 1.85%
1932 141,059 49.86% 131,012 46.31% 10,859 3.84%
1928 144,726 51.36% 126,449 44.87% 10,614 3.77%
1924 112,070 58.53% 40,780 21.30% 38,630 20.17%
1920 99,762 63.22% 40,436 25.63% 17,598 11.15%
1916 53,638 52.35% 45,622 44.53% 3,200 3.12%
1912 19,185 22.54% 33,518 39.38% 32,410 38.08%
1908 52,182 52.36% 45,185 45.34% 2,293 2.30%
1904 49,669 55.73% 36,582 41.04% 2,881 3.23%
1900 44,767 51.66% 39,833 45.97% 2,057 2.37%
1896 45,612 58.57% 30,172 38.74% 2,095 2.69%
1892 32,340 47.28% 32,431 47.41% 3,632 5.31%
1888 31,612 51.06% 29,543 47.71% 762 1.23%
1884 26,249 50.49% 24,759 47.62% 985 1.89%



Erie County executives[]

Name Party Term
Edward C. Rath Republican 1962-1969
B. John Tutuska Republican 1969-1971
Edward Regan Republican 1972-1978
Ed Rutkowski Republican 1979-1987
Dennis Gorski Democratic 1988-1999
Joel Giambra Republican 2000-2007
Chris Collins Republican 2008-2011
Mark Poloncarz Democratic 2012–present

Elected officials[]

Office Name Party Hometown
County Executive Mark Poloncarz Democratic Buffalo
County Comptroller Stefan I. Mychajliw Republican Hamburg
County Clerk Mickey Kearns Democratic
Republican (electorally)[18]
Buffalo
District Attorney John J. Flynn Democratic Buffalo
County Sheriff Tim Howard Republican Wales

County legislature[]

District Title Name Party Hometown
1 Howard Johnson Democratic Buffalo
2 Chair April N.M. Baskin Democratic Buffalo
3 Lisa M. Chimera Democratic Kenmore
4 Kevin Hardwick Democratic Tonawanda
5 Jeanne Vinal Democratic Amherst
6 Christopher D. Greene Republican Clarence
7 Majority Leader Timothy J. Meyers Democratic Cheektowaga
8 Frank Todaro Republican Cheektowaga and Lancaster
9 John Gilmour Democratic Hamburg
10 Minority Leader Joseph C. Lorigo Conservative West Seneca
11 John J. Mills Republican Orchard Park

Education[]

School districts[]

  • Akron Central School District
  • Alden Central School District
  • Amherst Central School District
  • Buffalo City School District
  • Cheektowaga Central School District
  • Cheektowaga-Maryvale Union Free School District
  • Cheektowaga-Sloan Union Free School District
  • Clarence Central School District
  • Cleveland Hill Union Free School District
  • Depew Union Free School District
  • East Aurora Union Free School District
  • Eden Central School District
  • Frontier Central School District
  • Grand Island Central School District
  • Gowanda Central School District
  • Hamburg Central School District
  • Holland Central School District
  • Hopevale Union Free School District At Hamburg
  • Iroquois Central School District
  • Kenmore-Tonawanda Union Free School District
  • Lackawanna City School District
  • Lake Shore Central School District
  • Lancaster Central School District
  • North Collins Central School District
  • Orchard Park Central School District
  • Springville-Griffith Institute Central School District
  • Sweet Home Central School District
  • Tonawanda City School District
  • West Seneca Central School District
  • Williamsville Central School District

Higher education[]

  • Buffalo State College
  • Canisius College
  • Daemen College
  • D'Youville College
  • Erie Community College
  • Hilbert College
  • Medaille College
  • Trocaire College
  • University at Buffalo
  • Villa Maria College

Attractions and recreation[]

Erie County is home to three professional teams—the NFL's Buffalo Bills, the NHL's Buffalo Sabres and the NLL's Buffalo Bandits, along with Division I's Buffalo Bulls and MILB's Buffalo Bisons. The city of Buffalo also features the Buffalo Zoo, Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society, Burchfield-Penney Art Center and Albright-Knox Art Gallery (all located within a mile of each other in the Delaware Park System), Buffalo and Erie County Botanical Gardens and Buffalo Museum of Science, in addition to tourist districts such as Canalside and Larkinville. The Erie County Fair, held every August in the Town of Hamburg from 1820 to 2019 (the 2020 event, like much everything else across the country, was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic), is one of the largest county fairs in the United States.[19]

Erie County Department of Parks, Recreation and Forestry[]

The Erie County Department of Parks, Recreation and Forestry was established in 1925 with four parks spanning 2,280 acres (9.23 km2). As of 2003, the county managed 38 properties, totaling approximately 11,000 acres (45 km2) of land. Management objectives include providing and maintaining recreational space and the conservation of the county's natural and historic resources.[20] A 2003 Master Plan identified several broad categories of parks operated by the county, including heritage parks, waterfront parks, conservation parks, special purpose parks and forest management areas.[20]

Heritage parks[]

Eternal Flame Falls in Chestnut Ridge Park.

Erie County's heritage parks include the five original county parks that were established during the 1920s and 1930s. These parks are examples of multiple-use sites with significant scenic, natural and historic features. Each park has unique man-made structures of historical character, many constructed as part of the Works Progress Administration movement in the 1930s.[21]

  • Akron Falls Park (Established in 1933, acquired by Erie County in 1947)
  • Chestnut Ridge Park (Established by Erie County in 1926)
  • Como Lake Park (Established in 1923, acquired by Erie County in 1926)
  • Ellicott Creek Park (Established by Erie County in 1926)
  • Emery Park (Established by Erie County in 1925)

Waterfront parks[]

Waterfront parks include the significant scenic sites and recreational trail systems along the county's Lake Erie shoreline.[21]

  • Bennett Beach Park
  • Isle View Park
  • Riverwalk Park
  • Wendt Beach Park

Conservation parks[]

View of the Scoby Dam at Scoby Dam Park.

These largely-undeveloped parks are managed primarily for conservation of the natural environment and passive nature-based outdoor recreation activities. These lands are intended to generally remain in a natural state.[21]

  • Boston Forest
  • Eighteen Mile Creek Park
  • Franklin Gulf Park
  • Sgt. Mark A. Rademacher Memorial Park (commonly known as Hunters Creek Park)
  • Scoby Dam Park

Special purpose parks[]

Special purpose parks have unique characteristics that provide specific recreational functions within the county's park system.[21]

  • Buffalo and Erie County Botanical Gardens
  • Elma Meadows Golf Course
  • Grover Cleveland Golf Course
  • Sprague Brook Park

Forest management areas[]

Forest management areas are managed by the Erie County Bureau of Forestry, which was established in 1927. These areas include several thousand acres of mostly-coniferous plantation style forest, much of which was planted on abandoned farmland by the Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s. These areas are located mostly in the rural southern portion of the county.[22] These lands have limited recreation potential, mostly in the form of trails. Management of these lands is focused on natural resource conservation, in addition to potential commercial resource extraction of timber products or maple syrup.[21][22]

Communities[]

# Location Population (2010) Type Area
1 Buffalo 278,349 City Greater Buffalo
2 Cheektowaga 75,178 CDP Greater Buffalo
3 Tonawanda 58,144 CDP Greater Buffalo
4 West Seneca 44,711 CDP Greater Buffalo
5 Lackawanna 19,949 City Greater Buffalo
6 Kenmore 15,423 Village Greater Buffalo
7 Depew 15,303 Village Greater Buffalo
8 Tonawanda 15,130 City Greater Buffalo
9 Eggertsville 15,019 CDP Greater Buffalo
10 Lancaster 10,352 Village Greater Buffalo
11 Hamburg 9,409 Village Greater Buffalo
12 East Aurora 6,236 Village Greater Buffalo
13 Harris Hill 5,508 CDP Greater Buffalo
14 Williamsville 5,300 Village Greater Buffalo
15 Grandyle Village 4,629 CDP Greater Buffalo
16 Springville 4,296 Village Southern
17 Lake Erie Beach 3,872 CDP Southern
18 Sloan 3,661 Village Greater Buffalo
19 Eden 3,516 CDP Southern
20 Orchard Park 3,246 Village Greater Buffalo
21 Wanakah 3,199 CDP Greater Buffalo
22 Akron 2,868 Village Northeast
23 Gowanda 2,709 Village Southern
24 Clarence 2,646 CDP Greater Buffalo
25 Alden 2,605 Village Northeast
26 Elma Center 2,571 CDP Greater Buffalo
27 Blasdell 2,553 Village Greater Buffalo
28 North Boston 2,521 CDP Southern
29 Town Line 2,367 CDP Northeast
30 Angola 2,127 Village Southern
31 Billington Heights 1,685 CDP Greater Buffalo
32 Angola on the Lake 1,675 CDP Southern
33 North Collins 1,232 Village Southern
34 Holland 1,206 CDP Southern
35 Farnham 386 Village Southern
- Highland-on-the-Lake N/A CDP Southern

† - County Seat

‡ - Not Wholly in this County

Towns[]

  • Alden
  • Amherst
  • Aurora
  • Boston
  • Brant
  • Cheektowaga
  • Clarence
  • Colden
  • Collins
  • Concord
  • Eden
  • Elma
  • Evans
  • Grand Island
  • Hamburg
  • Holland
  • Lancaster
  • Marilla
  • Newstead
  • North Collins
  • Orchard Park
  • Sardinia
  • Tonawanda
  • Wales
  • West Seneca

Map showing the municipalities of Erie County

Hamlets[]

  • Akron Junction
  • Alden Center
  • Armor
  • Athol Springs
  • Bagdad
  • Bellevue
  • Big Tree
  • Blakeley
  • Blossom
  • Boston
  • Bowmansville
  • Brant
  • Brighton
  • Carnegie
  • Chaffee
  • Clarksburg
  • Cleveland Hill
  • Clifton Heights
  • Collins Center
  • Concord
  • Creekside
  • Crittenden
  • Dellwood
  • Derby
  • Doyle
  • Duells Corner
  • Dutchtown
  • East Amherst
  • East Concord
  • East Eden
  • East Elma
  • East Seneca
  • Ebenezer
  • Eden Valley
  • Ellicott
  • Elma
  • Evans Center
  • Ferry Village
  • Footes
  • Forks
  • Fowlerville
  • Gardenville
  • Getzville
  • Glenwood
  • Green Acres
  • Griffins Mills
  • Holland
  • Hunts Corners
  • Jerusalem Corners
  • Jewettville
  • Kenilworth
  • Lake View
  • Langford
  • Lawtons
  • Locksley Park
  • Looneyville
  • Loveland
  • Marilla
  • Marshfield
  • Millersport
  • Millgrove
  • Morton Corners
  • Mount Vernon
  • Murrays Corner
  • New Ebenezer
  • New Oregon
  • North Bailey
  • North Evans
  • Oakfield
  • Patchin
  • Peters Corners
  • Pine Hill
  • Pinehurst
  • Pontiac
  • Porterville
  • Protection
  • Sand Hill
  • Sandy Beach
  • Scranton
  • Sheenwater
  • Shirley
  • Snyder
  • South Cheektowaga
  • South Newstead
  • South Wales
  • Spring Brook
  • Swifts Mills
  • Taylor Hollow
  • Town Line Station
  • Swormville
  • Walden Cliffs
  • Wales Hollow
  • Water Valley
  • Webster Corners
  • Wende
  • West Alden
  • West Falls
  • Weyer
  • Williston
  • Windom
  • Wolcottsburg
  • Woodlawn
  • Woodside
  • Wyandale
  • Zoar

Indian reservations[]

  • Cattaraugus Reservation
  • Tonawanda Reservation

See also[]

  • Erie County Sheriff's Office
  • Erie Township, Illinois
  • Erie Township, Minnesota
  • List of counties in New York
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Erie County, New York

References[]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/36/36029.html. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. 
  3. ^ a b Smyczynski, Christine A. (2005). "Southern Erie County - "The Southtowns"". Western New York: From Niagara Falls and Southern Ontario to the Western Edge of the Finger Lakes. The Countryman Press. p. 136. ISBN 0-88150-655-9. 
  4. ^ The Burned-Over District: Evolution of County Boundaries. Oliver Cowdery Home Page Script error: No such module "webarchive"., accessed 7 December 2008.
  5. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2008-04-15. http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/natreg/docs/All_Data.html. 
  6. ^ Klein, Christopher (18 October 2018). "This New York Village Seceded from the Union...for 85 Years". History (American TV channel). https://www.history.com/news/civil-war-secession-new-york-town. 
  7. ^ Kwiatkowski, Jane (September 7, 2011). "Secessionist hamlet takes stroll down memory lane; Hamlet of Town Line marks its unique role in the Confederacy". The Buffalo News. http://www.buffalonews.com/city/article547531.ece. 
  8. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. https://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/data/docs/gazetteer/counties_list_36.txt. 
  9. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census.html. 
  10. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. http://mapserver.lib.virginia.edu. 
  11. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/population/cencounts/ny190090.txt. 
  12. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t4/tables/tab02.pdf. 
  13. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov. 
  14. ^ "Empire State Development". https://esd.ny.gov/. 
  15. ^ Hansen, Robert (July 2005). "Research Brief:County Government Structure Update (vol. 3, no. 1)". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm?ContentID=17817. 
  16. ^ https://elections.erie.gov/ElectionArch
  17. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS. 
  18. ^ "Michael Kearns". https://ballotpedia.org/Michael_Kearns. 
  19. ^ "Carnival Warehouse". https://carnivalwarehouse.com/files/top50/2018list.pdf. 
  20. ^ a b Erie County (N.Y.) Department of Parks, Recreation, & Forestry; Erie County (N.Y.) Department of Environment & Planning; Parsons; Envision: The Hough Group; Paradigm Consulting; Wendel-Duchscherer Architects & Engineers (2003). Erie County Parks System Master Plan - Executive Summary. Erie County. pp. 1–16. http://www2.erie.gov/environment/sites/www2.erie.gov.environment/files/uploads/PARKS_MASTER_02_ExecSummary.pdf. 
  21. ^ a b c d e Erie County (N.Y.) Department of Parks, Recreation, & Forestry; Erie County (N.Y.) Department of Environment & Planning; Parsons; Envision: The Hough Group; Paradigm Consulting; Wendel-Duchscherer Architects & Engineers (2003). Erie County Parks System Master Plan, Volume 1, Section 3 - Overall System Framework. Erie County. pp. 1–13. http://www2.erie.gov/environment/sites/www2.erie.gov.environment/files/uploads/PARKS_MASTER_04_VOL1_Sec3.pdf. 
  22. ^ a b "Bureau of Forestry". http://www2.erie.gov/parks/index.php?q=bureau-forestry. 

External links[]

Template:Buffalo-Niagara Falls metropolitan area

Coordinates: 42°45′N 78°47′W / 42.75, -78.78

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