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{{bdm}}
 
{{bdm}}
{{Infobox UK place
+
{{Infobox settlement
  +
| name =
| official_name = Dundee
 
| local_name = ''City of Discovery''
+
| official_name = City of Dundee
  +
| native_name =
| country = Scotland| area_footnotes =<ref name="population" />
 
| area_total_sq_mi = 26
+
| native_name_lang =
  +
| other_name = Dùn Dè
| area_total_km2 =
 
  +
| settlement_type = [[City status in the United Kingdom|City]] and [[Subdivisions of Scotland#Council areas|council area]]
| population = 156,561
 
| population_ref =<ref name="Dundee Population Estimate">{{harvnb|Mid-2008 Population Estimates}}</ref> (2012)
 
| static_image_2_name = City of Dundee Coat of Arms.png
 
| static_image_2_caption = Dundee Coat of Arms.
 
| static_image_2_size = 160px| statistic1=
 
| statistic_title1 =
 
| statistic2=
 
| statistic_title2 =
 
| population_density = {{nowrap|{{convert|8541.8|/sqmi|/km2|abbr=on}} }} <!-- 578790 people/67.76sq mi=8541.76 -->
 
| os_grid_reference = NO4030
 
| map_type = Dundee UK location map.svg
 
| map_relief = 1
 
| latitude = 56.464
 
| longitude = -2.970
 
| language = English, [[Scots language|Scots]]
 
| post_town = DUNDEE
 
| postcode_district = DD1, DD2, DD3, DD4, DD5
 
| postcode_area = DD
 
| dial_code = 01382
 
| constituency_westminster = [[Dundee East (UK Parliament constituency)|Dundee East]]
 
| constituency_westminster1 = [[Dundee West (UK Parliament constituency)|Dundee West]]
 
| edinburgh_distance = {{convert|36.3|mi|abbr=on}} [[Boxing the compass|SSW]]
 
| london_distance = {{convert|362.0|mi|abbr=on}} [[Boxing the compass|SSE]]
 
| population_demonym= Dundonian
 
| gaelic_name = Dùn Dé<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/Gaelic/placenamesC-E.pdf|title=Scottish Parliament's List of Gaelic Placenames|publisher=parliament.uk|date= |accessdate=11 October 2012}}</ref>
 
| scots_name = Dundee
 
| unitary_scotland = [[Politics of Dundee|Dundee City Council]]
 
| lieutenancy_scotland = Dundee
 
| constituency_scottish_parliament = [[Dundee City East (Scottish Parliament constituency)|Dundee City East]]
 
| constituency_scottish_parliament1 = [[Dundee City West (Scottish Parliament constituency)|Dundee City West]]
 
| static_image = [[File:442 dundee header.png|250px]]
 
| static_image_caption = '''Top:''' [[Tay Rail Bridge]], '''Middle''': [[RRS Discovery]] and [[City Centre, Dundee|City Centre]], '''Bottom left:''' [[West End, Dundee|Magdalen Yard Bandstand]], '''Bottom right:''' [[University of Dundee]].
 
| website= [http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/ www.dundeecity.gov.uk]}}
 
   
  +
<!-- images, nickname, motto --->
'''Dundee''' {{IPAc-en|audio=dundee.ogg|d|ʌ|n|ˈ|d|iː}} ({{lang-gd|Dùn Dé}}), officially the '''City of Dundee''', is the fourth-largest [[City status in the United Kingdom|city]] in Scotland. It lies within the eastern [[central Lowlands]] on the north bank of the [[Firth of Tay]], which feeds into the [[North Sea]]. Under the name of ''Dundee City'', it forms one of the 32 [[Council areas of Scotland|council areas]] used for [[local government in Scotland]].
 
  +
| etymology = [[Scottish Gaelic]] - ''Dùn Dè'' (Tay Fort)<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.gaelicplacenames.org/databasedetails.php?id=412 |title=Gaelic Place-Names of Scotland |author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> |date=2011 |access-date=7 July 2016}}</ref>
  +
| nickname = "''The City of Discovery''"
  +
| image_skyline = [[File:442 dundee header.png|250px]]
  +
| image_caption = ''Top:'' [[Tay Rail Bridge]], ''Middle'': [[RRS Discovery]] and [[City Centre, Dundee|City Centre]], ''Bottom left:'' [[West End, Dundee|Magdalen Yard Bandstand]], ''Bottom right:'' [[University of Dundee]].
  +
| image_flag = [[File:Dundee City Flag.png|130px]]
  +
| image_seal = [[File:City_of_Dundee_Coat_of_Arms.png|130px]]
   
  +
<!-- maps and coordinates ------>
The town developed into a [[burgh]] in Medieval times, and expanded rapidly in the 19th century largely due to the [[jute]] industry. This, along with its other major industries gave Dundee its epithet as the city of "jute, jam and journalism".
 
  +
| pushpin_map = Scotland
  +
| pushpin_label_position = right
  +
| pushpin_label = Dundee
  +
| pushpin_map_caption = Location in [[Scotland]]
  +
| latd = 56.462
  +
| longd = -2.9707
  +
| coor_pinpoint = <!-- to specify exact location of coordinates (was coor_type) -->
  +
| coordinates_type = <!-- parameter list passed to Coord template, overrides coordinates_region -->
  +
| coordinates_display = title
  +
| coordinates_format = dms
   
  +
<!-- location ------------------>
In mid-2012, the population of the City of Dundee was estimated to be 156,561. Dundee's recorded population reached a peak of 182,204 at the time of the 1971 census, but has since declined.
 
  +
| subdivision_type = [[List of sovereign states|Sovereign state]]
  +
| subdivision_name = {{nowrap|{{flag|United Kingdom|size=23px}}}}
  +
| subdivision_type2 = [[Country]]
  +
| subdivision_name2 = {{flag|Scotland|size=23px}}
  +
| subdivision_type3 = [[Subdivisions of Scotland|Council Area]]
  +
| subdivision_name3 = Dundee City
  +
| subdivision_type4 = [[Lieutenancy areas of Scotland|Lieutenancy Area]]
  +
| subdivision_name4 = Dundee
   
  +
<!-- established --------------->
Today, Dundee is promoted as 'One City, Many Discoveries' in honour of Dundee's history of scientific activities and of the [[RRS Discovery|RRS ''Discovery'']], [[Robert Falcon Scott]]'s Antarctic exploration vessel, which was built in Dundee and is now berthed in the city harbour. Biomedical and technological industries have arrived since the 1980s, and the city now accounts for 10% of the United Kingdom's digital-entertainment industry. Dundee has two universities—the [[University of Dundee]] and the [[University of Abertay Dundee]]. A £1 billion master plan to regenerate and to reconnect the Waterfront to the city centre which started in 2001 is expected to be completed within a 30-year period, with the Dundee [[Victoria & Albert Museum]] opening by 2015, at a cost of £45 million. It is to be built on a plot vacated by the demolished leisure baths with its grounds extending up to the [[R.R.S. Discovery]].
 
  +
| established_title = Founded
  +
| established_date = {{Circa}} 11th century AD
  +
| established_title1 = [[Burgh|Burgh Charter]]
  +
| established_date1 = 1191
  +
| established_title2 = [[City status in the United Kingdom|City Status]]
  +
| established_date2 = 1889
   
  +
<!-- government type, leaders -->
Dundee is also known for [[the Dandy]], [[the Beano]], [[Desperate Dan]], [[Oor Wullie]], and was said to be built on the 'three Js': [[Marmalade|Jam]], [[jute]], and journalism. Visitors wishing to orient themselves should consider taking a walk (or drive) up the Law, Dundee which offers a 360-degree uninterrupted view of Dundee, the Tay estuary and the [[Tay Rail Bridge|Tay Bridge]], famously replacing the bridge demolished after the [[Tay Bridge Disaster|disaster]] of 1879, and the [[Tay Road Bridge]].
 
  +
| government_footnotes =
  +
| governing_body = [[Politics of Dundee|Dundee City Council]]
  +
| leader_title = [[List of Lord Provosts of Dundee|Lord Provost]]
  +
| leader_name = Robert Duncan<ref>{{cite web |author=The Courier |date=7 May 2012 |url=https://www.thecourier.co.uk/news/local/dundee/94327/snp-name-bob-duncan-as-choice-for-new-dundee-lord-provost/ |title=Lord Provost |accessdate=7 July 2016 |publisher=D.C. Thomson & Co. Limited}}
  +
</ref>
  +
| leader_title2 = [[5th Scottish Parliament|MSPs]]
  +
| leader_name2 = {{Collapsible list |title=[[Politics of Dundee#Scottish Parliament|2]] |[[Joe FitzPatrick]]&nbsp;(SNP) |[[Shona Robison]]&nbsp;(SNP)}}
  +
| leader_title3 = [[List of MPs elected in the United Kingdom general election, 2015|MPs]]
  +
| leader_name3 ={{Collapsible list |title=[[Politics of Dundee#Parliament of the United Kingdom|2]] |[[Stewart Hosie]]&nbsp;(SNP) |[[Chris Law (politician)|Chris Law]]&nbsp;(SNP)}}
  +
  +
<!-- display settings --------->
  +
| total_type = Total
  +
  +
<!-- area ---------------------->
  +
| area_footnotes = <ref name="Population Matters">{{cite web|ref={{harvid|Population Matters}} |url=http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/dundeecity/uploaded_publications/publication_85.pdf |title=Population Matters |accessdate=7 July 2016 |publisher=Dundee City Council |deadurl=unfit |archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5u3guh0j0 |archivedate=7 November 2010 }}</ref>
  +
| area_total_km2 = 60
  +
  +
<!-- elevation ----------------->
  +
| elevation_footnotes = <ref name="Population Matters" />
  +
| elevation_m = 18
  +
  +
<!-- population ---------------->
  +
| population_footnotes = <ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/files//statistics/population-estimates/mid-15-cor-12-13-14/mype-2015-corrections-for-12-13-14-correctedb.pdf |title=Mid-Year Population Estimates - Scotland |author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> |date=28 April 2016 |publisher=[[National Records of Scotland]] |access-date=19 October 2016}}</ref>
  +
| population_rank = [[List of towns and cities in Scotland by population|4th, Scotland]]
  +
| population_density_km2 = 2,477
  +
| population_total = 148,210
  +
| population_as_of = 2015
  +
| population_blank1_title = [[List of metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom|Metro]]
  +
| population_blank1 = 237,000<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/ods-web/area.html |title=Scottish Census 2011|author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> |date=28 April 2016 |publisher=Scotland's Census |access-date=19 October 2016}}</ref>
  +
| population_demonym = Dundonian
  +
| population_blank2_title = Language(s)
  +
| population_blank2 = [[Scottish English|English]], [[Scots language|Scots]]
  +
  +
<!-- time zone(s) -------------->
  +
| timezone1 = [[Greenwich Mean Time|GMT]]
  +
| utc_offset1 = ±0
  +
| timezone1_DST = [[British Summer Time|BST]]
  +
| utc_offset1_DST = +1
  +
  +
<!-- postal codes, area code --->
  +
| postal_code_type = [[Postcodes in the United Kingdom|Postcode Areas]]
  +
| postal_code = [[DD postcode area|DD1-5]]
  +
| area_code = 01382
  +
  +
<!-- blank fields (section 1) -->
  +
| blank_name = [[ISO 3166-2:GB|ISO 3166-2]]
  +
| blank_info = GB-DND
  +
| blank1_name = [[ONS coding system|ONS Code]]
  +
| blank1_info = 00QJ
  +
| blank2_name = [[Ordnance Survey National Grid|OS Grid Reference]]
  +
| blank2_info = {{gbmappingsmall|NO4030}}
  +
| blank3_name = [[Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics|NUTS]] 3
  +
| blank3_info = UKM21
  +
| blank4_name = Primary Airport
  +
| blank4_info = [[Dundee Airport]]
  +
  +
<!-- website, footnotes -------->
  +
| website = {{URL|http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/}}
  +
}}
  +
  +
'''Dundee''' ({{IPAc-en|audio=dundee.ogg|d|ʌ|n|ˈ|d|iː}}; {{lang-gd|Dùn Dè}} {{IPA-gd|ˈt̪uːn tʲeː|}}), officially the '''City of Dundee''', is [[Scotland]]'s [[List of towns and cities in Scotland by population|fourth-largest city]] and the [[List of urban areas in the United Kingdom|51st-most-populous built-up area]] in the [[United Kingdom]]. The mid-year population estimate for 2015 was 148,210 which gave Dundee a population density of 2,477/km<sup>2</sup> or 6,420/sq mi, the second-highest of any Scottish city. It lies within the eastern [[central Lowlands]] on the north bank of the [[Firth of Tay]], which feeds into the [[North Sea]]. Under the name of ''Dundee City'', it forms one of the 32 [[Council areas of Scotland|council areas]] used for [[local government in Scotland]].
  +
  +
[[Shires of Scotland|Historically]] part of [[Angus]], the city developed into a [[burgh]] in medieval times, and expanded rapidly in the 19th century largely due to the [[jute]] industry. This, along with its other major industries gave Dundee its epithet as city of "jute, jam and journalism". Dundee's recorded population reached a peak of 182,204 at the 1971 census.
  +
  +
Today, Dundee is promoted as 'One City, Many Discoveries' in honour of Dundee's history of scientific activities and of the [[RRS Discovery|RRS ''Discovery'']], [[Robert Falcon Scott]]'s Antarctic exploration vessel, which was built in Dundee and is now berthed in the city harbour. Biomedical and technological industries have arrived since the 1980s, and the city now accounts for 10% of the United Kingdom's digital-entertainment industry. Dundee has two universities—the [[University of Dundee]] and the [[Abertay University]]. In 2014 Dundee was recognised by the United Nations as the UK's first [[UNESCO]] City of Design for its diverse contributions to fields including medical research, comics and video games.<ref name="autogenerated1">{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-tayside-central-30275768|title=Dundee awarded UK's first Unesco City of Design status|work=BBC News}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thecourier.co.uk/news/local/dundee/dundee-wins-city-of-design-status-from-unesco-1.712577|title=Dundee wins City of Design status from UNESCO|work=thecourier.co.uk}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.scotsman.com/lifestyle/heritage/unesco-hails-dundee-with-city-of-design-award-1-3621185|title=Dundee the UK’s first Unesco ‘City of Design’|work=scotsman.com}}</ref>
  +
  +
A unique feature of Dundee is that its two professional [[Association football|football]] clubs [[Dundee United F.C.|Dundee United]] and [[Dundee F.C.]] have stadiums all but adjacent to each other.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.dundeefc.co.uk/the-club/dens-park|title=Dens Park|publisher=Dundee Football Club|accessdate=7 November 2015}}</ref>
  +
  +
A £1 billion master plan to regenerate and to reconnect the Waterfront to the city centre which started in 2001 is expected to be completed within a 30-year period, with the Dundee [[Victoria & Albert Museum]] opening by 2018 at a cost of £80 million.<ref>{{cite news|last=Urquhart|first=Frank|url=http://www.scotsman.com/lifestyle/arts/news/v-a-museum-at-dundee-could-see-2016-opening-1-3043218|title=V&A Museum at Dundee could see 2016 opening|date=13 August 2013|accessdate=6 July 2014|publisher=''The Scotsman''}}</ref>
   
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
{{main|History of Dundee}}
+
{{main article|History of Dundee}}
   
The name ''"Dundee"'' is made up of two parts: the common [[Celtic languages|Celtic]] place-name element ''dun'', meaning fort; and a second part that may derive from a Celtic element, cognate with the Gaelic ''dè'', meaning 'fire'.<ref>{{harvnb|Watson|1926|p=220}}; Dundee is also recorded as ''Dun-Tay'', e.g. {{harvnb|Pont c1583-96}}</ref>
+
The name "Dundee" is made up of two parts: the common [[Celtic languages|Celtic]] place-name element ''dun'', meaning fort; and a second part that may derive from a Celtic element, cognate with the Gaelic ''dè'', meaning 'fire'.<ref>{{harvnb|Watson|1926|p=220}}; Dundee is also recorded as ''Dun-Tay'', e.g. {{harvnb|Pont c1583-96}}</ref>
   
While earlier evidence for human occupation is abundant,<ref>The earliest evidence for human occupation of the area dates as far back as the [[Mesolithic]]: {{harvnb|Mathewson|1879}}; {{harvnb|RCAHMS Canmore database: Dundee, Stannergate}}</ref> the source of Dundee's success and growth as a seaport town arguably came as a result of [[William the Lion]]'s charter, granting Dundee to his younger brother, [[David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon|David]] (later [[Earl of Huntingdon]]) in the late 12th century.<ref>{{harvnb|Barrow|2003|p=266}}</ref> The situation of the town and its promotion by Earl David as a trading centre, led to a period of prosperity and growth.<ref>{{harvnb|Barrow|1990|pp=20–21}}; {{harvnb|Turnock|1982|p=23}}; {{harvnb|Mackie|1836|pp=23–24}}</ref> The earldom was passed down to David's descendants amongst whom was [[John of Scotland|John Balliol]], the town becoming a [[Royal Burgh]] on the coronation of John as king in 1292.<ref name="Barrow 1990 24">{{harvnb|Barrow|1990|p=24}}</ref> The town and its castle were occupied by English forces for several years during the [[First War of Scottish Independence|First War of Independence]] and recaptured by [[Robert the Bruce]] in early 1312.<ref>{{harvnb|Barrow|1965|p=272}}; p. 374</ref> The original Burghal charters were lost during the occupation and subsequently renewed by Bruce in 1327.<ref>{{harvnb|Mackie|1836|pp=30–32}}; pp. 207–208</ref>
+
While earlier evidence for human occupation is abundant,<ref>The earliest evidence for human occupation of the area dates from the [[Mesolithic]]: {{harvnb|Mathewson|1879}}; {{harvnb|RCAHMS Canmore database: Dundee, Stannergate}}</ref> Dundee's success and growth as a seaport town arguably came as a result of [[William the Lion]]'s charter, granting Dundee to his younger brother, [[David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon|David]] (later [[Earl of Huntingdon]]) in the late 12th century.<ref>{{harvnb|Barrow|2003|p=266}}</ref> The situation of the town and its promotion by Earl David as a trading centre led to a period of prosperity and growth.<ref>{{harvnb|Barrow|1990|pp=20–21}}; {{harvnb|Turnock|1982|p=23}}; {{harvnb|Mackie|1836|pp=23–24}}</ref> The earldom was passed down to David's descendants, amongst whom was [[John of Scotland|John Balliol]]. The town became a [[Royal Burgh]] on John's coronation as king in 1292.<ref name="Barrow 1990 24">{{harvnb|Barrow|1990|p=24}}</ref> The town and its castle were occupied by English forces for several years during the [[First War of Scottish Independence|First War of Independence]] and recaptured by [[Robert the Bruce]] in early 1312.<ref>{{harvnb|Barrow|1965|p=272}}; p. 374</ref> The original Burghal charters were lost during the occupation and subsequently renewed by Bruce in 1327.<ref>{{harvnb|Mackie|1836|pp=30–32}}; pp. 207–208</ref>
   
The burgh suffered considerably during the conflict known as [[the Rough Wooing]] of 1543 to 1550, and was occupied by the English forces of [[Andrew Dudley]] from 1547. In 1548, unable to defend the town against an advancing Scottish force, Dudley ordered that the town be burnt to the ground.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|2009|pp=9–10}}; {{harvnb|Merriman|2000}} pp. 263, 292, 304, 360–361</ref> In 1645, during the [[Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms|Wars of the Three Kingdoms]], Dundee was again besieged, this time by the Royalist [[James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose|Marquess of Montrose]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lythe|1958|pp=27–28}}; {{harvnb|Reid|1990|pp=97–99}}; {{harvnb|Cowan|1995|pp=195–198}}; {{harvnb|Cullen|Whatley|Young|2009|pp=61–63}}</ref> The town was finally destroyed by Parliamentarian forces, led by [[General Monck|George Monck]] in 1651.<ref>{{harvnb|Mackie|1836|pp=32–38}}; {{harvnb|Lythe|1958|pp=28–30}}; {{harvnb|Cullen|Whatley|Young|2009|pp=63–64}}</ref> The town played a pivotal role in the establishment of the [[Jacobitism|Jacobite]] cause when [[John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee]] raised the [[House of Stuart|Stuart]] standard on the [[Law, Dundee|Dundee Law]] in 1689.<ref>{{harvnb|Lenman|1980|p=30}}; {{harvnb|Patrick|2009|pp=85–88}}</ref> The town was held by the Jacobites in the 1715–16 rising, and on 6 January 1716 the Jacobite claimant to the throne, [[James Francis Edward Stuart|James VIII and III]] (or the Old Pretender), made a public entry into the town. Many in Scotland, including many in Dundee, regarded him as the rightful king.<ref>J. Baynes, ''The Jacobite Rising of 1715'' (1970), p.166</ref>
+
The burgh suffered considerably during the conflict known as [[the Rough Wooing]] of 1543 to 1550, and was occupied by the English forces of [[Andrew Dudley]] from 1547. In 1548, unable to defend the town against an advancing Scottish force, Dudley ordered that the town be burnt to the ground.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|2009|pp=9–10}}; {{harvnb|Merriman|2000}} pp. 263, 292, 304, 360–361</ref> In 1645, during the [[Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms|Wars of the Three Kingdoms]], Dundee was again besieged, this time by the Royalist [[James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose|Marquess of Montrose]].<ref>{{harvnb|Lythe|1958|pp=27–28}}; {{harvnb|Reid|1990|pp=97–99}}; {{harvnb|Cowan|1995|pp=195–198}}; {{harvnb|Cullen|Whatley|Young|2009|pp=61–63}}</ref> The town was finally destroyed by Parliamentarian forces led by [[General Monck|George Monck]] in 1651.<ref>{{harvnb|Mackie|1836|pp=32–38}}; {{harvnb|Lythe|1958|pp=28–30}}; {{harvnb|Cullen|Whatley|Young|2009|pp=63–64}}</ref> The town played a pivotal role in the establishment of the [[Jacobitism|Jacobite]] cause when [[John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee]] raised the [[House of Stuart|Stuart]] standard on the [[Law, Dundee|Dundee Law]] in 1689.<ref>{{harvnb|Lenman|1980|p=30}}; {{harvnb|Patrick|2009|pp=85–88}}</ref> The town was held by the Jacobites in the 1715–16 rising, and on 6 January 1716 the Jacobite claimant to the throne, [[James Francis Edward Stuart|James VIII and III]] (the Old Pretender), made a public entry into the town. Many in Scotland, including many in Dundee, regarded him as the rightful king.<ref>J. Baynes, ''The Jacobite Rising of 1715'' (1970), p.166</ref>
   
The economy of mediaeval Dundee centred on the export of raw wool, with the production of finished textiles being a reaction to recession in the 15th century.<ref>{{harvnb|Whatley|Swinfen|Smith|1993|pp=28–30}}</ref> The introduction of two government acts in the mid eighteenth century had a profound effect on Dundee's industrial success. The textile industry was revolutionised by the introduction of large four-storey mills, stimulated in part by the 1742 Bounty Act which provided a government-funded subsidy on [[Osnaburg]] linen produced for export.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|Swan|Archibald|2009|p=274}}; {{harvnb|Whatley|1992|p=23}}; {{harvnb|Checkland|Checkland|1989|p=45}}; {{harvnb|Durie|1979}} p. 27; p. 52; pp. 146–147;</ref> Expansion of the [[whaling]] industry was triggered by the second Bounty Act, introduced in 1750 to increase Britain's maritime and naval skillbase.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|Swan|Archibald|2009|p=275}}</ref> Dundee, and Scotland more generally, saw rapid population increase at end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, with the city's population increasing from 12,400 in 1751 to 30,500 in 1821.<ref name="Smout 1998 240–248">{{harvnb|Smout|1998|pp=240–248}}</ref>
+
The economy of mediaeval Dundee centred on the export of raw wool, with the production of finished textiles being a reaction to recession in the 15th century.<ref>{{harvnb|Whatley|Swinfen|Smith|1993|pp=28–30}}</ref> Two government Acts in the mid 18th century had a profound effect on Dundee's industrial success: the textile industry was revolutionised by the introduction of large four-storey mills, stimulated in part by the 1742 Bounty Act which provided a government-funded subsidy on [[Osnaburg]] linen produced for export.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|Swan|Archibald|2009|p=274}}; {{harvnb|Whatley|1992|p=23}}; {{harvnb|Checkland|Checkland|1989|p=45}}; {{harvnb|Durie|1979}} p. 27; p. 52; pp. 146–147;</ref> Expansion of the [[whaling]] industry was triggered by the second Bounty Act, introduced in 1750 to increase Britain's maritime and naval skill base.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|Swan|Archibald|2009|p=275}}</ref> Dundee, and Scotland more generally, saw rapid population increase at end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, with the city's population increasing from 12,400 in 1751 to 30,500 in 1821.<ref name="Smout 1998 240–248">{{harvnb|Smout|1998|pp=240–248}}</ref>
   
The phasing out of the linen export bounty between 1825 and 1832 stimulated demand for cheaper textiles, particularly for the production of cheaper, tough fabrics.<ref>{{harvnb|Durie|1979|p=169}}</ref> The discovery that the dry fibres of [[jute]] could be lubricated with [[whale oil]] (of which Dundee had a surfeit, following the opening of its gasworks) to allow it to be processed in mechanised mills resulted the Dundee mills rapidly converting from linen to jute, which sold at a quarter of the price of flax.<ref>{{harvnb|Turnock|1982|p=60}}; p. 122; {{harvnb|Watson|1990|p=14}}; {{harvnb|Watson|2004|p=94}}</ref> Interruption of [[Prussia]]n flax imports during the [[Crimean War]] and of cotton during the [[American Civil War]] resulted in a period of inflated prosperity for Dundee and the jute industry dominated Dundee throughout the latter half of the 19th century.<ref>{{harvnb|Lenman|Lythe|Gauldie|1969|pp=23–24}}; {{harvnb|Stewart|1998|p=1}}; {{harvnb|Checkland|Checkland|1989|p=48}}</ref> Unprecedented immigration, notably of Irish workers, led to accelerated urban expansion, and at the height of the industry's success, Dundee supported 62 jute mills, employing some 50,000 workers.<ref>{{harvnb|Swift|Gilley|1989|pp=117–118}}; {{harvnb|Dundee Heritage Trust|1998|pp=1–3}}</ref> Cox Brothers, who owned the massive [[Camperdown Works]] in [[Lochee]] were one of the largest jute manufacturers in Europe and employed more than 5,000 workers.<ref name="MS6">{{cite web|title=MS 6 Cox Brothers Ltd, Jute Spinners and Manufacturers, and Cox Family Papers|url=http://134.36.1.31/dserve.exe?&dsqIni=Dserve.ini&dsqApp=Archive&dsqCmd=show.tcl&dsqDb=Catalog&dsqPos=1&dsqSearch=((text)='cock')|work=Archive Services Online Catalogue|publisher=[[University of Dundee]]|accessdate=16 November 2012}}</ref>
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The phasing out of the linen export bounty between 1825 and 1832 stimulated demand for cheaper textiles, particularly for cheaper, tough fabrics.<ref>{{harvnb|Durie|1979|p=169}}</ref> The discovery that the dry fibres of [[jute]] could be lubricated with [[whale oil]] (of which Dundee had a surfeit, following the opening of its gasworks) to allow it to be processed in mechanised mills resulted in the Dundee mills rapidly converting from linen to jute, which sold at a quarter of the price of flax.<ref>{{harvnb|Turnock|1982|p=60}}; p. 122; {{harvnb|Watson|1990|p=14}}; {{harvnb|Watson|2004|p=94}}</ref> Interruption of [[Prussia]]n flax imports during the [[Crimean War]] and of cotton during the [[American Civil War]] resulted in a period of inflated prosperity for Dundee and the jute industry dominated Dundee throughout the latter half of the 19th century.<ref>{{harvnb|Lenman|Lythe|Gauldie|1969|pp=23–24}}; {{harvnb|Stewart|1998|p=1}}; {{harvnb|Checkland|Checkland|1989|p=48}}</ref> Unprecedented immigration, notably of Irish workers, led to accelerated urban expansion, and at the height of the industry's success, Dundee supported 62 jute mills, employing some 50,000 workers.<ref>{{harvnb|Swift|Gilley|1989|pp=117–118}}; {{harvnb|Dundee Heritage Trust|1998|pp=1–3}}</ref> Cox Brothers, who owned the massive [[Camperdown Works]] in [[Lochee]], were one of the largest jute manufacturers in Europe and employed more than 5,000 workers.<ref name="MS6">{{cite web|title=MS 6 Cox Brothers Ltd, Jute Spinners and Manufacturers, and Cox Family Papers|url=http://arccat.dundee.ac.uk/dserve.exe?&dsqIni=Dserve.ini&dsqApp=Archive&dsqCmd=show.tcl&dsqDb=Catalog&dsqPos=2&dsqSearch=((text)=%27cox%20brothers%27)|work=Archive Services Online Catalogue|publisher=[[University of Dundee]]|accessdate=5 February 2016}}</ref>
   
The rise of the textile industries brought with it an expansion of supporting industries, notably of the whaling, maritime and shipbuilding industries,<ref>{{harvnb|Jackson|Kinnear|1990|pp=16–22}}</ref> and extensive development of the waterfront area started in 1815 to cope with increased demand on port capacity.<ref>{{harvnb|McCarthy|2007|p=80}}; {{harvnb|Kenefick|2000|pp=38–50}}</ref> At its height, 200 ships per year were built there, including [[Robert Falcon Scott]]'s Antarctic research vessel, the ''[[RRS Discovery]]''. This ship is now on display at Discovery Point in the city.<ref>{{harvnb|Huntford|1986|p=47}}</ref> A significant whaling industry was also based in Dundee, largely existing to supply the jute mills with [[whale oil]]. Whaling ceased in 1912 and shipbuilding ceased in 1981.<ref name="whaling">{{harvnb|Hunting the Whale: The Whale Ships}}</ref>
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The rise of the textile industries brought with it an expansion of supporting industries, notably of the whaling, maritime and shipbuilding industries,<ref>{{harvnb|Jackson|Kinnear|1990|pp=16–22}}</ref> and extensive development of the waterfront area started in 1815 to cope with increased demand for port capacity.<ref>{{harvnb|McCarthy|2007|p=80}}; {{harvnb|Kenefick|2000|pp=38–50}}</ref> At its height, 200 ships per year were built there, including [[Robert Falcon Scott]]'s Antarctic research vessel, the ''[[RRS Discovery]]''. This ship is now on display at Discovery Point in the city.<ref>{{harvnb|Huntford|1986|p=47}}</ref> A significant whaling industry was also based in Dundee, largely existing to supply the jute mills with [[whale oil]]. Whaling ceased in 1912 and shipbuilding ceased in 1981.<ref name="whaling">{{harvnb|Hunting the Whale: The Whale Ships}}</ref>
   
 
[[File:SCO Dundee, Tay Rail Bridge.jpg|thumb|left|220px|The original [[Tay Rail Bridge|Tay Bridge]] (from the south) the day after the disaster. The collapsed section can be seen near the northern end]]
 
[[File:SCO Dundee, Tay Rail Bridge.jpg|thumb|left|220px|The original [[Tay Rail Bridge|Tay Bridge]] (from the south) the day after the disaster. The collapsed section can be seen near the northern end]]
   
While the city's economy was dominated by the Jute industry, it also became known for smaller industries. Most notable among these were [[Keiller's marmalade|James Keiller's and sons]], established in 1795, which pioneered commercial [[marmalade]] production,<ref>{{harvnb|Mathew|1998|p=12}}</ref> and the publishing firm [[D. C. Thomson & Co. Ltd|DC Thomson & Co.]], which was founded in the city in 1905 and remains the largest employer after the health and leisure industries.<ref>{{harvnb|Neuburg|1983|p=75}}</ref> Dundee was said to be built on the 'three Js': Jute, Jam and Journalism.
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While the city's economy was dominated by the jute industry, it also became known for smaller industries. Most notable among these were [[Keiller's marmalade|James Keiller's and Sons]], established in 1795, which pioneered commercial [[marmalade]] production,<ref>{{harvnb|Mathew|1998|p=12}}</ref> and the publishing firm [[D. C. Thomson & Co. Ltd|DC Thomson & Co.]], which was founded in the city in 1905 and remains the largest employer after the health and leisure industries.<ref>{{harvnb|Neuburg|1983|p=75}}</ref> Dundee was said to be built on the 'three Js': Jute, Jam and Journalism.
   
The town was also the location of one of the worst rail disasters in British history, the [[Tay Bridge disaster]]. The first [[Tay Rail Bridge]] was opened in 1878. It collapsed some 18 months later during a storm, as a passenger train passed over it, resulting in the loss of 75 lives.<ref>{{harvnb|Lewis|2004|p=69}}</ref> The [[1906 Dundee fire|most destructive fire in the city's history]] came in 1906, reportedly sending "rivers of burning whiskey" through the street.
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The town was also the location of one of the worst rail disasters in British history, the [[Tay Bridge disaster]]. The first [[Tay Rail Bridge]] was opened in 1878. It collapsed some 18 months later during a storm, as a passenger train passed over it, resulting in the loss of 75 lives.<ref>{{harvnb|Lewis|2004|p=69}}</ref> The [[1906 Dundee fire|most destructive fire in the city's history]] came in 1906, reportedly sending "rivers of burning whisky" through the street.
   
The jute industry fell into decline in the early 20th century, partly due to reduced demand for jute products and partly due to an inability to compete with the emerging industry in [[Calcutta]].<ref>{{harvnb|Roul|2009|p=103}}; {{harvnb|Stewart|1998|pp=16–17}}; {{harvnb|Stewart|2011|p=37}}</ref> This gave rise to unemployment levels far in excess of the national average, peaking in the inter-war period,<ref>{{harvnb|Whatley|1990|p=45}}; {{harvnb|Devine|Lee|Peden|2005|p=166}}</ref> but major recovery was seen in the post-war period, thanks to the arrival first of American light engineering companies like Timex and NCR, and subsequent expansion into microelectronics.<ref>{{harvnb|Devine|Lee|Peden|2005|p=169}}; {{harvnb|Cortada|1993|p=237}}; {{harvnb|Knox|McKinlay|2011|p=266}}</ref>
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The jute industry fell into decline in the early 20th century, partly due to reduced demand for jute products and partly due to an inability to compete with the emerging industry in [[Calcutta]].<ref>{{harvnb|Roul|2009|p=103}}; {{harvnb|Stewart|1998|pp=16–17}}; {{harvnb|Stewart|2011|p=37}}</ref> This gave rise to unemployment levels far in excess of the national average, peaking in the inter-war period,<ref>{{harvnb|Whatley|1990|p=45}}; {{harvnb|Devine|Lee|Peden|2005|p=166}}</ref> but major recovery was seen in the post-war period, thanks to the arrival first of American light engineering companies like [[Timex Group|Timex]] and [[NCR Corporation|NCR]], and subsequent expansion into microelectronics.<ref>{{harvnb|Devine|Lee|Peden|2005|p=169}}; {{harvnb|Cortada|1993|p=237}}; {{harvnb|Knox|McKinlay|2011|p=266}}</ref>
   
A £300 million master plan to regenerate Dundee Waterfront is expected to last for a 30-year period between 2001 and 2031.<ref name="Dundee Waterfront">{{harvnb|McKean|2011|p=100}}; {{harvnb|Dundee Waterfront Brochure}}; {{harvnb|Dundee Central Waterfront Masterplan 2001–2031}}</ref> The aims of the project will be to reconnect the city centre to the waterfront; improve facilities for walking, cyclists and buses; replacing the existing inner ring road with a pair of east/west tree lined boulevards; a new civic square and a regenerated railway station and arrival space at the western edge. A new [[Victoria and Albert museum]] is also being built, set for completion by 2015.<ref name="Dundee Waterfront"/>
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A £1 billion master plan to regenerate Dundee Waterfront is expected to last for a 30-year period between 2001 and 2031.<ref name="Dundee Waterfront">{{harvnb|McKean|2011|p=100}}; {{harvnb|Dundee Waterfront Brochure}}; {{harvnb|Dundee Central Waterfront Masterplan 2001–2031}}</ref> The aims of the project are to reconnect the city centre to the waterfront; to improve facilities for walking, cyclists and buses; to replace the existing inner ring road with a pair of east/west tree-lined boulevards; and to provide a new civic square and a regenerated railway station and arrival space at the western edge. A new [[Victoria and Albert museum]] is also being built, set for completion by 2018.<ref name="Dundee Waterfront"/>
   
 
== Governance ==
 
== Governance ==
{{main|Politics of Dundee}}
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{{main article|Politics of Dundee}}
 
[[File:City of Dundee Coat of Arms.png|thumb|City of Dundee Arms since 1996]]
 
[[File:City of Dundee Coat of Arms.png|thumb|City of Dundee Arms since 1996]]
   
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=== Local government ===
 
=== Local government ===
   
[[File:City Square, Dundee, Scotland.jpg|thumb|left|Dundee City Square. The building at the back of the square is Caird Hall. The building on the right is Dundee City Chambers, where the city council meets]]
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[[File:City Chambers, Dundee, Scotland.jpg|thumb|left|Dundee City Chambers, where the city council meets]]
   
Dundee is one of 32 [[council areas of Scotland]],<ref name="localgovact" /> and is represented by the Dundee City Council – a local council composed of 29 elected [[councillor]]s. Previously the city was a [[Counties of Scotland|county of a city]] and later a [[Regions and districts of Scotland|district]] of the [[Tayside]] [[Regions and districts of Scotland|region]]. Council meetings take place in the City Chambers, which opened in 1933 in City Square. The civic head and chair of the council is known as the [[Lord Provost]], a position similar to that of mayor in other cities. Dundee House, the new headquarters for the city council on North Lindsay Street, opened in August 2011.<ref name=DDHouse>{{harvnb|Dundee House}}</ref> This has replaced [[Tayside House]] which is due to be demolished in early 2012 as part of the Dundee Waterfront improvements.<ref name=DDHouse/>
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Dundee is one of 32 [[council areas of Scotland]],<ref name="localgovact" /> and is represented by the Dundee City Council – a local council composed of 29 elected [[councillor]]s. Previously the city was a [[Counties of Scotland|county of a city]] and later a [[Regions and districts of Scotland|district]] of the [[Tayside]] [[Regions and districts of Scotland|region]]. Council meetings take place in the City Chambers, which opened in 1933 in City Square. The civic head and chair of the council is known as the [[Lord Provost]], a position similar to that of mayor in other cities. [[Dundee House]], the new headquarters for the city council on North Lindsay Street, opened in August 2011.<ref name=DDHouse>{{harvnb|Dundee House}}</ref> This has replaced [[Tayside House]] which was demolished in 2013 as part of the Dundee Waterfront improvements.<ref name=DDHouse/><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.thecourier.co.uk/news/local/dundee/bye-bye-tayside-house-muncher-completes-its-work-1.111722|title=Bye-bye Tayside House — ‘Muncher’ completes its work|date=12 July 2013|accessdate=6 July 2014|publisher=''The Courier''}}</ref>
   
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Elections to the council are on a four-year cycle, the most recent being on [[Dundee City Council election, 2012|3 May 2012]]. Since 2007, the [[Local Governance (Scotland) Act 2004]] has meant that there are eight multi-member wards which elect three or four councillors by [[single transferable vote]], to produce a form of [[proportional representation]].<ref>{{harvnb|Local Governance (Scotland) Act 2004}}</ref> The 2012 elections gave the SNP overall control of the council. Scotland's longest-serving councillor, [[Ian Borthwick]], sits on the council.
The council was controlled by a minority coalition of [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] and [[Liberal Democrats]] of 12 councillors, with the support of the [[Conservative Party (UK)|Conservatives]] who had five. Although the [[Scottish National Party]] (SNP) was the largest party on the council, with 11 councillors.<ref name="political map">{{harvnb|Dundee City Council Political Make-up}}</ref><ref>{{harvnb|Dundee Tory leader hits out at critic|2005}}</ref> Elections to the council are on a four-year cycle, the most recent as of 2007 being on 3 May 2007. Previously, Councillors were elected from single-member [[Wards of the United Kingdom|wards]] by the [[first past the post]] system of election, although this changed in the 2007 election, due to the [[Local Governance (Scotland) Act 2004]].<ref>{{harvnb|Local Governance (Scotland) Act 2004}}</ref> Eight new multi-member wards were introduced, each electing three or four councillors by [[single transferable vote]], to produce a form of [[proportional representation]].
 
 
The 2007 election resulted in no single party having overall control, with 13 [[Scottish National Party]], 10 [[Scottish Labour Party|Labour]], 3 [[Conservative Party (UK)|Conservatives]], 2 [[Liberal Democrats]], and 1 Independent Councillors. A March 2009 by-election in the Maryfield ward changed the balance to 14 [[Scottish National Party]], 9 [[Scottish Labour Party|Labour]], 3 [[Conservative Party (UK)|Conservatives]], 2 [[Liberal Democrats]], and 2 Independent Councillors.<ref>{{harvnb|Councillors – Political Wards – by Councillor Surname}}</ref> The 2012 Local Elections returned a council made up of 16 SNP, 10 Labour, 1 Conservative, 1 Liberal Democrat, and 1 Independent councillors, giving the SNP overall control.
 
   
 
=== Westminster and Holyrood ===
 
=== Westminster and Holyrood ===
   
For elections to the [[British House of Commons]] at [[Westminster Palace|Westminster]], the city area and portions of the [[Angus]] council area are divided in two [[United Kingdom constituencies|constituencies]].<ref name="borders">{{harvnb|Fifth Periodical Review of Constituencies}}</ref> The constituencies of [[Dundee East (UK Parliament constituency)|Dundee East]] and [[Dundee West (UK Parliament constituency)|Dundee West]] are as of 2010 represented by [[Stewart Hosie]] ([[Scottish National Party]])<ref>{{harvnb|Stewart Hosie, MP for Dundee East}}</ref> and [[Jim McGovern (Scottish politician)|James McGovern]] ([[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]]),<ref>{{harvnb|James McGovern, MP for Dundee West}}</ref> respectively. For elections to the [[Scottish Parliament]] at [[Scottish Parliament Building|Holyrood]], the city area is divided between three constituencies. The [[Dundee East (Scottish Parliament constituency)|Dundee East (Holyrood) constituency]] and the [[Dundee West (Scottish Parliament constituency)|Dundee West (Holyrood) constituency]] are entirely within the city area. The [[Angus South (Scottish Parliament constituency)|Angus South (Holyrood) constituency]] includes north-eastern and north-western portions of the city area.<ref name="borders" /> All three constituencies are within the [[North East Scotland (Scottish Parliament region)|North East Scotland electoral region]]: [[Shona Robison]] (SNP) is the [[Member of the Scottish Parliament]] (MSP) for the Dundee East constituency;<ref>{{harvnb|Shona Robison, MSP for Dundee East}}</ref> [[Joe Fitzpatrick]] (SNP) is the current MSP for the Dundee West constituency<ref>{{harvnb|Joe Fitzpatrick, MSP for Dundee West}}</ref> and [[Graeme Dey]] (SNP) is the current MSP for the Angus South constituency.<ref>{{harvnb|Graeme Dey, MSP for Angus South}}</ref>
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For elections to the [[British House of Commons]] at [[Westminster Palace|Westminster]], the city area and portions of the [[Angus]] council area are divided in two [[United Kingdom constituencies|constituencies]].<ref name="borders">{{harvnb|Fifth Periodical Review of Constituencies}}</ref> The constituencies of [[Dundee East (UK Parliament constituency)|Dundee East]] and [[Dundee West (UK Parliament constituency)|Dundee West]] are as of 2015 represented by [[Stewart Hosie]] ([[Scottish National Party]])<ref>{{harvnb|Stewart Hosie, MP for Dundee East}}</ref> and [[Chris Law (politician)|Chris Law]] (Scottish National Party), respectively. For elections to the [[Scottish Parliament]] at [[Scottish Parliament Building|Holyrood]], the city area is divided between three constituencies. The [[Dundee East (Scottish Parliament constituency)|Dundee East (Holyrood) constituency]] and the [[Dundee West (Scottish Parliament constituency)|Dundee West (Holyrood) constituency]] are entirely within the city area. The [[Angus South (Scottish Parliament constituency)|Angus South (Holyrood) constituency]] includes north-eastern and north-western portions of the city area.<ref name="borders" /> All three constituencies are within the [[North East Scotland (Scottish Parliament region)|North East Scotland electoral region]]: [[Shona Robison]] (SNP) is the [[Member of the Scottish Parliament]] (MSP) for the Dundee East constituency;<ref>{{harvnb|Shona Robison, MSP for Dundee East}}</ref> [[Joe Fitzpatrick]] (SNP) is the current MSP for the Dundee West constituency<ref>{{harvnb|Joe Fitzpatrick, MSP for Dundee West}}</ref> and [[Graeme Dey]] (SNP) is the current MSP for the Angus South constituency.<ref>{{harvnb|Graeme Dey, MSP for Angus South}}</ref>
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Dundee is also part of the pan-Scotland [[Scotland (European Parliament constituency)|European Parliament constituency]] which elects seven [[Members of the European Parliament]] (MEP)s using the [[d'Hondt method]] of [[party-list proportional representation]].<ref name="list of MEPs in Scotland">{{harvnb|List of MEPs in Scotland}}</ref> Scotland returns two [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] MEPs, two [[Scottish National Party|SNP]] MEPs, one [[Conservative Party (UK)|Conservative and Unionist]] MEP and one [[UKIP]] MEP, to the [[European Parliament]].<ref name="list of MEPs in Scotland" />
   
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[[Sir Winston Churchill#Political career to the Second World War|Winston Churchill served as the MP]] for Dundee from 1908 to 1922.
Dundee is also part of the pan-Scotland [[Scotland (European Parliament constituency)|European Parliament constituency]] which elects seven [[Members of the European Parliament]] (MEP)s using the [[d'Hondt method]] of [[party-list proportional representation]].<ref name="list of MEPs in Scotland">{{harvnb|List of MEPs in Scotland}}</ref> Scotland returns two [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] MEPs, two [[Scottish National Party|SNP]] MEPs, one [[Conservative Party (UK)|Conservative and Unionist]] MEP and one [[Liberal Democrats|Liberal Democrat]] MEP, to the [[European Parliament]].<ref name="list of MEPs in Scotland" />
 
   
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==== 2014 Scottish Referendum ====
[[Winston Churchill]] served as the MP for Dundee from 1908-1922.<ref name="Sir Winston Church">{{cite web|last=Pedia|first=Wiki|title=Sir Winston Churchill MP|url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_Winston_Churchill#Political_career_to_the_Second_World_War|publisher=Wiki|accessdate=24 February 2014}}</ref>
 
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On 18 September 2014, Dundee was one of four council areas to vote "Yes" in the [[Scottish Independence Referendum]], with 57.3% voting "Yes" on a 78.8% turnout. With the highest Yes vote for any local authority in Scotland, some in the [[Yes Scotland]] campaign nicknamed Dundee the 'Yes City', including former First Minister [[Alex Salmond]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Scotland Decides|work=BBC|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/events/scotland-decides/live}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Scottish Independence|work=The Scotsman|url=http://www.scotsman.com/scottish-independence/alex-salmond-dundee-is-scotlands-yes-city/}}</ref>
   
 
== Geography ==
 
== Geography ==
   
 
[[File:The Dundee Law - geograph.org.uk - 63200 (lighter ground).jpg|thumb|right|The [[Dundee Law]]]]
 
[[File:The Dundee Law - geograph.org.uk - 63200 (lighter ground).jpg|thumb|right|The [[Dundee Law]]]]
Dundee sits on the north bank of the [[Firth of Tay]] on the eastern, [[North Sea]] Coast of Scotland. The city lies {{convert| 36.1|mi|km|0}} [[Boxing the compass|NNE]] of [[Edinburgh]]<ref name="postcode">{{harvnb|UK Postcode to Postcode Calculator}}</ref> and {{convert|360.6|mi|km|0}} [[Boxing the compass|NNW]] of London.<ref name="postcode"/> The built-up area occupies a roughly rectangular shape {{convert|8.3|mi|km|0}} long by {{convert|2.5|mi|km|0}} wide, aligned in an east to west direction and occupies an area of 60&nbsp;km<sup>2</sup>.<ref name=OSmap/><ref name=popdens>{{harvnb|Population density: Scotland: by unitary authority}}</ref> The town is bisected by a line of hills stretching from Balgay Hill (elevation of 143 m) in the west end of the city, through the [[Dundee Law]] (174 m) which occupies the centre of the built up area, to Gallow Hill (83 m), between Baxter Park and the Eastern Cemetery. North of this ridge lies a valley through which cuts the Dighty Water [[burn (topography)|burn]], the elevation falling to around 45 m. North of the Dighty valley lie the [[Sidlaw Hills]], the most prominent hill being [[Craigowl Hill]] (455 m).<ref name=OSmap>{{harvnb|Ordnance Survey Landranger Map|2007}}</ref>
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Dundee sits on the north bank of the [[Firth of Tay]] on the eastern, [[North Sea]] Coast of Scotland. The city lies {{convert| 36.1|mi|km|0}} [[Boxing the compass|NNE]] of [[Edinburgh]]<ref name="postcode">{{harvnb|UK Postcode to Postcode Calculator}}</ref> and {{convert|360.6|mi|km|0}} [[Boxing the compass|NNW]] of London.<ref name="postcode"/> The built-up area occupies a roughly rectangular shape {{convert|8.3|mi|km|0}} long by {{convert|2.5|mi|km|0}} wide, aligned in an east to west direction and occupies an area of {{convert|60|km2|sqmi}}.<ref name=OSmap/><ref name=popdens>{{harvnb|Population density: Scotland: by unitary authority}}</ref> The town is bisected by a line of hills stretching from Balgay Hill (elevation of 143 m) in the west end of the city, through the [[Dundee Law]] (174 m) which occupies the centre of the built up area, to Gallow Hill (83 m), between Baxter Park and the Eastern Cemetery. North of this ridge lies a valley through which cuts the Dighty Water [[burn (topography)|burn]], the elevation falling to around 45 m. North of the Dighty valley lie the [[Sidlaw Hills]], the most prominent hill being [[Craigowl Hill]] (455 m).<ref name=OSmap>{{harvnb|Ordnance Survey Landranger Map|2007}}</ref>
   
 
The western and eastern boundaries of the city are marked by two [[burn (topography)|burns]] that are tributaries of the [[River Tay]]. On the western-most boundary of the city, the Lochee burn meets the Fowlis burn, forming the [[Invergowrie]] burn, which meets the Tay at Invergowrie basin.<ref name=OSmap/> The Dighty Water enters Dundee from the village of [[Strathmartine]] and marks the boundaries of a number of northern districts of the city, joining the Tay between [[Barnhill, Dundee|Barnhill]] and [[Monifieth]].<ref name=OSmap/> The Scouring burn in the west end of the city and Dens Burn in the east, both of which played important roles in the industrial development of the city, have now been [[culvert]]ed over.
 
The western and eastern boundaries of the city are marked by two [[burn (topography)|burns]] that are tributaries of the [[River Tay]]. On the western-most boundary of the city, the Lochee burn meets the Fowlis burn, forming the [[Invergowrie]] burn, which meets the Tay at Invergowrie basin.<ref name=OSmap/> The Dighty Water enters Dundee from the village of [[Strathmartine]] and marks the boundaries of a number of northern districts of the city, joining the Tay between [[Barnhill, Dundee|Barnhill]] and [[Monifieth]].<ref name=OSmap/> The Scouring burn in the west end of the city and Dens Burn in the east, both of which played important roles in the industrial development of the city, have now been [[culvert]]ed over.
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=== Geology ===
 
=== Geology ===
   
The city lies within the Sidlaw-Ochil [[anticline]], and the predominant bedrock type is [[Old Red Sandstone]] of the Arbuthnott-Garvock group.<ref name=geo>{{harvnb|Bluck|2000|p=422}}; {{harvnb|GeoIndex Onshore}}</ref> [[Differential weathering]] of a series of [[igneous intrusion]]s has yielded a number of prominent hills in the landscape, most notably the [[Law, Dundee|Dundee Law]] (a late [[Silurian]]/early [[Devonian]] [[Mafic]] rock intrusion) and Balgay hill (a [[Felsic]] rock intrusion of similar age).<ref name=geo/> To the east of the city, in Craigie and [[Broughty Ferry]], the bedrock geology is of [[extrusive]] rocks, including mafic [[lava]] and [[tuff]].<ref name=geo/>
+
The city lies within the Sidlaw-Ochil [[anticline]], and the predominant bedrock type is [[Old Red Sandstone]] of the Arbuthnott-Garvock group.<ref name=geo>{{harvnb|Bluck|2000|p=422}}; {{harvnb|GeoIndex Onshore}}</ref> [[Differential weathering]] of a series of [[igneous intrusion]]s has yielded a number of prominent hills in the landscape, most notably the [[Law, Dundee|Dundee Law]] (a late [[Silurian]]/early [[Devonian]] [[Mafic]] rock intrusion) and Balgay hill (a [[Felsic]] rock intrusion of similar age).<ref name=geo/> In the east of the city, in [[Craigiebank, Dundee|Craigie]] and [[Broughty Ferry]], the bedrock geology is of [[extrusive rock]]s, including mafic [[lava]] and [[tuff]].<ref name=geo/>
   
The land surrounding Dundee, particularly that in the lower lying areas to the West and east of the city bears high quality soil that is particularly suitable for arable farming. It is predominantly of a [[brown forest soil]] type with some [[Gley soil|gleying]], the lower parts being formed from raised beach sands and gravels derived from Old Red Sandstone and lavas.<ref>{{harvnb|Soil Survey of Scotland|1982}}</ref>
+
The land surrounding Dundee, particularly that in the lower lying areas to the west and east of the city, bears high quality soil that is particularly suitable for arable farming. It is predominantly of a [[brown forest soil]] type with some [[Gley soil|gleying]], the lower parts being formed from raised beach sands and gravels derived from Old Red Sandstone and lavas.<ref>{{harvnb|Soil Survey of Scotland|1982}}</ref>
   
 
=== Location ===
 
=== Location ===
Line 132: Line 200:
   
 
[[File:Midsummer night^ - geograph.org.uk - 9752.jpg|View from The Law, overlooking Dundee City Centre and the Tay Road Bridge|thumb|left]]
 
[[File:Midsummer night^ - geograph.org.uk - 9752.jpg|View from The Law, overlooking Dundee City Centre and the Tay Road Bridge|thumb|left]]
Very little of pre-[[Scottish Reformation|Reformation]] Dundee remains, the destruction suffered in the War of the Rough Wooing being almost total, with only scattered, roofless shells remaining.<ref>{{harvnb|Merriman|2000|pp=360–361}}</ref> The area occupied by the mediaeval burgh of Dundee extends between East Port and West Port, which formerly held the gates to the walled city. The shoreline has been altered considerably since the early 19th century through development of the harbour area and land reclamation.<ref>{{harvnb|McCarthy|2007|p=80}}; The progress of waterfront development can be seen in the maps of {{harvnb|Wood|1821}}, {{harvnb|Edward|1846}} and {{harvnb|Bartholomew|1912}}</ref> Several areas on the periphery of the burgh saw industrial development with the building of textile mills from the end of the 18th century. Their placement was dictated by the need for a water supply for the modern steam powered machinery, and areas around the Lochee Burn ([[Lochee]]), Scouring Burn ([[Blackness, Dundee|Blackness]]) and Dens Burn (Dens Road area) saw particular concentrations of mills.<ref>{{harvnb|Lenman|Lythe|Gauldie|1969|p=9}}; {{harvnb|Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland 1992}} p. 25; {{harvnb|Watson|1990|p=8}}</ref> The post war period saw expansion of industry to estates along the Kingsway.<ref>{{harvnb|Walker|1968|p=296}}</ref>
+
Very little of pre-[[Scottish Reformation|Reformation]] Dundee remains, the destruction suffered in the [[War of the Rough Wooing]] being almost total, with only scattered, roofless shells remaining.<ref>{{harvnb|Merriman|2000|pp=360–361}}</ref> The area occupied by the medieval burgh of Dundee extends between East Port and West Port, which formerly held the gates to the walled city. The shoreline has been altered considerably since the early 19th century through development of the harbour area and land reclamation.<ref>{{harvnb|McCarthy|2007|p=80}}; The progress of waterfront development can be seen in the maps of {{harvnb|Wood|1821}}, {{harvnb|Edward|1846}} and {{harvnb|Bartholomew|1912}}</ref> Several areas on the periphery of the burgh saw industrial development with the building of textile mills from the end of the 18th century. Their placement was dictated by the need for a water supply for the modern steam powered machinery, and areas around the Lochee Burn ([[Lochee]]), Scouring Burn ([[Blackness, Dundee|Blackness]]) and Dens Burn (Dens Road area) saw particular concentrations of mills.<ref>{{harvnb|Lenman|Lythe|Gauldie|1969|p=9}}; {{harvnb|Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland 1992}} p. 25; {{harvnb|Watson|1990|p=8}}</ref> The post war period saw expansion of industry to estates along the Kingsway.<ref>{{harvnb|Walker|1968|p=296}}</ref>
   
Working class housing spread rapidly and without control throughout the Victorian era, particularly in the Hawkhill, Blackness Road, Dens Road and Hilltown areas.<ref>{{harvnb|Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland 1992}} p. 26</ref> Despite the comparative wealth of Victorian Dundee as a whole, living standards for the working classes were very poor. A general lack of town planning coupled with the influx of labour during the expansion of the jute industry resulted in unsanitary, squalid and cramped housing for much of the population.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|2011|pp=72–76}}</ref> While gradual improvements and [[slum]] clearance began in the late 19th century, the building of the groundbreaking [[Logie, Dundee|Logie]] housing estate marked the beginning of Dundee's expansion through the building of planned housing estates, under the vision of city architect [[James Thomson (architect)|James Thomson]], whose legacy also includes the housing estate of [[Craigiebank, Dundee|Craigiebank]] and the beginnings of an improved transport infrastructure by planning the Kingsway bypass.<ref>{{harvnb|Logie Conservation Area}}; {{harvnb|Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland 1992}} pp. 51–52; {{harvnb|McKean|2011|p=81}}</ref>
+
Working class housing spread rapidly and without control throughout the Victorian era, particularly in the Hawkhill, Blackness Road, Dens Road and Hilltown areas.<ref>{{harvnb|Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland 1992}} p. 26</ref> Despite the comparative wealth of Victorian Dundee as a whole, living standards for the working classes were very poor. A general lack of town planning coupled with the influx of labour during the expansion of the jute industry resulted in insanitary, squalid and cramped housing for much of the population.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|2011|pp=72–76}}</ref> While gradual improvements and [[slum clearance]] began in the late 19th century, the building of the groundbreaking [[Logie, Dundee|Logie]] housing estate marked the beginning of Dundee's expansion through the building of planned housing estates, under the vision of city architect [[James Thomson (architect)|James Thomson]], whose legacy also includes the housing estate of [[Craigiebank, Dundee|Craigiebank]] and the beginnings of an improved transport infrastructure by planning the Kingsway bypass.<ref>{{harvnb|Logie Conservation Area}}; {{harvnb|Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland 1992}} pp. 51–52; {{harvnb|McKean|2011|p=81}}</ref>
   
Modernisation of the city centre continued in the post-war period. The mediaeval Overgate was demolished in the early 1960s to make way for a shopping centre, followed by construction of the inner ring road and the Wellgate Shopping Centre.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|1990|p=73}}; {{harvnb|McKean|2011|p=85}}</ref> The [[Tay Road Bridge]], completed in 1966 had as its northern landfall the docklands of central Dundee, and the new associated road system resulted in the city centre being cut off from the river.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|1990|p=73}}; {{harvnb|McKean|2011|p=93}}</ref> An acute shortage of housing in the late 1940s was addressed by a series of large housing estates built in the northern environs including the Fintry, Craigie, Charleston and Douglas areas in the 1950s and early 1960s.<ref>{{harvnb|Walker|1968|p=296}}; {{harvnb|Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland 1992}} p. 55</ref> These were followed by increasingly cost-effective and sometimes poorly planned housing in throughout the 1960s.<ref>{{harvnb|Walker|1968|p=296}}; {{harvnb|McKean|1990|p=73}}; {{harvnb|Scott|2002}} pp. 73–76; pp. 103–106; {{harvnb|Glendinning|1997|pp=25, 56}}</ref> Much of this, in particular the high rise blocks of flats at Lochee, Kirkton, Trottick, Whitfield, Ardler and Menzieshill, and the prefabricated Skarne housing blocks at Whitfield, have been demolished since the 1990s or are scheduled for future demolition.<ref>{{harvnb|Tenants gone, soon multi too}}; {{harvnb|Last of Menzieshill multis to be brought down this week}}; {{harvnb|Four Dundee Hilltown multi-storey blocks to come down}}; {{harvnb|Fate of Whitfield's Skarne blocks to be decided}}</ref>
+
Modernisation of the city centre continued in the post-war period. The mediaeval Overgate was demolished in the early 1960s to make way for a shopping centre, followed by construction of the inner ring road and the Wellgate Shopping Centre.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|1990|p=73}}; {{harvnb|McKean|2011|p=85}}</ref> The [[Tay Road Bridge]], completed in 1966 had as its northern landfall the docklands of central Dundee, and the new associated road system resulted in the city centre being cut off from the river.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|1990|p=73}}; {{harvnb|McKean|2011|p=93}}</ref> An acute shortage of housing in the late 1940s was addressed by a series of large housing estates built in the northern environs including the Fintry, Craigie, Charleston and Douglas areas in the 1950s and early 1960s.<ref>{{harvnb|Walker|1968|p=296}}; {{harvnb|Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland 1992}} p. 55</ref> These were followed by increasingly cost-effective and sometimes poorly planned housing in throughout the 1960s.<ref>{{harvnb|Walker|1968|p=296}}; {{harvnb|McKean|1990|p=73}}; {{harvnb|Scott|2002}} pp. 73–76; pp. 103–106; {{harvnb|Glendinning|1997|pp=25, 56}}</ref> Much of this, in particular the high-rise blocks of flats at Lochee, Kirkton, Trottick, Whitfield, Ardler and Menzieshill, and the prefabricated Skarne housing blocks at Whitfield, have been demolished since the 1990s or are scheduled for future demolition.<ref>{{harvnb|Tenants gone, soon multi too}}; {{harvnb|Last of Menzieshill multis to be brought down this week}}; {{harvnb|Four Dundee Hilltown multi-storey blocks to come down}}; {{harvnb|Fate of Whitfield's Skarne blocks to be decided}}</ref>
   
 
=== Climate ===
 
=== Climate ===
   
 
[[File:Fog in the Tay estuary - geograph.org.uk - 9750.jpg|[[Haar (fog)]] travelling up the [[River Tay]] by [[advection]]|thumb|right]]
 
[[File:Fog in the Tay estuary - geograph.org.uk - 9750.jpg|[[Haar (fog)]] travelling up the [[River Tay]] by [[advection]]|thumb|right]]
The climate, as is the case with the rest of North-West Europe is [[Oceanic climate|Oceanic]] ([[Köppen climate classification|Köppen-Geiger]] classification Cfb).<ref>{{harvnb|Peel|Finlayson|McMahon|2007}}</ref> Mean temperature and rainfall is typical for the east coast of Scotland, and with its sheltered estuarine position, mean daily maxima are slightly higher than coastal areas to the North, particularly in Spring and Summer.<ref>{{harvnb|Regional mapped climate averages}}</ref> The nearest official [[Met Office]] weather station is Mylnefield, [[Invergowrie]] which is situated about {{convert|4|mi|km}} west of the City Centre.
+
The climate, like the rest of lowland Scotland, is [[Oceanic climate|Oceanic]] ([[Köppen climate classification|Köppen-Geiger]] classification Cfb).<ref>{{harvnb|Peel|Finlayson|McMahon|2007}}</ref> Mean temperature and rainfall are typical for the east coast of Scotland, and with the city's sheltered estuarine position, mean daily maxima are slightly higher than coastal areas to the North, particularly in spring and summer.<ref>{{harvnb|Regional mapped climate averages}}</ref> The summers are still chilly when compared with similar latitudes in continental Europe, something compensated for by the mild winters, similar to the rest of the British Isles. The nearest official [[Met Office]] weather station is Mylnefield, [[Invergowrie]] which is about {{convert|4|mi|km}} west of the City Centre.
   
 
A record high of {{convert|28.7|C|F}} was recorded in August 1995.<ref>{{harvnb|Aug 1995 Maximum}}</ref> The warmest month was July 2006,<ref>{{harvnb|Jul 2006 Mean}}</ref> with an average temperature of {{convert|17.4|C|F}} (mean maximum {{convert|22.5|C|F}}, mean minimum {{convert|12.3|C|F}}). In an 'average' year the warmest day should reach<ref>{{harvnb|1971–2000 average warmest day}}</ref> {{convert|25.2|C|F}}, and in total just 1.63 days<ref>{{harvnb|1971–2000 >25c days}}</ref> should equal or exceed a temperature of {{convert|25.1|C|F}} per year, illustrating the rarity of such warmth.
 
A record high of {{convert|28.7|C|F}} was recorded in August 1995.<ref>{{harvnb|Aug 1995 Maximum}}</ref> The warmest month was July 2006,<ref>{{harvnb|Jul 2006 Mean}}</ref> with an average temperature of {{convert|17.4|C|F}} (mean maximum {{convert|22.5|C|F}}, mean minimum {{convert|12.3|C|F}}). In an 'average' year the warmest day should reach<ref>{{harvnb|1971–2000 average warmest day}}</ref> {{convert|25.2|C|F}}, and in total just 1.63 days<ref>{{harvnb|1971–2000 >25c days}}</ref> should equal or exceed a temperature of {{convert|25.1|C|F}} per year, illustrating the rarity of such warmth.
   
{{Weather box|location = Mylnefield, elevation 31m, 1971–2000, extremes 1960–
+
{{Weather box|location = Mylnefield, elevation 31m, 1981–2010, extremes 1960–2010
 
| collapsed =
 
| collapsed =
 
| metric first = y
 
| metric first = y
Line 162: Line 230:
 
| Dec record high C = 14.5
 
| Dec record high C = 14.5
 
| year record high C = 28.7
 
| year record high C = 28.7
| Jan high C = 6.0
+
| Jan high C = 6.4
| Feb high C = 6.5
+
| Feb high C = 6.9
| Mar high C = 8.6
+
| Mar high C = 9.1
| Apr high C = 10.9
+
| Apr high C = 11.5
| May high C = 13.9
+
| May high C = 14.4
| Jun high C = 16.8
+
| Jun high C = 17.1
| Jul high C = 19.0
+
| Jul high C = 19.3
| Aug high C = 18.9
+
| Aug high C = 19.2
| Sep high C = 15.9
+
| Sep high C = 16.5
| Oct high C = 12.4
+
| Oct high C = 12.7
| Nov high C = 8.7
+
| Nov high C = 9.1
| Dec high C = 6.7
+
| Dec high C = 6.5
| year high C =
+
| year high C = 12.4
| Jan low C = 0.5
+
| Jan low C = 0.7
 
| Feb low C = 1.0
 
| Feb low C = 1.0
| Mar low C = 2.1
+
| Mar low C = 2.2
| Apr low C = 3.7
+
| Apr low C = 3.9
| May low C = 6.1
+
| May low C = 6.3
| Jun low C = 8.7
+
| Jun low C = 9.1
| Jul low C = 10.8
+
| Jul low C = 11.0
| Aug low C = 10.7
+
| Aug low C = 10.9
| Sep low C = 8.6
+
| Sep low C = 8.9
 
| Oct low C = 6.1
 
| Oct low C = 6.1
| Nov low C = 2.7
+
| Nov low C = 3.0
| Dec low C = 1.3
+
| Dec low C = 0.7
| year low C =
+
| year low C = 5.3
 
| Jan record low C = -17.1
 
| Jan record low C = -17.1
 
| Feb record low C = -11.2
 
| Feb record low C = -11.2
Line 201: Line 269:
 
| Dec record low C = -12.7
 
| Dec record low C = -12.7
 
| year record low C = -17.1
 
| year record low C = -17.1
| Jan precipitation mm = 72.23
+
| Jan precipitation mm = 71.1
| Feb precipitation mm = 48.63
+
| Feb precipitation mm = 47.2
| Mar precipitation mm = 54.22
+
| Mar precipitation mm = 53.3
| Apr precipitation mm = 44.71
+
| Apr precipitation mm = 46.3
| May precipitation mm = 48.69
+
| May precipitation mm = 48.1
| Jun precipitation mm = 53.02
+
| Jun precipitation mm = 57.3
| Jul precipitation mm = 53.74
+
| Jul precipitation mm = 56.9
| Aug precipitation mm = 52.72
+
| Aug precipitation mm = 64.6
| Sep precipitation mm = 64.76
+
| Sep precipitation mm = 65.7
| Oct precipitation mm = 70.41
+
| Oct precipitation mm = 82.0
| Nov precipitation mm = 58.50
+
| Nov precipitation mm = 68.4
| Dec precipitation mm = 68.55
+
| Dec precipitation mm = 61.2
| year precipitation mm =
+
| year precipitation mm = 722.0
  +
| Jan sun = 53.6
  +
| Feb sun = 77.3
  +
| Mar sun = 116.2
  +
| Apr sun = 145.9
  +
| May sun = 191.2
  +
| Jun sun = 166.4
  +
| Jul sun = 174.3
  +
| Aug sun = 166.3
  +
| Sep sun = 126.0
  +
| Oct sun = 95.9
  +
| Nov sun = 69.8
  +
| Dec sun = 43.1
  +
| year sun = 1426.3
 
| source 1 = KNMI/ Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute<ref>{{cite web
 
| source 1 = KNMI/ Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute<ref>{{cite web
 
| url=http://eca.knmi.nl/utils/mapserver/climatology.php?indexcat=**&indexid=SU&periodidselect=1971-2000&seasonid=0&scalelogidselect=no&minx=-642500.000002&miny=-4174880.952380&maxx=224166.666666&maxy=-3524880.952379&MapSize=560%2C420&imagewidth=560&imageheight=420&mainmap.x=280&mainmap.y=207&CMD=QUERY_POINT&CMD=QUERY_POINT#bottom
 
| url=http://eca.knmi.nl/utils/mapserver/climatology.php?indexcat=**&indexid=SU&periodidselect=1971-2000&seasonid=0&scalelogidselect=no&minx=-642500.000002&miny=-4174880.952380&maxx=224166.666666&maxy=-3524880.952379&MapSize=560%2C420&imagewidth=560&imageheight=420&mainmap.x=280&mainmap.y=207&CMD=QUERY_POINT&CMD=QUERY_POINT#bottom
 
| title=Climate Normals and extremes
 
| title=Climate Normals and extremes
| publisher = [[Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute]]
+
| publisher = [[Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute|KNMI]]
| accessdate=21 March 2011}}</ref>
+
| accessdate=March 2011}}</ref>
  +
| source 2 = Met Office <ref>{{cite web
| date=March 2011}}
 
  +
| url=http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/climate/gfjchqjr3
  +
| title=Dundee climate information
  +
| publisher= Met Office
  +
| accessdate=5 August 2015}}</ref>
  +
| date=August 2015}}
   
 
== Demography ==
 
== Demography ==
Line 244: Line 330:
 
|}
 
|}
   
According to the 2001 census, the City of Dundee had a population of 154,674.<ref name="Dundee Population" /> A more recent population estimate of the City of Dundee has been recorded at 156,561 in 2012. The demographic make-up of the population is much in line with the rest of Scotland. The age group from 30 to 44 forms the largest portion of the population (20%).<ref name="Dundee Population" /> The median age of males and females living in Dundee was 37 and 40 years respectively, compared to 37 and 39 years for those in the whole of Scotland.<ref name="Dundee Population" />
+
According to the 2001 census, the City of Dundee had a population of 154,674.<ref name="Dundee Population" /> A more recent population estimate of the City of Dundee has been recorded at 156,561 in 2012. The demographic make-up of the population is much in line with the rest of Scotland. The age group from 30 to 44 forms the largest portion of the population (20%).<ref name="Dundee Population" /> The median age of males and females living in Dundee was 37 and 40 years, respectively, compared to 37 and 39 years for those in the whole of Scotland.<ref name="Dundee Population" />
   
 
The place of birth of the town's residents was 94.16% United Kingdom (including 87.85% from Scotland), 0.42% Republic of Ireland, 1.33% from other European Union countries, and 3.09% from elsewhere in the world. The economic activity of residents aged 16–74 was 35.92% in full-time employment, 10.42% in part-time employment, 4.25% self-employed, 5.18% unemployed, 7.82% students with jobs, 4.73% students without jobs, 15.15% retired, 4.54% looking after home or family, 7.92% permanently sick or disabled, and 4.00% economically inactive for other reasons. Compared with the average demography of Scotland, Dundee has both low proportions of people born outside the United Kingdom and for people over 75&nbsp;years old.
 
The place of birth of the town's residents was 94.16% United Kingdom (including 87.85% from Scotland), 0.42% Republic of Ireland, 1.33% from other European Union countries, and 3.09% from elsewhere in the world. The economic activity of residents aged 16–74 was 35.92% in full-time employment, 10.42% in part-time employment, 4.25% self-employed, 5.18% unemployed, 7.82% students with jobs, 4.73% students without jobs, 15.15% retired, 4.54% looking after home or family, 7.92% permanently sick or disabled, and 4.00% economically inactive for other reasons. Compared with the average demography of Scotland, Dundee has both low proportions of people born outside the United Kingdom and for people over 75&nbsp;years old.
   
Natives of Dundee are called Dundonians and are often recognisable by their distinctive dialect of Scots as well as their [[Accent (dialect)|accent]], which most noticeably substitutes the [[monophthong]] /ɛ/ (pronounced "eh") in place of the [[diphthong]] /aj/ (pronounced "ai").<ref>{{harvnb|McCluskey|1991}}; {{harvnb|Dundee Scots}}</ref> Dundee, and Scotland more generally, saw rapid population increase at end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, with the city's population increasing from 12,400 in 1751 to 30,500 in 1821.<ref name="Smout 1998 240–248"/> Of particular significance was an influx of Irish workers in the early to mid-19th century, attracted by the prospect of employment in the textiles industries. In 1851, 18.9% of people living in Dundee were of Irish birth.<ref>{{harvnb|Swift|Gilley|1989|p=117}}; {{harvnb|Little Tipperary: The Irish in Lochee}}</ref>
+
Natives of Dundee are called Dundonians and are often recognisable by their distinctive dialect of [[Scots language|Scots]] as well as their [[Accent (dialect)|accent]], which most noticeably substitutes the [[monophthong]] /ɛ/ (pronounced "eh") in place of the [[diphthong]] /aj/ (pronounced "ai").<ref>{{harvnb|McCluskey|1991}}; {{harvnb|Dundee Scots}}</ref> Dundee, and Scotland more generally, saw rapid population increase at end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, with the city's population increasing from 12,400 in 1751 to 30,500 in 1821.<ref name="Smout 1998 240–248"/> Of particular significance was an influx of Irish workers in the early to mid-19th century, attracted by the prospect of employment in the textiles industries. In 1851, 18.9% of people living in Dundee were of Irish birth.<ref>{{harvnb|Swift|Gilley|1989|p=117}}; {{harvnb|Little Tipperary: The Irish in Lochee}}</ref>
   
The city has also attracted immigrants from Italy, fleeing poverty and famine, and Poland, seeking refuge from the anti-Jewish pogroms in the 19th century, and later, World War II in the 20th. Today, Dundee has a sizeable [[ethnic minority]] population, and has around (4.0%) 4,000 Asian residents which is the fourth largest Asian community in Scotland. The city also has 1.0% of residents from a Black / African / Caribbean background.<ref>http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/documents/censusresults/release2a/rel2asbfigure4.pdf</ref>
+
The city has also attracted immigrants from [[Italy]], fleeing poverty and famine, in the 19th century Jews, fleeing from the Russia controlled portions of partitioned [[Poland]] and from German occupation in the 20th. Today, Dundee has a sizeable [[ethnic minority]] population, and has around (4.0%) 4,000 Asian residents which is the fourth-largest Asian community in Scotland. The city also has 1.0% of residents from a Black/African/Caribbean background.<ref>http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/documents/censusresults/release2a/rel2asbfigure4.pdf</ref>
   
  +
Dundee has a higher proportion of university students – one in seven of the population – than any other town in [[Europe]], except [[Heidelberg]].<ref name="Dundee Student Population">{{cite web|title=History of Dundee|url=http://www.lonelyplanet.com/scotland/central-scotland/dundee/history|website=Lonely Planet|accessdate=28 November 2014}}</ref> The 14.2% come from all around the world to attend the local universities and colleges. Dundee is a major attraction for [[Northern Irish]] students who make up 5% of the total student population. The city's universities are believed to hold the highest percentage of Northern Irish students outside of [[Northern Ireland]] and have a big impact on the local economy and culture. However, this has declined in recent years due to the increase of tuition fees for students elsewhere in the UK. Dundee also has a lot of students from abroad, mostly from the [[Republic of Ireland]] and other [[EU countries]] but with an increasing number from countries from the Far East and [[Nigeria]].<ref name="population">{{harvnb|Population Matters}}</ref>
The city's universities draw a large number of students from abroad (mostly Irish and EU but with an increasing number from countries in the Far East), and students account for 14.2% of the population, the highest proportion of the four largest Scottish cities.<ref name="population">{{harvnb|Population Matters}}</ref>
 
   
 
== Economy ==
 
== Economy ==
   
[[File:Cox's stack 02SEP05.jpg|left|thumb|upright|Cox's Stack, a chimney from the former Camperdown works jute mill. The chimney takes its name from jute baron James Cox who later became [[Lord Provost]] of the city]]
+
[[File:Cox's stack 02SEP05.jpg|left|thumb|upright|Cox's Stack, a chimney from the former [[Camperdown Works]] jute mill. The chimney takes its name from jute baron James Cox who later became [[List of Lord Provosts of Dundee|Provost]] of the city]]
   
The period following World War II was notable for the transformation of the city's economy. While jute still employed one-fifth of the working population, new industries were attracted and encouraged. [[NCR Corporation]] selected Dundee as the base of operations for the UK in late 1945,<ref name="ncr">{{harvnb|NCR Cash Advance}}</ref> primarily because of the lack of damage the city had sustained in the war, good transport links and high productivity from long hours of sunshine. Production started in the year before the official opening of the plant on 11 June 1947. A fortnight after the 10th anniversary of the plant the 250,000th cash machine was produced. By the 1960s, NCR had become the principal employer of the city producing [[cash register]]s, and later [[Automatic Teller Machine|ATMs]], at several of its Dundee plants. The firm developed magnetic-strip readers for cash registers and produced early computers.<ref>{{harvnb|First Dundee computer next year}}</ref> Astral, a Dundee-based firm that manufactured and sold [[refrigerators]] and [[Clothes dryer|spin dryers]] was merged into [[Morphy Richards]] and rapidly expanded to employ over 1,000 people. The development in Dundee of a [[Michelin]] [[tire|tyre]]-production facility helped to absorb the unemployment caused by the decline of the jute industry, particularly with the abolition of the jute control by the [[Board of Trade]] on 30 April 1969.<ref>{{harvnb|General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade 1969}}</ref>
+
The period following World War II was notable for the transformation of the city's economy. While jute still employed one-fifth of the working population, new industries were attracted and encouraged. [[NCR Corporation]] selected Dundee as the base of operations for the UK in late 1945,<ref name="ncr">{{harvnb|NCR Cash Advance}}</ref> primarily because of the lack of damage the city had sustained in the war, good transport links and high productivity from long hours of sunshine. Production started in the year before the official opening of the plant on 11 June 1947. A fortnight after the 10th anniversary of the plant the 250,000th cash register was produced.
   
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By the 1960s, NCR had become the principal employer of the city producing [[cash register]]s, and later [[Automatic Teller Machine|ATMs]], at several of its Dundee plants. The firm developed magnetic-strip readers for cash registers and produced early computers.<ref>{{harvnb|First Dundee computer next year}}</ref> Astral, a Dundee-based firm that manufactured and sold [[refrigerators]] and [[Clothes dryer|spin dryers]] was merged into [[Morphy Richards]] and rapidly expanded to employ over 1,000 people. The development in Dundee of a [[Michelin]] [[tire|tyre]]-production facility helped to absorb the unemployment caused by the decline of the jute industry, particularly with the abolition of the jute control by the [[Board of Trade]] on 30 April 1969.<ref>{{harvnb|General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade 1969}}</ref>
Employment in Dundee changed dramatically during the 1980s with the loss of nearly 10,000 manufacturing jobs due to closure of the shipyards, cessation of carpet manufacturing and the disappearance of the jute trade. To combat growing unemployment and declining economic conditions, Dundee was declared an [[Enterprise Zone]] in January 1984. In 1983, the first [[Sinclair Research Ltd|Sinclair]] [[Sinclair ZX Spectrum|ZX Spectrum]] [[home computers]] were produced in Dundee by [[Timex Group USA|Timex]]. In the same year the company broke production records, despite a [[sit-in]] by workers protesting against job cuts and plans to demolish one of the factory buildings to make way for a supermarket. Timex closed its Dundee plant in 1993 following an acrimonious six-month [[industrial dispute]].<ref>{{harvnb|Timex pulls the plug on Dundee plant}}; {{harvnb|Scott|2002|pp=163–165}}</ref>
 
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Employment in Dundee changed dramatically during the 1980s with the loss of nearly 10,000 manufacturing jobs due to closure of the shipyards, cessation of carpet manufacturing and the disappearance of the jute trade. To combat growing unemployment and declining economic conditions, Dundee was declared an [[Enterprise Zone]] in January 1984. In 1983, the first [[Sinclair ZX Spectrum]] [[home computers]] were produced in Dundee by [[Timex Group USA|Timex]]. In the same year the company broke production records, despite a [[sit-in]] by workers protesting against job cuts and plans to demolish one of the factory buildings to make way for a supermarket. Timex closed its Dundee plant in 1993 following an acrimonious six-month [[industrial dispute]].<ref>{{harvnb|Timex pulls the plug on Dundee plant}}; {{harvnb|Scott|2002|pp=163–165}}</ref>
   
 
=== Modern day ===
 
=== Modern day ===
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[[File:Ninewells cropped.jpg|thumb|right|Ninewells Hospital, one of the largest employers in the Dundee area]]
 
[[File:Ninewells cropped.jpg|thumb|right|Ninewells Hospital, one of the largest employers in the Dundee area]]
   
Dundee is a regional employment and education centre, with over 300,000 persons within 30 minutes drive of the city centre and around 630,000 people within one hour. Many people from [[Fife|North East Fife]], Angus and [[Perth and Kinross]] commute to the city.<ref name="Dundee Economic Profile">{{harvnb|Dundee Economic Profile}}</ref> In 2009, there were 30 employers who employed 300 or more staff.<ref name="Dundee Economic Profile" /> The largest employers in the city are [[NHS Tayside]], Dundee City Council, [[University of Dundee]], [[Tesco]], [[D. C. Thomson & Co. Ltd|D. C. Thomson & Co]] and [[BT Group plc|BT]].<ref name="Dundee Economic Profile" /> Other employers include limited and private companies such as [[NCR Corporation|NCR]], [[Michelin]], [[Alliance Trust]], [[Aviva]], [[Royal Bank of Scotland]], [[Asda]], [[Stagecoach Strathtay]], Tayside Contracts, [[Tokheim]], [[Scottish Citylink]], C J Lang & Son ([[Spar (retailer)|SPAR Scotland]]), Joinery and Timber Creations, [[HBOS]], [[Debenhams]], [[National Express Dundee]], and [[W. L. Gore and Associates]]. The only sectors to see job increases between 2005 and 2009 were in education and human health and social work activities, while manufacturing and administration and support service activities both saw a significant decline.<ref name="Dundee Economic Profile" /> Average weekly earnings of full-time employers in Dundee in May 2010 was £482.80; men received £507.40 and women £418.80.<ref name="Dundee Economic Profile" /> Average earnings in Dundee have increased from £325.00 in 2000 to £482.80 in 2010.<ref name="Dundee Economic Profile" />
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Dundee is a regional employment and education centre, with around 325,000 people within 30 minutes' drive of the city centre and 860,000 people within one hour.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/sites/default/files/publications/Dundee%20City%20Economic%20Profile%20September%202016_0.pdf |title=Dundee Economic Profile - Sep 2016 |work=dundeecity.gov.uk}}</ref> Many people from [[Fife|North East Fife]], Angus and [[Perth and Kinross]] commute to the city.<ref name="Dundee Economic Profile">{{harvnb|Dundee Economic Profile}}</ref> As of 2015, there were 395 employers who employed 250 or more staff; over a five-year period (2011-2015) the number of registered enterprises in Dundee increased by 20.9% from 2,655 to 3,210. <ref name="Dundee Economic Profile" /> The largest employers in the city are [[NHS Tayside]], Dundee City Council, [[University of Dundee]], Tayside Contracts, [[Tesco]], [[D. C. Thomson & Co. Ltd|D. C. Thomson & Co]] and [[BT Group plc|BT]].<ref name="Dundee Economic Profile" />
   
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Other employers include limited and private companies such as [[NCR Corporation|NCR]], [[Michelin]], [[Alliance Trust]], [[Aviva]], [[Royal Bank of Scotland]], [[Asda]], [[Stagecoach Strathtay]], [[Tokheim]], [[Scottish Citylink]], C J Lang & Son ([[Spar (retailer)|SPAR Scotland]]), Joinery and Timber Creations, [[HBOS]], [[Debenhams]], [[Xplore Dundee]], and [[W. L. Gore and Associates]]. Between 2009 and 2014 the hardest-hit sectors, in terms of jobs, were Information and Communication, Construction and Manufacturing which each lost around 500 full-time jobs. By contrast, the Professional, Scientific and Technical sector saw an upsurge in jobs in addition to the Business Administration and Support Service sector which increased by approximately 1,000 full-time and 300 part-time jobs in the same six-year period.<ref name="Dundee Economic Profile" /> Gross median weekly earnings of full-time employees in Dundee in 2015 was £523.50; men received £563.40 and women £451.80.<ref name="Dundee Economic Profile" /> Gross weekly pay for all employees in Dundee has increased from £325.00 in 2000 to £380.00 in 2015.<ref name="Dundee Economic Profile" />
The [[biomedical]] and [[biotechnology]] sectors, including start-up biomedical companies arising from university research, employ just under 1,000 people directly and nearly 2,000 indirectly. Information technology and [[Video game industry|Video game development]] have been important industries in the city for more than 20 years. [[Rockstar North]], developer of ''[[Lemmings (video game)|Lemmings]]'' and the ''[[Grand Theft Auto (series)|Grand Theft Auto]]'' series was founded in Dundee as DMA Design by [[David Jones (video game developer)|David Jones]]; an undergraduate of the [[University of Abertay Dundee]].<ref>{{harvnb|The Complete History of DMA Design}}</ref> Other game development studios in Dundee include [[Denki]], [[Ruffian Games]], [[Dynamo Games]], [[4J Studios]], [[Cohort Studios]] amongst others.
 
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The [[biomedical]] and [[biotechnology]] sectors, including start-up biomedical companies arising from university research, employ just under 1,000 people directly and nearly 2,000 indirectly. Information technology and [[Video game industry|Video game development]] have been important industries in the city for more than 20 years.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-29122873|title=How Dundee became a computer games centre|work=BBC News}}</ref> [[Rockstar North]], developer of ''[[Lemmings (video game)|Lemmings]]'' and the ''[[Grand Theft Auto (series)|Grand Theft Auto]]'' series was founded in Dundee as DMA Design by [[David Jones (video game developer)|David Jones]]; an undergraduate of the [[Abertay University]].<ref>{{harvnb|The Complete History of DMA Design}}</ref> Other game development studios in Dundee include [[Denki]], [[Ruffian Games]], [[Dynamo Games]], [[4J Studios]], [[Cohort Studios]] amongst others.
   
 
[[File:NCR Dundee - geograph.org.uk - 9943.jpg|thumb|NCR Dundee]]
 
[[File:NCR Dundee - geograph.org.uk - 9943.jpg|thumb|NCR Dundee]]
   
Dundee is also a key retail destination for North East Scotland and has been ranked 4th in Retail Rankings in Scotland.<ref name="Discover Dundee Retail">{{harvnb|Discover Dundee Retail}}</ref> The city centre offers a wide variety of retailers, department stores and independent/specialist stores. The Murraygate and High Street forms the main pedestrian area and is home to a number of main anchors such as [[M&S|Marks and Spencer]], [[Monsoon Accessorize|Monsoon]], [[Monsoon Accessorize|Accessorise]] and [[Zara (clothing)|Zara]].<ref name="Discover Dundee Retail" /> The main pedestrian area also connects the two large shopping centres; the {{convert|420000|sqft|m2|abbr=on}} Overgate Centre which is anchored by [[Debenhams]], [[H&M]], [[Next (clothing)|Next]], Argos, and [[The Perfume Shop]] and the {{convert|310000|sqft|m2|abbr=on}} Wellgate Centre by [[British Home Stores|BHS]], [[TJ Morris|Home Bargains]] and [[Peacocks (retailer)|Peacocks]].<ref name="Discover Dundee Retail" /> Other retail areas in the city include Gallagher Retail Park, Kingsway East Retail Park and Kingsway West Retail Park.<ref name="Discover Dundee Retail" />
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Dundee is also a key retail destination for North East Scotland and has been ranked 4th in Retail Rankings in Scotland.<ref name="Discover Dundee Retail">{{harvnb|Discover Dundee Retail}}</ref> The city centre offers a wide variety of retailers, department stores and independent/specialist stores. The Murraygate and High Street forms the main pedestrian area and is home to a number of main anchors such as [[M&S|Marks and Spencer]], [[Monsoon Accessorize|Accessorise]] and [[Zara (clothing)|Zara]].<ref name="Discover Dundee Retail" /> The main pedestrian area also connects the two large shopping centres; the {{convert|420000|sqft|m2|abbr=off|adj=mid}} Overgate Centre which is anchored by [[Debenhams]], [[H&M]], [[Next (clothing)|Next]], Argos, and [[The Perfume Shop]] and the {{convert|310000|sqft|m2|abbr=off|adj=mid}} Wellgate Centre by [[British Home Stores|BHS]], [[Home Bargains]], B&M, Superdrug, Iceland, Holland & Barrett, Poundland, Savers, The Works, Hydro Electric, Bright house,<ref name="Discover Dundee Retail" /> Other retail areas in the city include Gallagher Retail Park, Kingsway East Retail Park and Kingsway West Retail Park.<ref name="Discover Dundee Retail" />
   
 
== Landmarks ==
 
== Landmarks ==
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[[File:St. Mary's Tower, Dundee - geograph.org.uk - 1204975.jpg|thumb|left|180px|St Mary's Tower, oldest building in Dundee, dating to late 15th century]]
 
[[File:St. Mary's Tower, Dundee - geograph.org.uk - 1204975.jpg|thumb|left|180px|St Mary's Tower, oldest building in Dundee, dating to late 15th century]]
   
The city and its landscape is dominated by [[Law, Dundee|The Law]] and the [[Firth of Tay]]. The Law, the large hill that lies to the north of the [[City Centre, Dundee|City Centre]] was the site of an [[Iron Age]] [[Hill Fort]], upon which the Law War Memorial, designed by Thomas Braddock, was erected in 1921 to commemorate the fallen of [[World War I]].<ref>{{harvnb|Law Hill War Memorial, Category B listing}}</ref> The waterfront, much altered by [[Land reclamation|reclamation]] in the 19th century, retains several of the docks that once were the hub of the jute and whaling industries, including the Camperdown and Victoria Docks.<ref>{{harvnb|Camperdown Dock, Category A listing}}<br>{{harvnb|Victoria Dock with Pedestrian and Vehicular Swing Bridges, Category A listing}}</ref> The Victoria Dock is the home of the frigate [[HMS Unicorn (1824)|HMS ''Unicorn]] and the [[North Carr Lightship]], while the [[RRS Discovery|RRS ''Discovery'']] occupies Craig Pier, from where the ferries to [[Fife]] once sailed.
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The city and its landscape are dominated by [[Law, Dundee|The Law]] and the [[Firth of Tay]]. The Law, a large hill to the north of the [[City Centre, Dundee|City Centre]] was the site of an [[Iron Age]] [[Hill Fort]], upon which the Law War Memorial, designed by Thomas Braddock, was erected in 1921 to commemorate the fallen of [[World War I]].<ref>{{harvnb|Law Hill War Memorial, Category B listing}}</ref> The waterfront, much altered by [[Land reclamation|reclamation]] in the 19th century, retains several of the docks that once were the hub of the jute and whaling industries, including the Camperdown and Victoria Docks.<ref>{{harvnb|Camperdown Dock, Category A listing}}<br>{{harvnb|Victoria Dock with Pedestrian and Vehicular Swing Bridges, Category A listing}}</ref> The Victoria Dock is the home of the frigate [[HMS Unicorn (1824)|HMS ''Unicorn'']] and the [[North Carr Lightship]], while [[Robert Falcon Scott|Captain Scott]]'s [[RRS Discovery|RRS ''Discovery'']] occupies Craig Pier, from where the ferries to [[Fife]] once sailed.
   
The oldest building in the city is St Mary's Tower, which dates to the late 15th century.<ref>{{harvnb|Nethergate, City Churches, St Mary's Tower or the Steeple, Category A Listing}}<br>{{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|pp=52–54}}</ref> This forms part of the City Churches, which consists St Clements Church, dating to 1787–8 and built by Samuel Bell, Old St Paul's and St David's Church, built in 1841–42 by [[William Burn]], and St Mary's Church, rebuilt in 1843–44, also by Burn following a fire.<ref>{{harvnb|Nethergate, City Churches, St Clement's, or Steeple Church, Category A Listing}}<br>{{harvnb|Nethergate, City Churches, Old St Paul's and St David's, or South Church, Category A Listing}}<br>{{harvnb|Nethergate, City Churches, St Mary's East, or Dundee Parish Church, Category A Listing}}<br>{{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|pp=52–54}}</ref> Other significant churches in the city include the Gothic Revival Episcopal Cathedral of St Paul's, built by [[George Gilbert Scott|Sir George Gilbert Scott]] in 1853 on the former site of Dundee Castle in the High Street,<ref>{{harvnb|150 Nethergate, St Andrew's Roman Catholic Cathedral, Including Presbytery and Former Sea Wall to South, Category A Listing}}<br>{{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=57}}</ref> and the Roman Catholic Cathedral of St Andrew's, built in 1835 by George Mathewson in Nethergate.<ref>
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The oldest building in the city is St Mary's Tower, which dates from the late 15th century.<ref>{{harvnb|Nethergate, City Churches, St Mary's Tower or the Steeple, Category A Listing}}<br>{{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|pp=52–54}}</ref> This forms part of the City Churches, which consist of St Clement's Church, dating to 1787–8 and built by Samuel Bell, Old St Paul's and St David's Church, built in 1841–42 by [[William Burn]], and St Mary's Church, rebuilt in 1843–44, also by Burn, following a fire.<ref>{{harvnb|Nethergate, City Churches, St Clement's, or Steeple Church, Category A Listing}}<br>{{harvnb|Nethergate, City Churches, Old St Paul's and St David's, or South Church, Category A Listing}}<br>{{harvnb|Nethergate, City Churches, St Mary's East, or Dundee Parish Church, Category A Listing}}<br>{{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|pp=52–54}}</ref> Other significant churches in the city include the Gothic Revival Episcopal Cathedral of St Paul's, built by [[George Gilbert Scott|Sir George Gilbert Scott]] in 1853 on the former site of Dundee Castle in the High Street,<ref>{{harvnb|150 Nethergate, St Andrew's Roman Catholic Cathedral, Including Presbytery and Former Sea Wall to South, Category A Listing}}<br>{{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=57}}</ref> and the Roman Catholic Cathedral of St Andrew, built in 1835 by George Mathewson in Nethergate.<ref>
 
{{harvnb|Castle Hill, St Paul's Episcopal Cathedral, including steps and boundary wall, Category A Listing}}<br>{{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=57}}</ref>
 
{{harvnb|Castle Hill, St Paul's Episcopal Cathedral, including steps and boundary wall, Category A Listing}}<br>{{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=57}}</ref>
   
As a result of the destruction suffered during the Rough Wooing, little of the mediaeval city (aside from St Mary's Tower) remains and the earliest surviving domestic structures date from the [[Scotland in the Early Modern Era|Early Modern Era]]. A notable example is the Wishart Arch (or East Port) in Cowgate. It is the last surviving portion of the city walls and, dating prior to 1548, owes its continued existence to its association with the Protestant [[martyr]] [[George Wishart]], who is said to have preached to plague victims from the East Port in 1544.<ref>{{harvnb|Dundee, East Port of, Wishart Arch}}<br>{{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|pp=32–33}}</ref> Another is the building complex on the High Street known as [[Gardyne's Land, Dundee|Gardyne's Land]], parts of which date from around 1560.<ref>{{harvnb|70–73 (Inclusive Nos) High Street, Including Gardyne's Land, Gray's Close and Clock with Model of the Town House}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=18}}; {{harvnb|Dragging a building into the 21st century}}; {{harvnb|Gardyne's Land wins multiple awards}}</ref> The Howff burial ground in the northern part of the City Centre also dates from this time; it was given to the city by Mary Queen of Scots in 1564, having previously served as the grounds of a [[Franciscan]] abbey.<ref>{{harvnb|Meadowside and Barrack Street, The Howff, Category A listing}}; ; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|pp=50–51}}</ref>
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As a result of the destruction suffered during the [[Rough Wooing]], little of the mediaeval city (aside from St Mary's Tower) remains and the earliest surviving domestic structures date from the [[Scotland in the Early Modern Era|Early Modern Era]]. A notable example is the Wishart Arch (or East Port) in Cowgate. It is the last surviving portion of the city walls. Dating from prior to 1548, it owes its continued existence to its association with the Protestant [[martyr]] [[George Wishart]], who is said to have preached to plague victims from the East Port in 1544.<ref>{{harvnb|Dundee, East Port of, Wishart Arch}}<br>{{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|pp=32–33}}</ref> Another is the building complex on the High Street known as [[Gardyne's Land, Dundee|Gardyne's Land]], parts of which date from around 1560.<ref>{{harvnb|70–73 (Inclusive Nos) High Street, Including Gardyne's Land, Gray's Close and Clock with Model of the Town House}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=18}}; {{harvnb|Dragging a building into the 21st century}}; {{harvnb|Gardyne's Land wins multiple awards}}</ref> The Howff burial ground in the northern part of the City Centre also dates from this time; it was given to the city by Mary Queen of Scots in 1564, having previously served as the grounds of a [[Franciscan]] abbey.<ref>{{harvnb|Meadowside and Barrack Street, The Howff, Category A listing}}; ; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|pp=50–51}}</ref>
   
 
[[File:Claypotts castle 01.jpg|thumb|right|Claypotts Castle, dating from the late 16th century]]
 
[[File:Claypotts castle 01.jpg|thumb|right|Claypotts Castle, dating from the late 16th century]]
   
Several castles can be found in Dundee, mostly dating to the Early Modern Era. The earliest parts of [[Mains Castle]] in Caird park were built by David Graham in 1562 on the site of an earlier hunting lodge of 1460.<ref>{{harvnb|Caird Park Mains Castle, Category A listing}}, {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=120}}</ref> [[Dudhope Castle]], originally the seat of the Scrymgeour family, dates to the late 16th century and was built on the site of earlier keep of 1460.<ref>{{harvnb|Dudhope Castle, Category A listing}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|pp=74–75}}</ref> [[Claypotts Castle]], a striking Z plan castle in West Ferry, was built by John Strachan dates to 1569–1588.<ref>{{harvnb|Claypotts Castle, Category A listing}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=103}}</ref> The ruins of [[Powrie Castle]], north of Fintry date from the 16th-century castle north .<ref>{{harvnb|Powrie, Old Powrie Castle, Including Adjoining Boundary Wall}}</ref>
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Several castles can be found in Dundee, mostly from the Early Modern Era. The earliest parts of [[Mains Castle]] in Caird Park were built by David Graham in 1562 on the site of a hunting lodge of 1460.<ref>{{harvnb|Caird Park Mains Castle, Category A listing}}, {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=120}}</ref> [[Dudhope Castle]], originally the seat of the Scrymgeour family, dates to the late 16th century and was built on the site of a keep of 1460.<ref>{{harvnb|Dudhope Castle, Category A listing}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|pp=74–75}}</ref> [[Claypotts Castle]], a striking Z plan castle in West Ferry, was built by John Strachan and dates from 1569–1588.<ref>{{harvnb|Claypotts Castle, Category A listing}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=103}}</ref> In 1495 [[Broughty Castle]] was built and remained in use as a major defensive structure until 1932, playing a role in the [[Anglo-Scottish Wars]] and the [[Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms|Wars of the Three Kingdoms]]. The castle stands on a shallow tip projecting into the Firth, alongside two beaches, one of sand, the other of pebbles. The ruins of [[Powrie Castle]], north of Fintry, date from the 16th-century castle north{{clarify|date=November 2014}}.<ref>{{harvnb|Powrie, Old Powrie Castle, Including Adjoining Boundary Wall}}</ref>
   
 
North of the City Churches, at the end of Reform Street, lies the [[High School of Dundee]], built in 1829–34 by George Angus in a Greek Revival style.<ref>{{harvnb|Euclid Crescent High School, including Lodge, Gatepiers, Boundary wall and railings, Category A listing}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=47}}</ref> Another school building of note is [[Morgan Academy]] on Forfar Road, built in 1863, designed by [[John Dick Peddie]] in a Dutch Gothic style.<ref>{{harvnb|Forfar Road, Morgan Academy, Main Block and Janitor's House with Terrace, Boundary Walls and Gatepiers, Category A listing}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=97}}</ref>
 
North of the City Churches, at the end of Reform Street, lies the [[High School of Dundee]], built in 1829–34 by George Angus in a Greek Revival style.<ref>{{harvnb|Euclid Crescent High School, including Lodge, Gatepiers, Boundary wall and railings, Category A listing}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=47}}</ref> Another school building of note is [[Morgan Academy]] on Forfar Road, built in 1863, designed by [[John Dick Peddie]] in a Dutch Gothic style.<ref>{{harvnb|Forfar Road, Morgan Academy, Main Block and Janitor's House with Terrace, Boundary Walls and Gatepiers, Category A listing}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=97}}</ref>
   
Dundee's industrial history as a centre for textile production is apparent throughout the city. Numerous former jute mills remain standing and while some lay derelict, many have been converted into alternate usages. Of particular note are the Tay Works, built by the Gilroy Brothers c.1850–1865,<ref>{{harvnb|2 Lochee Road, Tay Works, Category A listing}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=85}}</ref> [[Camperdown Works]] in Lochee, which built and owned by Cox Brothers, one of Europe's largest jute manufacturing companies, and begun in 1849,<ref>{{harvnb|Methven Street, Camperdown Works High Mill or Silver Mill, Category A listing}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=89}}</ref><ref name="Cox Bros">{{cite web|title=MS 6 Cox Brothers Ltd, Jute Spinners and Manufacturers, and Cox Family Papers|url=http://134.36.1.31/dserve.exe?&dsqIni=Dserve.ini&dsqApp=Archive&dsqCmd=show.tcl&dsqDb=Catalog&dsqPos=0&dsqSearch=((text)='1,000,001')|work=archive Services Online Catalogue|publisher=[[University of Dundee]]|accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref> and Upper Dens Mill and Lower Dens Works, built by the Baxter Brothers in the mid 19th century.<ref>{{harvnb|Princes Street and Return Elevations to Dens Street, Constable Street and St Roques Lane, Lower Dens Works, Category listing}}; {{harvnb|2 Princes Street, Upper Dens Mill, Category listing}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|pp=30–32}}</ref>
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Dundee's industrial history as a centre for textile production is apparent throughout the city. Numerous former jute mills remain standing and while some lay derelict, many have been converted for other uses. Of particular note are the Tay Works, built by the Gilroy Brothers c.1850–1865,<ref>{{harvnb|2 Lochee Road, Tay Works, Category A listing}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=85}}</ref> [[Camperdown Works]] in Lochee, which built and owned by Cox Brothers, one of Europe's largest jute manufacturing companies, and begun in 1849,<ref>{{harvnb|Methven Street, Camperdown Works High Mill or Silver Mill, Category A listing}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=89}}</ref><ref name="Cox Bros">{{cite web|title=MS 6 Cox Brothers Ltd, Jute Spinners and Manufacturers, and Cox Family Papers|url=http://arccat.dundee.ac.uk/dserve.exe?&dsqIni=Dserve.ini&dsqApp=Archive&dsqCmd=show.tcl&dsqDb=Catalog&dsqPos=0&dsqSearch=((text)=%271,000,001%27)|work=Archive Services Online Catalogue|publisher=[[University of Dundee]]|accessdate=9 February 2016}}</ref> and Upper Dens Mill and Lower Dens Works, built by the Baxter Brothers in the mid-19th century.<ref>{{harvnb|Princes Street and Return Elevations to Dens Street, Constable Street and St Roques Lane, Lower Dens Works, Category listing}}; {{harvnb|2 Princes Street, Upper Dens Mill, Category listing}}; {{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|pp=30–32}}</ref>
   
A more recent landmark is the 140&nbsp;ft Tower Building of the [[University of Dundee]] built between 1959 and 1961. At the time of its construction only the Old Steeple was taller in the city. The Tower was built to replace the original college buildings which stood on the site.<ref name=Tower>{{cite journal|title=From the Archives: Fifty years since the Tower's foundation stone was laid|journal=Contact|date=October 2009|pages=24–25|publisher=University of Dundee}}</ref><ref name="Tower News">{{cite news|title=Dundee University's Tower Building needing facelift to address safety concerns|url=http://www.thecourier.co.uk/news/local/dundee/dundee-university-s-tower-building-needing-facelift-to-address-safety-concerns-1.51518|accessdate=22 October 2013|newspaper=The Courier|date=9 May 2012}}</ref> The building houses the University's main administration and includes galleries and the University's Archive, Records Management and Museum Services.<ref name="Tower Building">{{cite web|title=Tower Building|url=http://www.dundee.ac.uk/general/campusguide/virtualtour/tower/|publisher=University of Dundee|accessdate=22 October 2013}}</ref>
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A more recent landmark is the {{convert|140|ft|m|adj=mid}} Tower Building of the [[University of Dundee]] built between 1959 and 1961. At the time of its construction only the Old Steeple was taller in the city. The Tower was built to replace the original college buildings which stood on the site.<ref name=Tower>{{cite journal|title=From the Archives: Fifty years since the Tower's foundation stone was laid|journal=Contact|date=October 2009|pages=24–25|publisher=University of Dundee}}</ref><ref name="Tower News">{{cite news|title=Dundee University's Tower Building needing facelift to address safety concerns|url=http://www.thecourier.co.uk/news/local/dundee/dundee-university-s-tower-building-needing-facelift-to-address-safety-concerns-1.51518|accessdate=22 October 2013|newspaper=The Courier|date=9 May 2012}}</ref> The building houses the university's main administration and includes galleries and the university's Archive, Records Management and Museum Services.<ref name="Tower Building">{{cite web|title=Tower Building|url=http://www.dundee.ac.uk/general/campusguide/virtualtour/tower/|publisher=University of Dundee|accessdate=22 October 2013}}</ref>
   
As well as many 1960s landmark multi-storey housing buildings being demolished in the last decade, the former Tayside House block, built in the same decade and nicknamed 'Faulty Towers' by many local people, is also being demolished<ref name="Tayside House Demolition">{{cite web|title=Safedem: Tayside House Demolition|url=http://www.taysidehousedemolition.co.uk}}</ref> as part of the waterfront redevelopment program. The overall view of the city of Dundee from over the [[River Tay]] has substantially changed with the removal of these landmarks.{{citation needed|date=January 2013}}
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Many 1960s landmark multi-storey housing buildings were demolished in the last decade.{{when|date=November 2014}} The former Tayside House block, nicknamed 'Faulty Towers' by many local people, was demolished in 2013 as part of the waterfront redevelopment program.<ref name="Muncher">{{cite news|title=Bye-bye Tayside House — ‘Muncher’ completes its work|url=http://www.thecourier.co.uk/news/local/dundee/bye-bye-tayside-house-muncher-completes-its-work-1.111722|accessdate=2 March 2016|work=The Courier.co.uK|publisher=D C Thomson & Co, Ltd.|date=12 July 2013}}</ref> According to the architectural historian [[Charles McKean]] and his co-authors of Lost Dundee, the best views in the city were from Tayside House, because these were the only views from the building could not be seen.<ref name="LostTayHouse">{{cite book|last1=McKean|first1=Charles|last2=Whatley|first2=Patricia|last3=with Baxter|first3=Kenneth|title=Lost Dundee. Dundee's Lost Architectural Heritage|date=2013|publisher=Birlinn|location=Edinburgh|isbn=978-1-78027-106-4|page=248|edition=2nd}}</ref>
   
 
== Transport ==
 
== Transport ==
  +
[[File:SeagateBus-Dundee.jpg|thumb|Dundee bus station]]
  +
Dundee is served by the [[A90 road]] which connects the city to the [[M90 motorway|M90]] and [[Perth, Scotland|Perth]] in the west, and [[Forfar]] and [[Aberdeen]] in the north. The part of the road that is in the city is a [[dual carriageway]] and forms the city's main bypass on its north side, known as the Kingsway. East of the A90's Forfar Road junction, the Kingsway East continues as the [[A972 road|A972]], and meets the [[A92 road|A92]] at the Scott Fyffe roundabout. Travelling east, the A92 connects the city to [[Arbroath]] and [[Montrose, Angus|Montrose]] and to the south with [[Fife]] via the [[Tay Road Bridge]].
   
  +
The [[A930 road|A930]] links the city with coastal settlements to the east, including, [[Monifieth]] and [[Carnoustie]]. Progressing westward from where the A92 meets the Tay Road Bridge at the Riverside Roundabout, the [[A85 road|A85]] follows the southern boundary of the city along Riverside Drive and towards the A90 at the Swallow Roundabout. The A85 multiplexes with the A90 and diverges again at Perth.
Dundee is served by the [[A90 road]] which connects the city to the [[M90 motorway|M90]] and [[Perth, Scotland|Perth]] in the west, and [[Forfar]] and [[Aberdeen]] in the north. The part of the road that is in the city is a [[dual carriageway]] and forms the city's main bypass on its north side, known as the ''Kingsway''. East of the A90's Forfar Road junction, the Kingsway East continues as the [[A972 road|A972]], and meets the [[A92 road|A92]] at the Scott Fyffe roundabout. Travelling east, the A92 connects the city to [[Arbroath]] and [[Montrose, Angus|Montrose]] and to the south with [[Fife]] via the [[Tay Road Bridge]].
 
 
The [[A930 road|A930]] links the city with coastal settlements to the east, including Broughty Ferry, [[Monifieth]] and [[Carnoustie]]. Progressing westward from where the A92 meets the Tay Road Bridge at the Riverside Roundabout, the [[A85 road|A85]] follows the southern boundary of the city along Riverside Drive and towards the A90 at the Swallow Roundabout. The A85 multiplexes with the A90 and diverges again at Perth.
 
   
 
Also meeting the A92 and A85 at the Riverside Roundabout is the [[A991 road|A991]] Inner Ring Road, which surrounds the perimeter of the city centre, returning to the A92 on the east side of the Tay Road Bridge. The [[A923 road|A923]] Dundee to [[Dunkeld]] road meets the A991 at the Dudhope Roundabout, and the [[A929 road|A929]] links the A991 to the A90 via Forfar Road.
 
Also meeting the A92 and A85 at the Riverside Roundabout is the [[A991 road|A991]] Inner Ring Road, which surrounds the perimeter of the city centre, returning to the A92 on the east side of the Tay Road Bridge. The [[A923 road|A923]] Dundee to [[Dunkeld]] road meets the A991 at the Dudhope Roundabout, and the [[A929 road|A929]] links the A991 to the A90 via Forfar Road.
   
[[File:Dundee Station.jpg|thumb|right|External view of [[Dundee railway station|Dundee (Tay Bridge) Station]]]]
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[[File:Dundee Station.jpg|thumb|right|External view of [[Dundee railway station|Old Dundee (Tay Bridge) Station Building]]]]
   
Dundee has an extensive public bus transport system, with the [[Seagate bus station]] serving as the city's main terminus for journeys out of town. [[National Express Dundee]] operates most of the intra-city services, with other more rural services operated by [[Stagecoach Strathtay]]. The city's two railway stations are the main [[Dundee railway station|Dundee (Tay Bridge) Station]], which is situated near the waterfront and the much smaller [[Broughty Ferry railway station|Broughty Ferry Station]], which is located to the eastern end of the city. These are complemented by the stations at [[Invergowrie railway station|Invergowrie]], [[Balmossie railway station|Balmossie]] and [[Monifieth railway station|Monifieth]]. Passenger services at Dundee are provided by [[First ScotRail]], [[CrossCountry]] and [[East Coast (train operating company)|East Coast]]. There are no freight services that serve the city since the [[Freightliner (UK)|Freightliner]] terminal in Dundee was closed in the 1980s.
+
Dundee has an extensive network of bus routes. The Seagate bus station is the city's main terminus for journeys out of town. [[Xplore Dundee]] operates most of the intra-city services, with other more rural services operated by [[Stagecoach Strathtay]]. The city's two railway stations are the main [[Dundee railway station|Dundee (Tay Bridge) Station]] near the waterfront, which is currently undergoing reconstruction while remaining open, and the much smaller [[Broughty Ferry railway station|Broughty Ferry Station]] at the eastern end of the city.
   
There are also many intercity bus services offered by [[Megabus (United Kingdom)|Megabus]], [[Scottish Citylink|Citylink]] and [[National Express]].
+
There are other nearby stations at [[Invergowrie railway station|Invergowrie]], [[Balmossie railway station|Balmossie]] and [[Monifieth railway station|Monifieth]]. Passenger services at Dundee are provided by [[Abellio ScotRail]], [[CrossCountry]], [[Caledonian Sleeper]] and [[Virgin Trains East Coast]]. No freight trains serve the city since the [[Freightliner (UK)|Freightliner]] terminal in Dundee was closed in the 1980s. There are also many intercity bus services offered by [[Megabus (Europe)|Megabus]], [[Scottish Citylink|Citylink]] and [[National Express Coaches|National Express]].
   
[[Dundee Airport]] offers commercial flights to [[London City Airport]]. Flights to [[Birmingham International Airport (United Kingdom)|Birmingham International Airport]] and [[George Best Belfast City Airport|Belfast City]] were discontinued in December 2012.<ref name="Dundee Airport">{{harvnb|Dundee Airport}}</ref> The airport is capable of serving small aircraft and is located 3&nbsp;kilometres west of the city centre, adjacent to the River Tay. The nearest major international airport is [[Edinburgh Airport]], {{convert|59.2|mi|km}} to the south.
+
[[Dundee Airport]] offers commercial flights to [[London Stansted Airport]]. Flights to [[Birmingham Airport]] and [[George Best Belfast City Airport|Belfast City]] were discontinued in December 2012.<ref name="Dundee Airport">{{harvnb|Dundee Airport}}</ref> The airport is capable of serving small aircraft and is located {{convert|3|km}} west of the city centre, adjacent to the River Tay. The nearest major international airport is [[Edinburgh Airport]], {{convert|59.2|mi|km}} to the south.
   
The nearest international passenger seaport is [[Newcastle upon Tyne]].
+
The nearest international passenger seaport is Aberdeen.
  +
  +
The cargo port of Dundee is one of the largest economic generators in the city and is operated by [[Forth Ports]]. Seafarers arriving at the port are given welfare and pastoral assistance by seafarers charity [[Apostleship of the Sea]].
   
 
== Education ==
 
== Education ==
   
=== Schools ===
+
=== Colleges and universities ===
{{see also|List of schools in Dundee}}
 
   
  +
[[File:Dundee University.jpg|thumb|The University of Dundee]]
Schools in Dundee have a pupil enrolment of over 20,300. There are 37 primary state schools and nine secondary state schools in the city. Of these, 11 primary and two secondary schools serve the city's Catholic population; the remainder are non-denominational.<ref>{{harvnb|Primary Schools}}; {{harvnb|Secondary Schools}}</ref> There is also one specialist school that caters for pupils with learning difficulties aged between five and 18 from Dundee and the surrounding area.<ref>{{harvnb|Kingspark School}}</ref>
 
   
  +
Dundee is home to two universities and a student population of approximately 20,000.<ref>http://www.dundee.ac.uk/registry/main/statistics/14-15_fst_dpt.xlsx</ref><ref>http://www.abertay.ac.uk/discover/the-university/</ref>
Dundee is home to one independent school, the [[High School of Dundee]], which was founded in the 13th century by the [[Abbot]] and [[monk]]s of [[Lindores Abbey]].<ref>{{harvnb|Strong|1909|p=19}}</ref> The current building was designed by George Angus in a Greek Revival style and built in 1832–34.<ref>{{harvnb|Colvin|2008|p=xx}}</ref> Early students included [[Thomas Thomson (chemist)|Thomas Thomson]] and [[Hector Boece]],<ref>{{harvnb|Kerr|1913|p=13}}</ref> as well as the brothers [[James, John and Robert Wedderburn]] who were the authors of ''[[The Gude and Godlie Ballatis]]'', used early in the [[Scottish Reformation]] as a vehicle to spread Protestant theology.<ref>{{harvnb|Dawson|2007|p=159}}</ref> It was the earliest [[reformed]] school in Scotland, having adopted the new religion in 1554.{{Citation needed|date=March 2009}} According to [[Blind Harry]]'s largely apocryphal work ''[[The Actes and Deidis of the Illustre and Vallyeant Campioun Schir William Wallace]]'', [[William Wallace]] was also educated in Dundee.
 
   
  +
The [[University of Dundee]] became an independent entity in 1967, after 70 years of being incorporated into the [[University of St Andrews]]. It was founded in 1881 by [[Mary Ann Baxter]] and her distant cousin John Boyd Baxter as University College, Dundee, and teaching began in 1883. It fully merged with the University of St Andrews in 1897 and was reorganised as Queen's College, Dundee in 1954.<ref name="Records of the University">{{cite web|title=Records of the University of Dundee and its Predecessors |url=http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives/source-history.htm#Uni |work=Archival Sources for Local and Scottish History |publisher=[[University of Dundee]] |accessdate=27 April 2012 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110808121954/http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives/source-history.htm |archivedate=8 August 2011}}</ref><ref name="A Dundee Celebration">{{cite book|last=Baxter|first=Kenneth|title=A Dundee Celebration|year=2007|publisher=[[University of Dundee]]|location=Dundee|display-authors=etal}}</ref> Significant research in [[biomedical]] fields and [[oncology]] is carried out in the "College of Life Sciences".<ref name="College of Life Sciences">{{harvnb|College of Life Sciences}}</ref> The University is also home to the renowned [[Dundee Law School]],<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.scottishlegal.com/2016/05/24/law-at-dundee-takes-top-spot-in-guardian-university-guide-2017/ | location=Dundee | work=Scottish Legal News | title=Law | date=12 September 2016}}</ref> situated in the Scrymgeour Building on the main campus and one of the UK's top [[University of Dundee School of Medicine|medical schools]], based at the city's [[Ninewells Hospital]].<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/table/2011/may/17/university-guide-medicine | location=London | work=The Guardian | title=Medicine | date=17 May 2011}}</ref> The university also incorporates the [[Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art and Design]] and the teacher training college.
=== Colleges and universities ===
 
   
  +
The [[Abertay University]] was founded as Dundee Institute of Technology in 1988. Previously, the buildings formed Bell Street Technical College, a further education college. It was granted university status in 1994 under the [[Further and Higher Education Act, 1992]]. The university is noted for its computing and creative technology courses, particularly in [[computer games]] technology.<ref name="money for computer games centre">{{harvnb|money for computer games centre}}</ref> and is where the makers of [[Grand Theft Auto (series)|Grand Theft Auto]] started out.
[[File:Dundee University.jpg|thumb|The University of Dundee]]
 
   
  +
[[Dundee College]] is the city's umbrella [[further education]] college, which was established in 1985 as an institution of higher education and vocational training. As of 2013 it merged with [[Angus College]] in [[Arbroath]], to become [[Dundee and Angus College]] (D&A College).
Dundee is home to two universities and a student population of approximately 17,000.<ref name="population" />
 
   
  +
The Al-Maktoum College of Higher Education was established in Dundee in Blackness Road in 2002. It is a research-led institution of higher education which are currently offering programmes accredited by [[Scottish Qualifications Authority|SQA]] in the study of [[Islam]] and [[Muslim]]s, [[Arabic language]] and Islamic Economics and Finance. It is an independent institution. It is named after its patron, [[Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum]].<ref>{{harvnb|Al-Maktoum Institute}}</ref>
The [[University of Dundee]] became an independent entity in 1967, after around 70 years of being incorporated into the [[University of St Andrews]]. It was founded in 1881 by [[Mary Ann Baxter]] and her distant cousin John Boyd Baxter as University College, Dundee. it fully merged with the University of St Andrews in 1897 and was reorganised as Queen's College, Dundee in 1954.<ref name="Records of the University">{{cite web|title=Records of the University of Dundee and its Predecessors|url=http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives/source-history.htm#Uni|work=Archival Sources for Local and Scottish History|publisher=[[University of Dundee]]|accessdate=27 April 2012}}</ref><ref name="A Dundee Celebration">{{cite book|last=Baxter|first=Kenneth, et al|title=A Dundee Celebration|year=2007|publisher=[[University of Dundee]]|location=Dundee}}</ref> Significant research in [[biomedical]] fields and [[oncology]] is carried out in the "College of Life Sciences".<ref name="College of Life Sciences">{{harvnb|College of Life Sciences}}</ref> The University is also home to one of the UK's top medical schools, based at the city's [[Ninewells Hospital]].<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/table/2011/may/17/university-guide-medicine | location=London | work=The Guardian | title=Medicine | date=17 May 2011}}</ref> The university also incorporates the [[Duncan of Jordanstone School of Art and Design]] and the teacher training college.
 
   
  +
=== Schools ===
The [[University of Abertay Dundee]] was founded as Dundee Institute of Technology in 1988. Previously, the buildings formed Bell Street Technical College, a further education college. It was granted university status in 1994 under the [[Further and Higher Education Act, 1992]]. The university is noted for its computing and creative technology courses, particularly in [[computer games]] technology.<ref name="money for computer games centre">{{harvnb|money for computer games centre}}</ref> and is where the makers of [[Grand Theft Auto (series)|Grand Theft Auto]] started out.
 
  +
{{see also|List of schools in Dundee}}
   
  +
Schools in Dundee have a pupil enrolment of over 20,300. There are 37 primary state schools and nine secondary state schools in the city. Of these, 11 primary and two secondary schools serve the city's Catholic population; the remainder are non-denominational.<ref>{{harvnb|Primary Schools}}; {{harvnb|Secondary Schools}}</ref> There is also one specialist school that caters for pupils with learning difficulties aged between five and 18 from Dundee and the surrounding area.<ref>{{harvnb|Kingspark School}}</ref>
[[Dundee College]] is the city's umbrella [[further education]] college, which was established in 1985 as an institution of higher education and vocational training.
 
   
  +
Dundee has one independent school, the [[High School of Dundee]], which was founded in the 13th century by the [[Abbot]] and [[monk]]s of [[Lindores Abbey]].<ref>{{harvnb|Strong|1909|p=19}}</ref> The current building was designed by George Angus in a Greek Revival style and built in 1832–34.<ref>{{harvnb|Colvin|2008|p=xx}}</ref> Early students included [[Thomas Thomson (chemist)|Thomas Thomson]] and [[Hector Boece]],<ref>{{harvnb|Kerr|1913|p=13}}</ref> as well as the brothers [[James, John and Robert Wedderburn]] who were the authors of ''[[The Gude and Godlie Ballatis]]'', used early in the [[Scottish Reformation]] as a vehicle to spread Protestant theology.<ref>{{harvnb|Dawson|2007|p=159}}</ref> It was the earliest [[reformed]] school in Scotland, having adopted the new religion in 1554.{{Citation needed|date=March 2009}} According to [[Blind Harry]]'s largely apocryphal work ''[[The Actes and Deidis of the Illustre and Vallyeant Campioun Schir William Wallace]]'', [[William Wallace]] was also educated in Dundee.
The [[Al-Maktoum College of Higher Education]] was established in Dundee in Blackness Road in 2002. It is a research-led institution of higher education which are currently offering programmes accredited by [[Scottish Qualifications Authority|SQA]] in the study of [[Islam]] and [[muslims]], [[Arabic language]] and Islamic Economics and Finance. It is an independent institution. It is named after its patron, [[Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum]].<ref>{{harvnb|Al-Maktoum Institute}}</ref>
 
   
 
== Religious sites ==
 
== Religious sites ==
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[[File:Dundee Parish Church, St Mary's.jpg|thumb|Dundee Parish Church, St Mary's is one of three of the Dundee's ''City Churches'' which are joined together; only two function as places of worship: St. Mary's and St. Clement's (the Old Steeple) which can be seen in the background.]]
 
[[File:Dundee Parish Church, St Mary's.jpg|thumb|Dundee Parish Church, St Mary's is one of three of the Dundee's ''City Churches'' which are joined together; only two function as places of worship: St. Mary's and St. Clement's (the Old Steeple) which can be seen in the background.]]
   
The [[Church of Scotland]] [[Presbyterian polity|Presbytery]] of Dundee is responsible for overseeing the worship of 37 congregations in and around the Dundee area, 21 of which are in the city itself, with a further five in Broughty Ferry and [[Barnhill, Dundee|Barnhill]], although changing population patterns have led to some of the churches becoming linked charges.<ref>{{harvnb|Presbytery of Dundee}}</ref> Due to their city centre location, the City Churches, [[Dundee Parish Church (St Mary's)]] and the [[Steeple Church]], are the most prominent [[Church of Scotland]] buildings in Dundee. They are on the site of the medieval parish kirk of [[St Mary]], of which only the 15th century west tower survives. The attached church was once the largest parish church in medieval Scotland.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|2009|p=5}}</ref> Dundee was unusual among Scottish medieval burghs in having two parish kirks; the second, dedicated to [[Pope Clement I|St Clement]], has disappeared, but its site was approximately that of the present City Square.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=52}}</ref>
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The [[Church of Scotland]] [[Presbyterian polity|Presbytery]] of Dundee is responsible for overseeing the worship of 37 congregations in and around the Dundee area, although changing population patterns have led to some of the churches becoming linked charges.<ref>{{harvnb|Presbytery of Dundee}}</ref> Due to their city centre location, the City Churches, [[Dundee Parish Church (St Mary's)]] and the [[Steeple Church]], are the most prominent [[Church of Scotland]] buildings in Dundee. They are on the site of the medieval parish kirk of [[St Mary]], of which only the 15th-century west tower survives. The attached church was once the largest parish church in medieval Scotland.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|2009|p=5}}</ref> Dundee was unusual among Scottish medieval burghs in having two parish kirks; the second, dedicated to [[Pope Clement I|St Clement]], has disappeared, but its site was approximately that of the present City Square.<ref>{{harvnb|McKean|Walker|1985|p=52}}</ref>
   
In the [[Middle Ages]] Dundee was also the site of houses of the [[Dominican Order|Dominicans]] (Blackfriars), and [[Franciscans]] (Greyfriars), and had a number of hospitals and chapels. These establishments were sacked during the [[Scottish Reformation]], in the mid-16th century, and were reduced to burial grounds, now Barrack Street (also referred to as the Dek-tarn street) and [[The Howff]] burial ground respectively.<ref>{{harvnb|Mackie|1836|p=120}}; {{harvnb|Foggie|2003|p=35}}</ref>
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In the [[Middle Ages]] Dundee was also the site of houses of the [[Dominican Order|Dominicans]] (Blackfriars), and [[Franciscans]] (Greyfriars), and had a number of hospitals and chapels. These establishments were sacked during the [[Scottish Reformation]], in the mid-16th century, and were reduced to burial grounds, now Barrack Street (also referred to as the Dek-tarn street) and [[The Howff]] burial ground, respectively.<ref>{{harvnb|Mackie|1836|p=120}}; {{harvnb|Foggie|2003|p=35}}</ref>
   
[[St Paul's Cathedral, Dundee|St. Paul's Cathedral]] is the seat of the [[Scottish Episcopal]] [[Diocese of Brechin (Episcopalian)|Diocese of Brechin]]. It is charged with overseeing the worship of 8 congregations in the city (9, including Broughty Ferry), as well as a further 17 in Angus, the Carse of Gowrie and parts of Aberdeenshire. The diocese was led by Bishop John Mantle until October 2010 when Bishop Mantle retired. The Diocese will be electing a new bishop in the Spring of 2011.<ref>{{harvnb|The Diocese of Brechin}}</ref> [[St Andrew's Cathedral, Dundee|St. Andrew's Cathedral]] is the seat of the [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] [[Diocese of Dunkeld]], led by Bishop [[Vincent Paul Logan]]. The diocese is responsible for overseeing 15 congregations in Dundee and 37 in the surrounding area.<ref>{{harvnb|The Diocese of Dunkeld}}</ref>
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[[St Paul's Cathedral, Dundee|St. Paul's Cathedral]] is the seat of the [[Scottish Episcopal]] [[Diocese of Brechin (Episcopalian)|Diocese of Brechin]]. It is charged with overseeing the worship of 9 congregations in the city, as well as a further 17 in Angus, the Carse of Gowrie and parts of Aberdeenshire. The diocese is led by [[Nigel Peyton|Bishop Nigel Peyton]]. [[St Andrew's Cathedral, Dundee|St. Andrew's Cathedral]] is the seat of the [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] [[Diocese of Dunkeld]], led by Bishop [[Stephen Robson]]. The diocese is responsible for overseeing 15 congregations in Dundee and 37 in the surrounding area, including [[St Mary, Our Lady of Victories Church, Dundee|St Mary, Our Lady of Victories Church]] in the city.<ref>{{harvnb|The Diocese of Dunkeld}}</ref>
   
There are [[Methodism|Methodist]],<ref>{{harvnb|Dundee Methodist Church}}</ref> [[Baptist]],<ref>{{harvnb|Trinity Baptist Church}}</ref> [[Congregationalist]],<ref>{{harvnb|Dundee Congregational Church}}</ref> [[United Reformed Church]],<ref>{{harvnb|National Synod of Scotland, URC East Link}}</ref> [[Pentecostalism|Pentecostalist]]<ref>{{harvnb|Assemblies of God Scotland}}</ref> and [[Salvation Army]]<ref>{{harvnb|Salvation Army Dundee}}; {{harvnb|Salvation Army Menzieshill}}</ref> churches in the city, and non-mainstream Christian groups are also well represented, including the [[Unitarianism|Unitarian]]s,<ref>{{harvnb|Williamson Unitarian Christian Church Dundee}}</ref> the [[Society of Friends]],<ref>{{harvnb|Dundee Quaker Meeting}}</ref> the [[Jehovah's Witnesses]],<ref>{{harvnb|Jehovah's Witnesses – Dundee}}</ref> [[Seventh-day Adventist]], [[Christadelphians]],<ref>{{harvnb|Dundee Christadelphian Ecclesia}}</ref> and [[Latter Day Saint|Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints]].<ref>{{harvnb|Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints}}</ref>
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There are [[Methodism|Methodist]],<ref>{{harvnb|Dundee Methodist Church}}</ref> [[Baptist]],<ref>{{harvnb|Trinity Baptist Church}}</ref> [[Congregationalist]],<ref>{{harvnb|Dundee Congregational Church}}</ref> [[United Reformed Church]],<ref>{{harvnb|National Synod of Scotland, URC East Link}}</ref> [[Pentecostalism|Pentecostalist]]<ref>{{harvnb|Assemblies of God Scotland}}</ref> and [[Salvation Army]]<ref>{{harvnb|Salvation Army Dundee}}; {{harvnb|Salvation Army Menzieshill}}</ref> churches in the city, and non-mainstream Christian groups are also well represented, including the [[Unitarianism|Unitarian]]s,<ref>{{harvnb|Williamson Unitarian Christian Church Dundee}}</ref> the [[Society of Friends]],<ref>{{harvnb|Dundee Quaker Meeting}}</ref> the [[Jehovah's Witnesses]],<ref>{{harvnb|Jehovah's Witnesses – Dundee}}</ref> [[Seventh-day Adventist]]s, [[Christadelphians]],<ref>{{harvnb|Dundee Christadelphian Ecclesia}}</ref> and the [[Latter Day Saint|Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints]].<ref>{{harvnb|Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints}}</ref>
   
 
=== Other religious communities ===
 
=== Other religious communities ===
   
[[Muslim]]s are served by the Dundee Islamic Society Central Mosque in Brown Street built in 2000 to replace their former premises in Hilltown.<ref>{{harvnb|Dundee Islamic Society Central Mosque}}</ref> There are also smaller mosques at Victoria Road and Dura Street.<ref>{{harvnb|UK Mosque Searcher: Mosques in Dundee}}</ref>
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[[Muslim]]s are served by the [[Dundee Central Mosque]] built in 2000 to replace their former premises on the Hilltown.<ref>{{harvnb|Dundee Islamic Society Central Mosque}}</ref> There are three other mosques in the city including;
  +
Jamia Masjid Tajdare Madina on Victoria Road, Jame Masjid Bilal on Dura Street and Al Maktoum Mosque on Wilkie's Lane. Alongside these there is an Islamic Society on the [[University of Dundee]] campus.<ref>{{harvnb|UK Mosque Searcher: Mosques in Dundee}}</ref>
   
The [[Sikh]] community is served by the Guru Nanak [[Gurdwara]] in Victoria Road, which serves the small community in Dundee, Fife and Aberdeen.<ref>{{harvnb|Gurudwaras in Scotland}}</ref>
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The [[Sikh]] community is served by the Guru Nanak [[Gurdwara]] on Victoria Road, which serves its community in Dundee.<ref>{{harvnb|Gurudwaras in Scotland}}</ref>
   
 
A recorded [[Jewish]] community has existed in the city since the early 19th century.<ref>{{harvnb|Abrams|2009|pp=65–94}}</ref> There is a small [[Orthodox Judaism|Orthodox]] synagogue at Dudhope Park<ref>{{harvnb|Dundee Hebrew Congregation}}</ref> that was built in the 1960s,<ref>{{harvnb|Scotland's Jewish Community}}</ref> with the Hebrew Burial Grounds located three miles (5&nbsp;km) to the east.<ref>{{harvnb|International Jewish Cemetery Project – Scotland}}</ref> Samye Dzong Dundee is a [[Buddhism|Buddhist]] Temple based in Reform Street.<ref>{{harvnb|Kagyu Samye Dzong Dundee (Rokpa Dundee)}}</ref> There is also a [[Hindu]] [[mandir]] in Taylor's Lane situated in the [[West End, Dundee|West End]] of the city.<ref>{{harvnb|Hindu Council UK}}</ref>
 
A recorded [[Jewish]] community has existed in the city since the early 19th century.<ref>{{harvnb|Abrams|2009|pp=65–94}}</ref> There is a small [[Orthodox Judaism|Orthodox]] synagogue at Dudhope Park<ref>{{harvnb|Dundee Hebrew Congregation}}</ref> that was built in the 1960s,<ref>{{harvnb|Scotland's Jewish Community}}</ref> with the Hebrew Burial Grounds located three miles (5&nbsp;km) to the east.<ref>{{harvnb|International Jewish Cemetery Project – Scotland}}</ref> Samye Dzong Dundee is a [[Buddhism|Buddhist]] Temple based in Reform Street.<ref>{{harvnb|Kagyu Samye Dzong Dundee (Rokpa Dundee)}}</ref> There is also a [[Hindu]] [[mandir]] in Taylor's Lane situated in the [[West End, Dundee|West End]] of the city.<ref>{{harvnb|Hindu Council UK}}</ref>
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[[File:McManus Galleries.jpg|thumb|left|The [[McManus Galleries]] in the city's Albert Square]]
 
[[File:McManus Galleries.jpg|thumb|left|The [[McManus Galleries]] in the city's Albert Square]]
   
Dundee is home to a full-time [[repertory]] ensemble, originated in 1939. One of its alumni, Hollywood actor [[Brian Cox (actor)|Brian Cox]] is a native of the city.<ref>{{harvnb|Cox may be ambassador for Dundee}}</ref> The [[Dundee Repertory Theatre]], built in 1982, is also the base for the [[Scottish Dance Theatre]] company.
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Dundee is home to a full-time [[repertory]] ensemble, which originated in 1939. One of its alumni, Hollywood actor [[Brian Cox (actor)|Brian Cox]], is a native of the city.<ref>{{harvnb|Cox may be ambassador for Dundee}}</ref> The [[Dundee Repertory Theatre]], built in 1982, is also the base for the [[Scottish Dance Theatre]] company.
   
Dundee's principal concert [[auditorium]], the [[Caird Hall]] (named after its benefactor, the jute baron [[James Key Caird]]) in the City Square regularly hosts the [[Royal Scottish National Orchestra]].<ref>{{harvnb|Day|Milne|2010|p=78}}</ref> Various smaller venues host local and international musicians during Dundee's annual [[Jazz]], Guitar and [[Blues]] Festivals. The [[Dundee Contemporary Arts]], which opened in 1999 in the city's cultural quarter, is home to both an art gallery and art house cinema.<ref>{{harvnb|Jarron|2011|p=183}}</ref>
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Dundee's principal concert [[auditorium]], the [[Caird Hall]] (named after its benefactor, the jute baron [[James Key Caird]]) in the City Square regularly hosts the [[Royal Scottish National Orchestra]].<ref>{{harvnb|Day|Milne|2010|p=78}}</ref> Various smaller venues host local and international musicians during Dundee's annual [[Jazz]], Guitar and [[Blues]] Festivals. The [[Dundee Contemporary Arts]], which opened in 1999 in the city's cultural quarter, is home to both an art gallery and art-house cinema.<ref>{{harvnb|Jarron|2011|p=183}}</ref>
   
Dundee has hosted the [[Royal National Mod|National Mod]] a number of times – 1902, 1913, 1937, 1959 and 1974.<ref name=SMO>[http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/gaidhlig/mod/ List of Mod's places] for each year on [[Sabhal Mòr Ostaig]] website</ref>
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Dundee has hosted the [[Royal National Mòd|National Mod]] a number of times – 1902, 1913, 1937, 1959 and 1974.<ref name=SMO>[http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/gaidhlig/mod/ List of Mod's places] for each year on [[Sabhal Mòr Ostaig]] website</ref>
   
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[[Dundee Contemporary Arts]] (abbreviated DCA) is an international art centre in the Nethergate close to Dundee Rep, which houses two contemporary art galleries, a two-screen cinema, a print studio, a visual research centre and a café bar.
The city's main museum and art gallery, [[McManus Galleries]] is in Albert Square.<ref>{{harvnb|Day|Milne|2010|p=30}}</ref> The exhibits include a collection of fine and decorative art, items from Dundee's history and natural history artefacts. Britain's only full-time public [[observatory]], [[Mills Observatory]] at the summit of the city's [[Balgay|Balgay Hill]] was given to the city by linen manufacturer and keen amateur scientist, John Mills in 1935.<ref>{{harvnb|Day|Milne|2010|p=47}}</ref> [[Sensation Science Centre]] in the Greenmarket is a science centre based on the five senses through a series of interactive shows and exhibits.<ref>{{harvnb|Day|Milne|2010|p=20}}</ref> [[Verdant Works]] is a museum dedicated to the once dominant jute industry in Dundee and is based in a former jute mill.<ref>Gale & Kaur (2002) p187; Dundee Heritage Trust (1998) pp1-3</ref> The [[University of Dundee]] also runs several public museums and galleries, including the [http://www.dundee.ac.uk/museum/zoology D'Arcy Thompson Zoology Museum] and the [http://www.dundee.ac.uk/museum/medical.htm Tayside Medical History Museum]. A new £47 million pound centre for art and design known as the "V&A at Dundee" is to be built south of Craig Harbour onto the [[River Tay]] for completion in 2015. The new museum may bring another 500,000 extra visitors to the city and create up to 900 jobs for the area.<ref name="V&A at Dundee">{{harvnb|Dundee to get its own V&A museum}}</ref>
 
   
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The city's main museum and art gallery, [[McManus Galleries]], is in Albert Square.<ref>{{harvnb|Day|Milne|2010|p=30}}</ref> The exhibits include a collection of fine and decorative art, items from Dundee's history and natural history artefacts. Britain's only full-time public [[observatory]], [[Mills Observatory]] at the summit of the city's [[Balgay|Balgay Hill]], was given to the city by linen manufacturer and keen amateur scientist John Mills in 1935.<ref>{{harvnb|Day|Milne|2010|p=47}}</ref> [[Sensation Science Centre]] in the Greenmarket is a science centre based on the five senses with a series of interactive shows and exhibits.<ref>{{harvnb|Day|Milne|2010|p=20}}</ref> [[Verdant Works]] is a museum dedicated to the once dominant jute industry in Dundee and is based in a former jute mill.<ref>Gale & Kaur (2002) p187; Dundee Heritage Trust (1998) pp1-3</ref> The [[University of Dundee]] also runs several public museums and galleries, including the [http://www.dundee.ac.uk/museum/zoology D'Arcy Thompson Zoology Museum] and the [http://www.dundee.ac.uk/museum/medical.htm Tayside Medical History Museum]. The university, through [[Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art and Design]] also offers the Cooper Gallery for contemporary art, and its archives including: the abcD (artists' books collection Dundee); the REWIND Archive (video art collection); and the [[Richard Demarco]] Digital Archive. A new £80 million centre for art and design known as the "V&A at Dundee" is to be built south of Craig Harbour onto the [[River Tay]] for completion in 2017. The new museum may bring another 500,000 extra visitors to the city and create up to 900 jobs.<ref name="V&A at Dundee">{{harvnb|Dundee to get its own V&A museum}}</ref>
The city's [[archives]] and records are mostly kept by two [[archives]], [http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/archive/ Dundee City Archives], which are operated by [[Dundee City Council]] and the [[University of Dundee]]'s [http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives Archive Services]. Dundee City Archives holds the official records of the city and of the former [[Tayside Regional Council]].<ref name="City Archives">{{cite web|title=Archives|url=http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/archive/|publisher=[[Dundee City Council]]|accessdate=17 November 2011}}</ref> The archive also holds the records of various people groups and organisations connected to the city. The University's Archive Services hold a wide range of material relating to the University and its predecessor institutions and to individuals associated with the University such as [[D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson]]. Archive Services is also home to athe archives of several individuals, businesses and organisations based in Dundee and the surrounding area.<ref name="University of Dundee Archive Services">{{cite web|title=University of Dundee Archives Services |url=http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives|publisher=University of Dundee|accessdate=2 June 2011}}</ref> The records held include a substantial number of business archives relating to the [[jute]] and [[linen]] industry in Dundee, records of other businesses including the archives of the [[Alliance Trust]] and the department store G. L. Wilson, the records of the Brechin Diocese of the [[Scottish Episcopal Church]] and the [[NHS Tayside]] Archive.<ref name="University of Dundee Archive Services2">{{cite web|title=University of Dundee Archives Services the Collections|url=http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives/archman.htm|publisher=University of Dundee|accessdate=2 June 2011}}</ref><ref name="Archives, Records and Artefacts">{{cite web|title=Business Archives|url=http://www.archives-records-artefacts.com/2011/01/business-archives.html|publisher=Archives, Records and Artefacts at the University of Dundee|accessdate=9 June 2011}}</ref> The same archive also holds the [[Michael Peto]] collection which includes thousands of the famed [[photojournalist]]'s photographs, negatives, slides, publications and papers.<ref name="University of Dundee Archive Services Peto">[http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives/peto.htm "Michael Peto Photographic Collection"], University of Dundee. Retrieved 26 May 2011.</ref>
 
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The city's archival records are mostly kept by two [[archives]]: [http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/archive/ Dundee City Archives], operated by [[Dundee City Council]] and the [[University of Dundee]]'s [http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives Archive Services]. Dundee City Archives holds the official records of the city and of the former [[Tayside Regional Council]].<ref name="City Archives">{{cite web|title=Archives|url=http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/archive/|publisher=[[Dundee City Council]]|accessdate=17 November 2011}}</ref> The archive also holds the records of various people, groups and organisations connected to the city. The university's Archive Services hold a wide range of material relating to the university and its predecessor institutions and to individuals associated with the university, such as [[D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson]]. Archive Services also holds the archives of several individuals, businesses and organisations based in Dundee and the surrounding area.<ref name="University of Dundee Archive Services">{{cite web|title=University of Dundee Archives Services |url=http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives|publisher=University of Dundee|accessdate=2 June 2011}}</ref> The records held include a substantial number of business archives relating to the jute and linen industry in Dundee; records of other businesses including the archives of the [[Alliance Trust]] and the department store G. L. Wilson; the records of the Brechin Diocese of the [[Scottish Episcopal Church]]; and the [[NHS Tayside]] Archive.<ref name="University of Dundee Archive Services2">{{cite web|title=University of Dundee Archives Services the Collections|url=http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives/archman.htm|publisher=University of Dundee|accessdate=2 June 2011}}</ref><ref name="Archives, Records and Artefacts">{{cite web|title=Business Archives|url=http://www.archives-records-artefacts.blogspot.com/2011/01/business-archives.html|publisher=Archives, Records and Artefacts at the University of Dundee|accessdate=5 February 2016}}</ref> The same archive also holds the [[Michael Peto]] collection which includes thousands of the [[photojournalist]]'s photographs, negatives, slides, publications and papers.<ref name="University of Dundee Archive Services Peto">[http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives//peto/ "Michael Peto Photographic Collection"], University of Dundee. Retrieved 26 May 2011.</ref>
   
 
[[File:DC Thomson Building.jpg|thumb|Dundee Headquarters of [[DC Thomson]] & Co.]]
 
[[File:DC Thomson Building.jpg|thumb|Dundee Headquarters of [[DC Thomson]] & Co.]]
   
Dundee is home to DC Thomson & Son Ltd established in 1905, which produces over 200 million magazines, newspapers and comics every year, which include [[The Beano]], [[The Dandy]] and the [[The Press and Journal (Scotland)|The Press and Journal]].<ref name="Discover Dundee Retail" /> Dundee has a strong literary heritage, with several authors having been born, lived or studied in the city. These include [[A. L. Kennedy]], [[Rosamunde Pilcher]], [[Kate Atkinson]], [[Thomas Dick (scientist)|Thomas Dick]], [[Mary Shelley]], [[Mick McCluskey]], [[John Burnside]] and [[Neil Forsyth]]. The [[Dundee International Book Prize]] is a biennial competition open to new authors, offering a prize of £10,000 and publication by Polygon Books. Past winners have included Andrew Murray Scott, Claire-Marie Watson and Malcolm Archibald. [[William McGonagall]], regularly cited as the "world's worst poet",<ref name="World's Worst Poet">{{harvnb|McGonagall|1992}}</ref> worked and wrote in the city, often giving performances of his work in pubs and bars. Many of his poems are about the city and events therein, such as his work ''The Tay Bridge Disaster''. Dundee's poetic heritage is represented by the 2013 poetry anthology 'Whaleback City' edited by W.N. Herbert and Andy Jackson (Dundee University Press) containing poems by McGonagall, Don Paterson, Douglas Dunn, John Burnside and many others.. City of Recovery Press was founded in Dundee, and has become a controversial figure in documenting the darker side of the city.<ref>http://www.cityofrecovery.com</ref>
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Dundee is home to DC Thomson & Son Ltd, established in 1905, which produces over 200 million magazines, newspapers and comics every year; these include ''[[The Beano]]'', ''[[The Dandy]]'' and ''[[The Press and Journal (Scotland)|The Press and Journal]]''.<ref name="Discover Dundee Retail" /> Dundee has a strong literary heritage, with several authors having been born, lived or studied in the city. These include [[A. L. Kennedy]], [[Rosamunde Pilcher]], [[Kate Atkinson]], [[Thomas Dick (scientist)|Thomas Dick]], [[Mary Shelley]], Mick McCluskey, [[John Burnside]] and [[Neil Forsyth]]. The [[Dundee International Book Prize]] is a biennial competition open to new authors, offering a prize of £10,000 and publication by Polygon Books. Past winners have included Andrew Murray Scott, Claire-Marie Watson and Malcolm Archibald. [[William McGonagall]], regularly cited as the "world's worst poet",<ref name="World's Worst Poet">{{harvnb|McGonagall|1992}}</ref> worked and wrote in the city, often giving performances of his work in pubs and bars. Many of his poems are about the city and events therein, such as his work ''The Tay Bridge Disaster''. Dundee's poetic heritage is represented by the 2013 poetry anthology 'Whaleback City' edited by W. N. Herbert and Andy Jackson (Dundee University Press) containing poems by McGonagall, Don Paterson, Douglas Dunn, John Burnside and many others. City of Recovery Press was founded in Dundee, and has become a controversial figure in documenting the darker side of the city.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cityofrecovery.com|title=cityofrecovery.com|work=cityofrecovery.com}}</ref>
   
Dundee has bid to be named 2017 [[UK City of Culture]]. On 19 June 2013 it was named as one of the four short-listed cities alongside [[Kingston upon Hull|Hull]], [[Leicester]] and [[Swansea Bay]].<ref>{{cite web|title=UK City of Culture 2017 shortlist of four announced|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-22967259|publisher=BBC News|accessdate=20 June 2013}}</ref>
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Dundee bid to be named 2017 [[UK City of Culture]], and on 19 June 2013 was named as one of the four short-listed cities alongside [[Kingston upon Hull|Hull]], [[Leicester]] and [[Swansea Bay]].<ref>{{cite web|title=UK City of Culture 2017 shortlist of four announced|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-22967259|publisher=BBC News|accessdate=20 June 2013}}</ref> Ultimately, Dundee's bid was unsuccessful, with Hull winning the contest.<ref name="TelegraphCultureBid">{{cite news|last1=Cramb|first1=Auslan|title=Dundee loses City of Culture bid, but presses ahead with events|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/scotland/10462917/Dundee-loses-City-of-Culture-bid-but-presses-ahead-with-events.html|accessdate=27 September 2016|work=The Telegraph|date=20 November 2013}}</ref> Dundee came fifth in a newspaper survey regarding numbers of cultural venues in the United Kingdom, ahead of other Scottish cities.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eveningtelegraph.co.uk/news/local/dundee/dundee-crowned-scotland-s-most-cultural-city-and-we-beat-hull-too-1.619566|title=Dundee crowned Scotland’s most cultural city (and we beat Hull too!)|work=eveningtelegraph.co.uk}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://dundee.stv.tv/articles/295051-dundee-is-the-fifth-most-cultural-city-in-the-uk-according-to-new-survey/|title=Dundee is the fifth most cultural city in the UK according to new survey - STV Dundee - Dundee|author=Joe Birchenall|work=STV Dundee}}</ref>
   
 
=== Cinema ===
 
=== Cinema ===
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DMFF is also one of the members of International Alliance for Mountain Film (IAMF)<ref name="International Alliance">{{harvnb|International Alliance for Mountain Film}}</ref> among other important international [[Mountain film]] festivals.
 
DMFF is also one of the members of International Alliance for Mountain Film (IAMF)<ref name="International Alliance">{{harvnb|International Alliance for Mountain Film}}</ref> among other important international [[Mountain film]] festivals.
   
[[Dundee Contemporary Arts]] hosts an annual [[horror film|horror]] film festival called ''Dundead'', which started in 2011.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://zcint.co.uk/article/dca-unveil-dundead-ii-festival-lineup|title=DCA Unveil Dundead II Festival Line-Up|date=5 March 2012|accessdate=15 July 2013}}</ref>
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[[Dundee Contemporary Arts]] hosts an annual [[horror film]] festival called ''Dundead'', which started in 2011.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://zcint.co.uk/article/dca-unveil-dundead-ii-festival-lineup|title=DCA Unveil Dundead II Festival Line-Up|date=5 March 2012|accessdate=15 July 2013}}</ref>
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The city also has two [[Multiplex (movie theater)|Multiplex]] cinemas, [[Odeon Cinemas|Odeon]] and [[Cineworld]].
   
 
=== Music ===
 
=== Music ===
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=== Television and radio ===
 
=== Television and radio ===
   
Dundee is home to one of 11 [[BBC Scotland]] broadcasting centres, located within the Nethergate Centre.<ref name="Contact numbers for BBC Scotland">{{harvnb|Contact numbers for BBC Scotland}}</ref> [[STV North]]'s Tayside news and advertising operations are based in the Seabraes area of the city, from where an ''STV News Tayside'' opt-out bulletin is broadcast, (though not on Digital Satellite), within the nightly regional news programme, ''[[STV News at Six]]''. The city also has a community internet TV station called The Dundee Channel which was launched on 1 September 2009.
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Dundee is home to one of 11 [[BBC Scotland]] broadcasting centres, located within the Nethergate Centre.<ref name="Contact numbers for BBC Scotland">{{harvnb|Contact numbers for BBC Scotland}}</ref> [[STV North]]'s Tayside news and advertising operations are based in the Seabraes area of the city, from where an ''STV News Tayside'' opt-out bulletin is broadcast, (though not on Digital Satellite), within the nightly regional news programme, ''[[STV News at Six]]''. The city also had a community internet TV station called The [[Dundee Channel]] which was launched on 1 September 2009.
   
 
The city has three local radio stations. Radio Tay was launched on 17 October 1980.<ref name="Radio Tay's first day">{{harvnb|Radio Tay's first day}}</ref> The station split frequencies in January 1995 launching [[Tay FM]] for a younger audience and [[Tay AM]] playing classic hits. In 1999, Discovery 102 was launched, later to be renamed [[Wave 102]].
 
The city has three local radio stations. Radio Tay was launched on 17 October 1980.<ref name="Radio Tay's first day">{{harvnb|Radio Tay's first day}}</ref> The station split frequencies in January 1995 launching [[Tay FM]] for a younger audience and [[Tay AM]] playing classic hits. In 1999, Discovery 102 was launched, later to be renamed [[Wave 102]].
   
== Sports and Recreation ==
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== Sports and recreation ==
   
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===Football===
Dundee has three professional sports teams; [[Dundee F.C.|Dundee]], [[Dundee United F.C.|Dundee United]] and [[Dundee Stars|Dundee CCS Stars]] who play at [[Dens Park]], [[Tannadice Park]] and [[Dundee Ice Arena]] respectively.<ref name="Dundee United">{{harvnb|Dundee United}}</ref><ref name="Dundee">{{harvnb|Dundee}}</ref> Dundee and Dundee United's stadiums are closer together than any senior football club pair in the UK.<ref name="Tannadice Park">{{harvnb|Tannadice Park}}</ref> Dundee is one of only three British cities to have produced two [[European Champion Clubs' Cup|European Cup]] semi-finalists.{{Citation needed|date=March 2009}} Dundee lost to [[A.C. Milan]] in [[European Cup 1962-63#Semi finals|1963]]<ref name="Dundee, European Cup History">{{harvnb|European Cup History, Season 1962–1963}}</ref> and Dundee United lost to [[A.S. Roma]] in [[European Cup 1983-84#Semi-finals|1984]].<ref name="Dundee United, European Cup History">{{harvnb|European Cup History, Season 1983–1984}}</ref> Dundee also reached the semi-finals of the forerunner to the UEFA Cup in [[Inter-Cities Fairs Cup 1967-68#Semifinals|1968]] and Dundee United were runners-up in the UEFA Cup in [[UEFA Cup 1986-87#Final|1987]].<ref name="Dundee United, UEFA Cup History">{{harvnb|UEFA Cup History, Season 1986–1987}}</ref> There are also seven junior football teams in the area: [[Dundee North End F.C.|Dundee North End]], [[East Craigie F.C.|East Craigie]], [[Lochee Harp F.C.|Lochee Harp]], [[Lochee United F.C.|Lochee United]], [[Dundee Violet F.C.|Dundee Violet]], [[Broughty Athletic F.C.|Broughty Athletic]] and [[Downfield F.C.|Downfield]].<ref name="Scottish Junior Football Clubs A–K">{{harvnb|Scottish Junior Football Clubs A–K}}</ref>
 
   
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Dundee has two professional [[football]] clubs: [[Dundee F.C.|Dundee]], founded in 1893, and [[Dundee United F.C.|Dundee United]], founded in 1909 as Dundee Hibernian. Dundee play in the [[Scottish Premiership]] and Dundee United play in the [[Scottish Championship]]. Their grounds [[Dens Park]] and [[Tannadice Park]] are just 100 metres apart, closer together than any other football stadiums in the UK. The [[Dundee derby|Dundee Derby]] is one of the most highly anticipated fixtures in Scottish football. Dundee is one of four British cities to have produced two [[European Champion Clubs' Cup|European Cup]] semi-finalists. Dundee lost to [[A.C. Milan]] in [[European Cup 1962-63#Semi finals|1963]]<ref name="Dundee, European Cup History">{{harvnb|European Cup History, Season 1962–1963}}</ref> and Dundee United lost to [[A.S. Roma]] in [[European Cup 1983-84#Semi-finals|1984]].<ref name="Dundee United, European Cup History">{{harvnb|European Cup History, Season 1983–1984}}</ref> Dundee also reached the semi-finals of the forerunner to the UEFA Cup in [[Inter-Cities Fairs Cup 1967-68#Semifinals|1968]] and Dundee United were runners-up in the UEFA Cup in [[UEFA Cup 1986-87#Final|1987]].<ref name="Dundee United, UEFA Cup History">{{harvnb|UEFA Cup History, Season 1986–1987}}</ref> There are also seven junior football teams in the area: [[Dundee North End F.C.|Dundee North End]], [[East Craigie F.C.|East Craigie]], [[Lochee Harp F.C.|Lochee Harp]], [[Lochee United F.C.|Lochee United]], [[Dundee Violet F.C.|Dundee Violet]], [[Broughty Athletic F.C.|Broughty Athletic]] and [[Downfield F.C.|Downfield]].<ref name="Scottish Junior Football Clubs A–K">{{harvnb|Scottish Junior Football Clubs A–K}}</ref>
[[Dundee Stars]], the main [[ice hockey]] team, play at the [[Dundee Ice Arena]]. The team joined the [[Elite Ice Hockey League|Elite League]] in the 2010/2011 season.<ref name="Dundee Stars join Elite">{{harvnb|Dundee Stars join Elite}}</ref> They are one of four professional Ice Hockey teams in Scotland, and play against teams from England, [[Wales]] and [[Northern Ireland]] in the Elite League. The majority of the team are North American professionals.
 
   
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===Ice hockey===
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[[Dundee Stars]], the main [[ice hockey]] team, play at the [[Dundee Ice Arena]]. The team joined the [[Elite Ice Hockey League|Elite League]] in the 2010/2011 season.<ref name="Dundee Stars join Elite">{{harvnb|Dundee Stars join Elite}}</ref> They are one of four professional ice hockey teams in Scotland, and play against teams from England, [[Wales]] and [[Northern Ireland]] in the Elite League. The majority of the team are North American professionals. There are also two amateur ice hockey teams, [[Dundee Tigers]] and [[Dundee Comets]], who both play in the [[Scottish National League (ice hockey)|Scottish National League]].
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===Rugby===
 
The city is also home to five [[rugby union]] teams – [[Dundee HSFP|Dundee High School Former Pupils]] rugby club who play in the [[Scottish Premiership Division One|RBS Premiership Division One]];<ref name="Dundee HSFP">{{harvnb|Dundee HSFP}}</ref> Morgan Academy Former Pupils in the [[Scottish Premiership Division Three|RBS Premiership Division Three]];<ref name="Morgan Academy">{{harvnb|Morgan Academy}}</ref> Harris Academy Former Pupils in the RBS Caledonian Division Two Midlands<ref name="Harris Academy">{{harvnb|Harris Academy}}</ref> and Panmure R.F.C. and Stobswell R.F.C. both in the RBS Caledonian Division Three Midlands.<ref name="Panmure and Stobswell">{{harvnb|Panmure and Stobswell}}</ref>
 
The city is also home to five [[rugby union]] teams – [[Dundee HSFP|Dundee High School Former Pupils]] rugby club who play in the [[Scottish Premiership Division One|RBS Premiership Division One]];<ref name="Dundee HSFP">{{harvnb|Dundee HSFP}}</ref> Morgan Academy Former Pupils in the [[Scottish Premiership Division Three|RBS Premiership Division Three]];<ref name="Morgan Academy">{{harvnb|Morgan Academy}}</ref> Harris Academy Former Pupils in the RBS Caledonian Division Two Midlands<ref name="Harris Academy">{{harvnb|Harris Academy}}</ref> and Panmure R.F.C. and Stobswell R.F.C. both in the RBS Caledonian Division Three Midlands.<ref name="Panmure and Stobswell">{{harvnb|Panmure and Stobswell}}</ref>
   
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===Other sports===
Other sports clubs operating in the city include [[Dundee Handball Club]], Grove Menzieshill Hockey Club; Dundee Northern Lights [[floorball]] club, Dundee Hawkhill Harriers, Dundee City Aquatics and [http://www.darcck.org/ Dundee & Angus Radio Controlled Car Klub (DARCCK)].
 
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Local sports clubs include [[Dundee Handball Club]], Grove Menzieshill Hockey Club; Dundee Wanderers Hockey Club, Dundee Northern Lights [[floorball]] club, Dundee Hawkhill Harriers, Dundee City Aquatics, [[Dundee Hurricanes]] and [http://www.darcck.org/ Dundee & Angus Radio Controlled Car Klub (DARCCK)].
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The new £36 million Olympia leisure centre with [[multi-storey car park]] was scheduled to open in late 2012, but only three weeks from the original opening date, the date was pushed back by a further six months.<ref name="new Olympia leisure centre">{{harvnb|new Olympia leisure centre}}</ref>
   
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There is a velodrome, [[Caird Park Velodrome]].
A new £36 million Olympia leisure centre with multi-storey car park was scheduled to open in late 2012, and only 3 weeks from the original opening date, the date was pushed back by a further 6 months.<ref name="new Olympia leisure centre">{{harvnb|new Olympia leisure centre}}</ref>
 
   
 
== Public services ==
 
== Public services ==
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Waste management is handled by [[Dundee City Council]]. There is a kerbside [[recycling]] scheme that currently only serves 15,500 households in Dundee. Cans, glass and plastic bottles are collected on a weekly basis.<ref>{{harvnb|Kerbside Recycling Box Scheme}}</ref> [[Compostable]] material and non-recyclable material are collected on alternate weeks.<ref name="kerbside">{{harvnb|Brown Bin Garden Waste Collection}}</ref> Paper is collected for recycling on a four-weekly basis.<ref>{{harvnb|Blue Bin Paper Collections}}</ref>
 
Waste management is handled by [[Dundee City Council]]. There is a kerbside [[recycling]] scheme that currently only serves 15,500 households in Dundee. Cans, glass and plastic bottles are collected on a weekly basis.<ref>{{harvnb|Kerbside Recycling Box Scheme}}</ref> [[Compostable]] material and non-recyclable material are collected on alternate weeks.<ref name="kerbside">{{harvnb|Brown Bin Garden Waste Collection}}</ref> Paper is collected for recycling on a four-weekly basis.<ref>{{harvnb|Blue Bin Paper Collections}}</ref>
   
Recycling centres and points are at a number of locations in Dundee.<ref name="Recycling Centres in Dundee">{{harvnb|Recycling Centres}}; {{harvnb|Recycling Points}}</ref> Items accepted include, steel and aluminium cans, cardboard, paper, electrical equipment, engine oil, fridges and freezers, garden waste, gas bottles, glass, liquid food and drinks cartons, plastic bottles, plastic carrier bags, rubble, scrap metal, shoes and handbags, spectacles, textiles, tin foil, wood and yellow pages. According to recent figures taken in 2008, suggest the city council has a recycling rate of 36.1%.<ref name="Waste Aware Tayside">{{harvnb|Waste Aware Tayside}}</ref>
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Recycling centres and points are at a number of locations in Dundee.<ref name="Recycling Centres in Dundee">{{harvnb|Recycling Centres}}; {{harvnb|Recycling Points}}</ref> Items accepted include steel and aluminium cans, cardboard, paper, electrical equipment, engine oil, fridges and freezers, garden waste, gas bottles, glass, liquid food and drinks cartons, plastic bottles, plastic carrier bags, rubble, scrap metal, shoes and handbags, spectacles, textiles, tin foil, wood and yellow pages. According to recent figures taken in 2008, suggest the city council has a recycling rate of 36.1%.<ref name="Waste Aware Tayside">{{harvnb|Waste Aware Tayside}}</ref>
   
 
Law enforcement is provided by Police Scotland. The headquarters of the Dundee Branch of Police Scotland is situated in West Bell Street.<ref name="Policing in Dundee">{{harvnb|Policing in Dundee}}</ref> There are also four police stations which serve the city: Maryfield, Lochee, Downfield and Longhaugh.<ref name="Policing in Dundee" />
 
Law enforcement is provided by Police Scotland. The headquarters of the Dundee Branch of Police Scotland is situated in West Bell Street.<ref name="Policing in Dundee">{{harvnb|Policing in Dundee}}</ref> There are also four police stations which serve the city: Maryfield, Lochee, Downfield and Longhaugh.<ref name="Policing in Dundee" />
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* {{citation | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Tory leader hits out at critic|2005}} | url = http://www.eveningtelegraph.co.uk/output/2005/02/28/story6861222t0.shtm | title = Dundee Tory leader hits out at critic | work = [[Evening Telegraph (Dundee)|Evening Telegraph]] | date = 28 February 2005 | accessdate =3 May 2011}}
 
* {{citation | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Tory leader hits out at critic|2005}} | url = http://www.eveningtelegraph.co.uk/output/2005/02/28/story6861222t0.shtm | title = Dundee Tory leader hits out at critic | work = [[Evening Telegraph (Dundee)|Evening Telegraph]] | date = 28 February 2005 | accessdate =3 May 2011}}
* {{cite news | ref = {{harvid|Almost Famous}} | last = Didcock | first = Barry | coauthors = | title = Almost Famous | work = | pages = | language = | publisher = [[Sunday Herald]] | date = 1 May 2005 | url = http://www.sundayherald.com/49411 | accessdate =6 September 2006 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20060427090846/http://www.sundayherald.com/49411 <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 27 April 2006}}
+
* {{cite news | ref = {{harvid|Almost Famous}} | last = Didcock | first = Barry | title = Almost Famous | work = | pages = | language = | publisher = [[Sunday Herald]] | date = 1 May 2005 | url = http://www.sundayherald.com/49411 | accessdate =6 September 2006 |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20060427090846/http://www.sundayherald.com/49411 <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 27 April 2006}}
 
* {{cite news | ref = {{harvid|City promotes Emirates connection}} | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/tayside_and_central/8160624.stm | title = City promotes Emirates connection | work = BBC News | date = 21 July 2009 | accessdate =5 May 2011}}
 
* {{cite news | ref = {{harvid|City promotes Emirates connection}} | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/tayside_and_central/8160624.stm | title = City promotes Emirates connection | work = BBC News | date = 21 July 2009 | accessdate =5 May 2011}}
 
* {{cite news | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Stars join Elite}} | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/ice_hockey/8649518.stm | title = Dundee Stars join top UK league | work = BBC Sport | date = 28 April 2010 | accessdate=7 August 2011}}
 
* {{cite news | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Stars join Elite}} | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/ice_hockey/8649518.stm | title = Dundee Stars join top UK league | work = BBC Sport | date = 28 April 2010 | accessdate=7 August 2011}}
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* {{cite news | ref = {{harvid|Last of Menzieshill multis to be brought down this week}} | title = Last of Menzieshill multis to be brought down this week | work = The Courier | date = 5 March 2011 | url = http://www.thecourier.co.uk/News/Dundee/article/11557/last-of-menzieshill-multis-to-be-brought-down-this-week.html| accessdate =16 May 2011}}
 
* {{cite news | ref = {{harvid|Last of Menzieshill multis to be brought down this week}} | title = Last of Menzieshill multis to be brought down this week | work = The Courier | date = 5 March 2011 | url = http://www.thecourier.co.uk/News/Dundee/article/11557/last-of-menzieshill-multis-to-be-brought-down-this-week.html| accessdate =16 May 2011}}
 
* {{cite news | ref = {{harvid|Tenants gone, soon multi too}} | title = Tenants gone, soon multi too | work = Evening Telegraph | date = 2 March 2007 | url = http://www.eveningtelegraph.co.uk/output/2007/03/04/story9373804t0.shtm | accessdate =16 May 2011}}
 
* {{cite news | ref = {{harvid|Tenants gone, soon multi too}} | title = Tenants gone, soon multi too | work = Evening Telegraph | date = 2 March 2007 | url = http://www.eveningtelegraph.co.uk/output/2007/03/04/story9373804t0.shtm | accessdate =16 May 2011}}
* {{cite news | ref = {{harvid|Timex pulls the plug on Dundee plant}} | url = http://heritage.scotsman.com/videos.cfm?vid=57 | title = Timex pulls the plug on Dundee plant | work = The Scotsman | date = 29 August 1993 | accessdate =8 July 2006 | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20060614134707/http://heritage.scotsman.com/videos.cfm?vid=57 <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> | archivedate = 14 June 2006}}
+
* {{cite news | ref = {{harvid|Timex pulls the plug on Dundee plant}} | url = http://heritage.scotsman.com/videos.cfm?vid=57 | title = Timex pulls the plug on Dundee plant | work = The Scotsman | date = 29 August 1993 | accessdate =8 July 2006 | archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20060614134707/http://heritage.scotsman.com/videos.cfm?vid=57 <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> | archivedate = 14 June 2006}}
   
 
=== Websites ===
 
=== Websites ===
Line 475: Line 579:
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee & Angus Radio Controlled Car Klub (DARCCK)}} | url = http://www.darcck.org/ | title = Dundee & Angus Radio Controlled Car Klub (DARCCK)| publisher = www.darcck.org | accessdate =11 March 2012}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee & Angus Radio Controlled Car Klub (DARCCK)}} | url = http://www.darcck.org/ | title = Dundee & Angus Radio Controlled Car Klub (DARCCK)| publisher = www.darcck.org | accessdate =11 March 2012}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee}} |url = http://www.scottishfootballleague.com/scottish_football.cfm?curpageid=1168 | title = Dundee Football Club | publisher = www.scottishfootballleague.com | accessdate =10 March 2009}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee}} |url = http://www.scottishfootballleague.com/scottish_football.cfm?curpageid=1168 | title = Dundee Football Club | publisher = www.scottishfootballleague.com | accessdate =10 March 2009}}
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Airport}} | url = http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/airport/main.htm | title = Dundee Airport | publisher = Dundee City Council |year= 2006 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20060811190112/http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/airport/main.htm <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 11 August 2006}}
+
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Airport}} | url = http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/airport/main.htm | title = Dundee Airport | publisher = Dundee City Council |year= 2006 |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20060811190112/http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/airport/main.htm <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 11 August 2006}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Blues Bonanza}} | url = http://www.dundeebluesbonanza.co.uk/ | title = Dundee Blues Bonanza | accessdate =6 September 2006}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Blues Bonanza}} | url = http://www.dundeebluesbonanza.co.uk/ | title = Dundee Blues Bonanza | accessdate =6 September 2006}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Central Waterfront Masterplan 2001–2031}} | url = http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/dundeecity/uploaded_publications/publication_77.pdf | title = Dundee Central Waterfront Masterplan 2001–2031 | publisher = Dundee City Council and Scottish Enterprise | accessdate =24 April 2011}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Central Waterfront Masterplan 2001–2031}} | url = http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/dundeecity/uploaded_publications/publication_77.pdf | title = Dundee Central Waterfront Masterplan 2001–2031 | publisher = Dundee City Council and Scottish Enterprise | accessdate =24 April 2011}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Christadelphian Ecclesia}} | url = http://www.searchforhope.org/dundee | title = Dundee Christadelphian Ecclesia | publisher = www.searchforhope.org | accessdate =26 October 2010}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Christadelphian Ecclesia}} | url = http://www.searchforhope.org/dundee | title = Dundee Christadelphian Ecclesia | publisher = www.searchforhope.org | accessdate =26 October 2010}}
 
* {{citation | ref = {{harvid|Dundee City Council Political Make-up}} | url = http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/elections/mappage.htm | title = Dundee City Council Political Make-up | work = Dundee City Council website | accessdate =3 May 2011}}
 
* {{citation | ref = {{harvid|Dundee City Council Political Make-up}} | url = http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/elections/mappage.htm | title = Dundee City Council Political Make-up | work = Dundee City Council website | accessdate =3 May 2011}}
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Economic Profile}} | url = http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/dundeecity/uploaded_publications/publication_119.pdf | title = Dundee Economic Profile | date = January 2011 | accessdate =24 February 2011}}
+
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Economic Profile}} | url = https://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/sites/default/files/publications/Dundee%20City%20Economic%20Profile%20September%202016_0.pdf | title = Dundee Economic Profile | date = September 2016 | accessdate =31 October 2016}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Congregational Church}} | title = Dundee Congregational Church | url = http://www.dundeecongregationalchurch.org.uk/ | accessdate =29 March 2012}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Congregational Church}} | title = Dundee Congregational Church | url = http://www.dundeecongregationalchurch.org.uk/ | accessdate =29 March 2012}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Hebrew Congregation}} | url = http://www.scojec.org/communities/dundee/index.html | title = Dundee Hebrew Congregation | publisher = www.scojec.org | accessdate =28 January 2009}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Dundee Hebrew Congregation}} | url = http://www.scojec.org/communities/dundee/index.html | title = Dundee Hebrew Congregation | publisher = www.scojec.org | accessdate =28 January 2009}}
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* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|new Olympia leisure centre}} | url = http://www.constructingcommunities.com/Home/Media/Publications/10-12-15/Mansell_wins_%c2%a324_million_contract_to_build_major_landmark_in_Dundee.aspx | title = Mansell wins £24 million contract to build major landmark in Dundee | publisher = Mansell Construction | accessdate =7 August 2011}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|new Olympia leisure centre}} | url = http://www.constructingcommunities.com/Home/Media/Publications/10-12-15/Mansell_wins_%c2%a324_million_contract_to_build_major_landmark_in_Dundee.aspx | title = Mansell wins £24 million contract to build major landmark in Dundee | publisher = Mansell Construction | accessdate =7 August 2011}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|National Synod of Scotland, URC East Link}} | title = National Synod of Scotland, URC East Link | work = The United Reformed Church | url = http://scotland.urc.org.uk/index.php/local-churches/east-link | accessdate =29 March 2012}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|National Synod of Scotland, URC East Link}} | title = National Synod of Scotland, URC East Link | work = The United Reformed Church | url = http://scotland.urc.org.uk/index.php/local-churches/east-link | accessdate =29 March 2012}}
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|NME Interview}} | url = http://www.placeboworld.co.uk/archive/missiveattack.htm |title = NME Interview with Placebo |publisher = [[NME]]/PlaceboWorld | accessdate =17 July 2006 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20060415091720/http://www.placeboworld.co.uk/archive/missiveattack.htm <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 15 April 2006}}
+
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|NME Interview}} | url = http://www.placeboworld.co.uk/archive/missiveattack.htm |title = NME Interview with Placebo |publisher = [[NME]]/PlaceboWorld | accessdate =17 July 2006 |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20060415091720/http://www.placeboworld.co.uk/archive/missiveattack.htm <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 15 April 2006}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Panmure and Stobswell}} | url = http://www.scottishrugby.org/community/index.php?option=com_joomleague&func=showResultsRank&p=305&Itemid=789 | title = Panmure RFC and Stobswell RFC Results and Fixtures | publisher = Scottish Rugby | accessdate =7 August 2011}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Panmure and Stobswell}} | url = http://www.scottishrugby.org/community/index.php?option=com_joomleague&func=showResultsRank&p=305&Itemid=789 | title = Panmure RFC and Stobswell RFC Results and Fixtures | publisher = Scottish Rugby | accessdate =7 August 2011}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Policing in Dundee}} | url = http://www.tayside.police.uk/Your-Community/Dundee |title=Policing in Dundee |accessdate=21 March 2011}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Policing in Dundee}} | url = http://www.tayside.police.uk/Your-Community/Dundee |title=Policing in Dundee |accessdate=21 March 2011}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Population density: Scotland: by unitary authority}} | work = Office for National Statistics | title = Population density: Scotland: by unitary authority | year = 2002 | url = http://www.statistics.gov.uk/STATBASE/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=7657 | accessdate =20 April 2010}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Population density: Scotland: by unitary authority}} | work = Office for National Statistics | title = Population density: Scotland: by unitary authority | year = 2002 | url = http://www.statistics.gov.uk/STATBASE/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=7657 | accessdate =20 April 2010}}
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Population Matters}} | url = http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/dundeecity/uploaded_publications/publication_85.pdf | title = Population Matters | accessdate =3 March 2009 | publisher = Dundee City Council}}
+
* {{cite web|ref={{harvid|Population Matters}} |url=http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/dundeecity/uploaded_publications/publication_85.pdf |title=Population Matters |accessdate=3 March 2009 |publisher=Dundee City Council |deadurl=unfit |archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5u3guh0j0 |archivedate=7 November 2010 }}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Presbytery of Dundee}} | url = http://www.dundeepresbytery.org.uk/index.html | title = Presbytery of Dundee | publisher = www.dundeepresbytery.org.uk | accessdate =30 January 2009}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Presbytery of Dundee}} | url = http://www.dundeepresbytery.org.uk/index.html | title = Presbytery of Dundee | publisher = www.dundeepresbytery.org.uk | accessdate =30 January 2009}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Primary Schools}} | title = Primary Schools | url = http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/education/primaries/ | publisher = www.dundeecity.gov.uk | accessdate =2 March 2009}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Primary Schools}} | title = Primary Schools | url = http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/education/primaries/ | publisher = www.dundeecity.gov.uk | accessdate =2 March 2009}}
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* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Salvation Army Dundee}} | url = http://www1.salvationarmy.org.uk/dundee | title = Salvation Army Dundee | publisher = www1.salvationarmy.org.uk | accessdate =30 January 2009}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Salvation Army Dundee}} | url = http://www1.salvationarmy.org.uk/dundee | title = Salvation Army Dundee | publisher = www1.salvationarmy.org.uk | accessdate =30 January 2009}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Salvation Army Menzieshill}} | url = http://www1.salvationarmy.org.uk/menzieshill | title = Salvation Army Menzieshill | publisher = www1.salvationarmy.org.uk |accessdate =30 January 2009}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Salvation Army Menzieshill}} | url = http://www1.salvationarmy.org.uk/menzieshill | title = Salvation Army Menzieshill | publisher = www1.salvationarmy.org.uk |accessdate =30 January 2009}}
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Scotland's Jewish Community}} | url = http://www.jgsgb.org.uk/scot01.shtml | title = Scotland's Jewish Community | publisher = www.jgsgb.org.uk | accessdate =28 January 2009 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080801015456/http://www.jgsgb.org.uk/scot01.shtml <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 1 August 2008}}
+
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Scotland's Jewish Community}} | url = http://www.jgsgb.org.uk/scot01.shtml | title = Scotland's Jewish Community | publisher = www.jgsgb.org.uk | accessdate =28 January 2009 |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20080801015456/http://www.jgsgb.org.uk/scot01.shtml <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 1 August 2008}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{hardvid|Scottish Ambulance Service}} | url = http://www.scottishambulance.com/AboutUs/HowWeOrganised.aspx |title = How we are organised |publisher = Scottish Ambulance Service |accessdate=21 March 2011}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{hardvid|Scottish Ambulance Service}} | url = http://www.scottishambulance.com/AboutUs/HowWeOrganised.aspx |title = How we are organised |publisher = Scottish Ambulance Service |accessdate=21 March 2011}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{hardvid|Scottish Junior Football Teams A–K}} |url = http://www.footballcentral.org/sfa/associations/scottish-junior-football-association/club-directory-a-k.cfm |title = Scottish Junior football teams A-K |publisher = Scottish Junior Football Association |accessdate =6 December 2009}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{hardvid|Scottish Junior Football Teams A–K}} |url = http://www.footballcentral.org/sfa/associations/scottish-junior-football-association/club-directory-a-k.cfm |title = Scottish Junior football teams A-K |publisher = Scottish Junior Football Association |accessdate =6 December 2009}}
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* {{citation | ref = {{harvid|Shona Robison, MSP for Dundee East}} | title = Shona Robison, MSP for Dundee East | url = http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/MSP/MembersPages/shona_robison/index.htm | work = The Scottish Parliament | accessdate =3 May 2011}}
 
* {{citation | ref = {{harvid|Shona Robison, MSP for Dundee East}} | title = Shona Robison, MSP for Dundee East | url = http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/MSP/MembersPages/shona_robison/index.htm | work = The Scottish Parliament | accessdate =3 May 2011}}
 
* {{citation | ref = {{harvid|Stewart Hosie, MP for Dundee East}} | title = Stewart Hosie, MP for Dundee East | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/democracylive/hi/representatives/profiles/38317.stm | work = BBC News | accessdate =3 May 2011}}
 
* {{citation | ref = {{harvid|Stewart Hosie, MP for Dundee East}} | title = Stewart Hosie, MP for Dundee East | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/democracylive/hi/representatives/profiles/38317.stm | work = BBC News | accessdate =3 May 2011}}
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Snow Patrol}} | last = Borges | first = Mario Mesquita | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Snow Patrol Biography | work = [[Yahoo! Music]] | publisher = [[Yahoo!]] | date = | url = http://music.yahoo.com/ar-296554-bio--Snow-Patrol | doi = | accessdate =6 September 2006 }}
+
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Snow Patrol}} | last = Borges | first = Mario Mesquita | authorlink = | title = Snow Patrol Biography | work = [[Yahoo! Music]] | publisher = [[Yahoo!]] | date = | url = http://music.yahoo.com/ar-296554-bio--Snow-Patrol | doi = | accessdate =6 September 2006 }}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Tannadice Park}} | title = Tannadice Park | url = http://scottishfootballarchive.co.uk/grounds/tannadice-park | publisher = scottishfootballarchive.co.uk | accessdate =10 March 2009}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|Tannadice Park}} | title = Tannadice Park | url = http://scottishfootballarchive.co.uk/grounds/tannadice-park | publisher = scottishfootballarchive.co.uk | accessdate =10 March 2009}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|The Complete History of DMA Design}} | url = http://www.dmadesign.org/ | title = The Complete History of DMA Design| accessdate =9 July 2006 | work = The DMA History Site}}
 
* {{cite web | ref = {{harvid|The Complete History of DMA Design}} | url = http://www.dmadesign.org/ | title = The Complete History of DMA Design| accessdate =9 July 2006 | work = The DMA History Site}}
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* {{citation | ref = harv | title = Plan of the Town of Dundee from actual survey | last = Wood | first = John | year = 1821 | location = Edinburgh | publisher = Ballantyne | url = http://maps.nls.uk/towns/detail.cfm?id=331 | accessdate =21 April 2011}}
 
* {{citation | ref = harv | title = Plan of the Town of Dundee from actual survey | last = Wood | first = John | year = 1821 | location = Edinburgh | publisher = Ballantyne | url = http://maps.nls.uk/towns/detail.cfm?id=331 | accessdate =21 April 2011}}
   
=== Listed Building Reports ===
+
=== Listed building reports ===
   
 
* {{citation | ref = {{harvid|150 Nethergate, St Andrew's Roman Catholic Cathedral, Including Presbytery and Former Sea Wall to South, Category A Listing}} | title = 150 Nethergate, St Andrew's Roman Catholic Cathedral, Including Presbytery and Former Sea Wall to South, Category A Listing | url = http://hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk/hslive/hsstart?P_HBNUM=25455 | date = 12 July 1963 | accessdate =27 March 2012 | work = Historic Scotland}}
 
* {{citation | ref = {{harvid|150 Nethergate, St Andrew's Roman Catholic Cathedral, Including Presbytery and Former Sea Wall to South, Category A Listing}} | title = 150 Nethergate, St Andrew's Roman Catholic Cathedral, Including Presbytery and Former Sea Wall to South, Category A Listing | url = http://hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk/hslive/hsstart?P_HBNUM=25455 | date = 12 July 1963 | accessdate =27 March 2012 | work = Historic Scotland}}
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=== Bibliography ===
 
=== Bibliography ===
   
* {{citation | ref = harv | last = Abrams | first = Nathan | year = 2009 | title = Caledonian Jews: A study of seven small communities in Scotland | publisher = McFarland & Company, Inc. | location = Jefferson, North Carolina | url = http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=IWmiIp3uWEkC | accessdate =24 April 2011 | isbn = 978-0-7864-4285-0}}
+
* {{citation | ref = harv | last = Abrams | first = Nathan | year = 2009 | title = Caledonian Jews: A study of seven small communities in Scotland | publisher = McFarland & Company, Inc. | location = Jefferson, North Carolina | url = https://books.google.com/books?id=IWmiIp3uWEkC | accessdate =24 April 2011 | isbn = 978-0-7864-4285-0}}
 
* {{citation | ref = harv | last = Barrow | first = G.W.S. | year = 1965 | title = Robert Bruce and the community of the Realm of Scotland | publisher = Eyre & Spottiswoode | location = London}}
 
* {{citation | ref = harv | last = Barrow | first = G.W.S. | year = 1965 | title = Robert Bruce and the community of the Realm of Scotland | publisher = Eyre & Spottiswoode | location = London}}
 
* {{Citation | ref = harv | last = Barrow | first = G.W.S. | year = 1990 | contribution = Earl David's Burgh | pages = 19–32 | editor-last = Kay | editor-first = W. | title = The Dundee Book | publisher = Mainstream Publishing | location = Edinburgh }}
 
* {{Citation | ref = harv | last = Barrow | first = G.W.S. | year = 1990 | contribution = Earl David's Burgh | pages = 19–32 | editor-last = Kay | editor-first = W. | title = The Dundee Book | publisher = Mainstream Publishing | location = Edinburgh }}
 
* {{Citation | ref = harv | last = Barrow | first = G.W.S. | contribution = The Beginnings of Military Feudalism | editor-last = Barrow | editor-first = G.W.S. | title = The Kingdom of the Scots | year = 2003 | edition = 2 | publisher = Edinburgh University Press | location = Edinburgh}}
 
* {{Citation | ref = harv | last = Barrow | first = G.W.S. | contribution = The Beginnings of Military Feudalism | editor-last = Barrow | editor-first = G.W.S. | title = The Kingdom of the Scots | year = 2003 | edition = 2 | publisher = Edinburgh University Press | location = Edinburgh}}
* {{citation | ref = harv | title = New Perspectives on the Old Red Sandstone | work = Geological Society Special Publication | volume = 180 | editor1-first = Peter F. | editor1-last = Friend | editor2-first = Brian P.J. | editor2-last = Williams | contribution = Old Red Sandstone basins and alluvial systems of Midland Scotland | last = Bluck | first = B.J. | year = 2000 | pages = 417–438}}
+
* {{citation | ref = harv | title = New Perspectives on the Old Red Sandstone | work = Geological Society Special Publication | volume = 180 | issue = 13 | editor1-first = Peter F. | editor1-last = Friend | editor2-first = Brian P.J. | editor2-last = Williams | contribution = Old Red Sandstone basins and alluvial systems of Midland Scotland | last = Bluck | first = B.J. | year = 2000 | pages = 417–438| bibcode = 2002EOSTr..83..153M | doi = 10.1029/2002EO000099 }}
* {{citation | ref = harv | last1 = Checkland | first1 = Sydney | last2 = Checkland | first2 = Olive | title = Industry and ethos: Scotland, 1832–1914 | publisher = The Cromwell Press | location = Melksham | year = 1989 | edition = 2 | url = http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=-MPTw6QQJ-4C | accessdate =21 April 2011 | isbn = 978-0-7486-0102-8}}
+
* {{citation | ref = harv | last1 = Checkland | first1 = Sydney | last2 = Checkland | first2 = Olive | title = Industry and ethos: Scotland, 1832–1914 | publisher = The Cromwell Press | location = Melksham | year = 1989 | edition = 2 | url = https://books.google.com/books?id=-MPTw6QQJ-4C | accessdate =21 April 2011 | isbn = 978-0-7486-0102-8}}
* {{citation | ref = harv | last = Colvin | first = H | year = 2008 | title = A biographical dictionary of British Architects, 1600–1840 | edition = 4th | publisher = Yale University Press | location = New Haven and London | url = http://books.google.com/?id=CSyaO-MqYoAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=dundee+high+school | isbn = 978-0-300-12508-5}}
+
* {{citation | ref = harv | last = Colvin | first = H | year = 2008 | title = A biographical dictionary of British Architects, 1600–1840 | edition = 4th | publisher = Yale University Press | location = New Haven and London | url = https://books.google.com/?id=CSyaO-MqYoAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=dundee+high+school | isbn = 978-0-300-12508-5}}
 
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* {{citation | ref = harv | last = Lenman | first = Bruce | year = 1980 | title = The Jacobite risings in Britain 1689–1746 | location = London | publisher = Eyre Methuen}}
 
* {{citation | ref = harv | title = Beautiful Railway Bridge of the Silvery Tay: reinvestigating the Tay Bridge disaster of 1879 | last = Lewis | first = Peter Rhys | publisher = Tempus | year = 2004 | location = Stroud}}
 
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* {{citation | ref = harv | last = Merriman | first = Marcus | year = 2000 | title = The Rough Wooings: Mary Queen of Scots 1542–1551 | publisher = Tuckwell Press | location = East Linton}}
 
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* Tomlinson, Jim, Carlo Morelli and Valerie Wright. ''The Decline of Jute: Managing Industrial Decline'' (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2011) 219 pp.&nbsp;978–1-84893-124-4.
 
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* {{Citation | ref = harv | last = Whatley | first = Christopher A. | year = 1992 | title = Onwards from Osnaburgs: The rise and progress of a Scottish textile company, Don and Low of Forfar 1792–1992 | location = Edinburgh & London | publisher = Mainstream Publishing}}
 
* {{Citation | ref = harv | last = Whatley | first = Christopher A. | year = 1992 | title = Onwards from Osnaburgs: The rise and progress of a Scottish textile company, Don and Low of Forfar 1792–1992 | location = Edinburgh & London | publisher = Mainstream Publishing}}
 
 
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* {{Citation | ref = harv | last1 = Whatley | first1 = Christopher | last2 = Swinfen | first2 = David B. | last3 = Smith | first3 = Annette M. | year = 1993 | title = The Life and Times of Dundee | publisher = John Donald Publishers Ltd. | location = Edinburgh}}
   
 
== External links ==
 
== External links ==
 
{{sisterlinks}}
 
{{sisterlinks}}
  +
*{{wikivoyage-inline}}
 
 
* {{dmoz|Regional/Europe/United_Kingdom/Scotland/Dundee,_City_of}}
 
* {{dmoz|Regional/Europe/United_Kingdom/Scotland/Dundee,_City_of}}
 
* [http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/ Dundee City Council]
 
* [http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/ Dundee City Council]
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* [http://www.dundeeandangus.com/ Dundee and Angus information portal]
 
* [http://www.dundeeandangus.com/ Dundee and Angus information portal]
 
* [http://www.ngw.nl/int/gbr/scot/dundee.htm Heraldry of Dundee Burgh, District and City]
 
* [http://www.ngw.nl/int/gbr/scot/dundee.htm Heraldry of Dundee Burgh, District and City]
* [http://www.dundonianforbeginners.co.uk/ Dundonian for beginners]
 
 
* [http://www.scots-online.org/grammar/dundee.htm Dundee Dialect]
 
* [http://www.scots-online.org/grammar/dundee.htm Dundee Dialect]
 
* [http://www.indundee.co.uk/ InDundee] Listings and Events
 
* [http://www.indundee.co.uk/ InDundee] Listings and Events
 
* [http://www.dundee-howff.info/ Memorial inscriptions from the city's oldest cemetery]
 
* [http://www.dundee-howff.info/ Memorial inscriptions from the city's oldest cemetery]
 
* [http://www.virtual-dundee.co.uk/ Dundee in 3d]
 
* [http://www.virtual-dundee.co.uk/ Dundee in 3d]
* [http://www.dundeemountainfilm.org.uk/ Dundee Mountain Film Festival]
 
 
* [http://ssa.nls.uk/search.cfm?search_term=dundee&search_fields=6&search_join_type=AND&search_fuzzy=no&subject=&location=&personality=&genre=&series=&fiction=&colour=&sound=&year_from=&year_to=&decade=&videos_only=1&search_mode=Advanced&submit=Search+%3E%3E%3E National Library of Scotland: SCOTTISH SCREEN ARCHIVE] (selection of archive films about Dundee)
 
* [http://ssa.nls.uk/search.cfm?search_term=dundee&search_fields=6&search_join_type=AND&search_fuzzy=no&subject=&location=&personality=&genre=&series=&fiction=&colour=&sound=&year_from=&year_to=&decade=&videos_only=1&search_mode=Advanced&submit=Search+%3E%3E%3E National Library of Scotland: SCOTTISH SCREEN ARCHIVE] (selection of archive films about Dundee)
 
* [http://www.photodundee.eu/ Photographs of Dundee]
 
* [http://www.photodundee.eu/ Photographs of Dundee]
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* [http://www.linksland.com/?p=2455 Caird Park Golf Course Video]
 
* [http://www.linksland.com/?p=2455 Caird Park Golf Course Video]
 
* [http://www.linksland.com/?p=2447 Camperdown Golf Course Video]
 
* [http://www.linksland.com/?p=2447 Camperdown Golf Course Video]
* [http://www.taysidehousedemolition.co.uk/ Tayside House Demolition]
 
* [http://www.dundeerunners.co.uk/ DundeeRunners.co.uk] Social and Listings
 
 
* [http://digital.nls.uk/slezer/engraving.cfm?sl=39 Engraving of Dundee from the east in 1693] by [[John Slezer]] at National Library of Scotland
 
* [http://digital.nls.uk/slezer/engraving.cfm?sl=39 Engraving of Dundee from the east in 1693] by [[John Slezer]] at National Library of Scotland
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Latest revision as of 02:19, 3 November 2016

Main Births etc
City of Dundee
Dùn Dè
—  City and council area  —
[[File:442 dundee header.png|250px|none|alt=|Top: Tay Rail Bridge, Middle: RRS Discovery and City Centre, Bottom left: Magdalen Yard Bandstand, Bottom right: University of Dundee.]]Top: Tay Rail Bridge, Middle: RRS Discovery and City Centre, Bottom left: Magdalen Yard Bandstand, Bottom right: University of Dundee.
[[File:Dundee City Flag.png|100px|border|alt=|Flag of City of Dundee]]
Flag
[[File:City of Dundee Coat of Arms.png|100px|alt=|Official seal of City of Dundee]]
Seal
Nickname(s): "The City of Discovery"



Dundee is located in Scotland
Dundee
Location in Scotland
Coordinates: 56°27′43″N 2°58′15″W / 56.462, -2.9707Coordinates: 56°27′43″N 2°58′15″W / 56.462, -2.9707
Sovereign state  United Kingdom
Country  Scotland
Council Area Dundee City
Lieutenancy Area Dundee
Founded c. 11th century AD
Burgh Charter 1191
City Status 1889
Government
 • Body Dundee City Council
 • Lord Provost Robert Duncan[1]
 • MSPs
 • MPs
Area[2]
 • Total 60 km2 (20 sq mi)
Elevation[2] 18 m (59 ft)
Population (2015)[4]
 • Total 148,210
 • Rank 4th, Scotland
 • Density 2,477/km2 (6,420/sq mi)
 • Metro 237,000[3]
 • Language(s) English, Scots
Demonym Dundonian
Time zone GMT (UTC±0)
 • Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Postcode Areas DD1-5
Area code(s) 01382
ISO 3166-2 GB-DND
ONS Code 00QJ
OS Grid Reference NO4030
NUTS 3 UKM21
Primary Airport Dundee Airport
Website dundeecity.gov.uk

Dundee ( /dʌnˈd/; Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Dè [ˈt̪uːn tʲeː]), officially the City of Dundee, is Scotland's fourth-largest city and the 51st-most-populous built-up area in the United Kingdom. The mid-year population estimate for 2015 was 148,210 which gave Dundee a population density of 2,477/km2 or 6,420/sq mi, the second-highest of any Scottish city. It lies within the eastern central Lowlands on the north bank of the Firth of Tay, which feeds into the North Sea. Under the name of Dundee City, it forms one of the 32 council areas used for local government in Scotland.

Historically part of Angus, the city developed into a burgh in medieval times, and expanded rapidly in the 19th century largely due to the jute industry. This, along with its other major industries gave Dundee its epithet as city of "jute, jam and journalism". Dundee's recorded population reached a peak of 182,204 at the 1971 census.

Today, Dundee is promoted as 'One City, Many Discoveries' in honour of Dundee's history of scientific activities and of the RRS Discovery, Robert Falcon Scott's Antarctic exploration vessel, which was built in Dundee and is now berthed in the city harbour. Biomedical and technological industries have arrived since the 1980s, and the city now accounts for 10% of the United Kingdom's digital-entertainment industry. Dundee has two universities—the University of Dundee and the Abertay University. In 2014 Dundee was recognised by the United Nations as the UK's first UNESCO City of Design for its diverse contributions to fields including medical research, comics and video games.[5][6][7]

A unique feature of Dundee is that its two professional football clubs Dundee United and Dundee F.C. have stadiums all but adjacent to each other.[8]

A £1 billion master plan to regenerate and to reconnect the Waterfront to the city centre which started in 2001 is expected to be completed within a 30-year period, with the Dundee Victoria & Albert Museum opening by 2018 at a cost of £80 million.[9]

History[edit | edit source]

The name "Dundee" is made up of two parts: the common Celtic place-name element dun, meaning fort; and a second part that may derive from a Celtic element, cognate with the Gaelic , meaning 'fire'.[10]

While earlier evidence for human occupation is abundant,[11] Dundee's success and growth as a seaport town arguably came as a result of William the Lion's charter, granting Dundee to his younger brother, David (later Earl of Huntingdon) in the late 12th century.[12] The situation of the town and its promotion by Earl David as a trading centre led to a period of prosperity and growth.[13] The earldom was passed down to David's descendants, amongst whom was John Balliol. The town became a Royal Burgh on John's coronation as king in 1292.[14] The town and its castle were occupied by English forces for several years during the First War of Independence and recaptured by Robert the Bruce in early 1312.[15] The original Burghal charters were lost during the occupation and subsequently renewed by Bruce in 1327.[16]

The burgh suffered considerably during the conflict known as the Rough Wooing of 1543 to 1550, and was occupied by the English forces of Andrew Dudley from 1547. In 1548, unable to defend the town against an advancing Scottish force, Dudley ordered that the town be burnt to the ground.[17] In 1645, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Dundee was again besieged, this time by the Royalist Marquess of Montrose.[18] The town was finally destroyed by Parliamentarian forces led by George Monck in 1651.[19] The town played a pivotal role in the establishment of the Jacobite cause when John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee raised the Stuart standard on the Dundee Law in 1689.[20] The town was held by the Jacobites in the 1715–16 rising, and on 6 January 1716 the Jacobite claimant to the throne, James VIII and III (the Old Pretender), made a public entry into the town. Many in Scotland, including many in Dundee, regarded him as the rightful king.[21]

The economy of mediaeval Dundee centred on the export of raw wool, with the production of finished textiles being a reaction to recession in the 15th century.[22] Two government Acts in the mid 18th century had a profound effect on Dundee's industrial success: the textile industry was revolutionised by the introduction of large four-storey mills, stimulated in part by the 1742 Bounty Act which provided a government-funded subsidy on Osnaburg linen produced for export.[23] Expansion of the whaling industry was triggered by the second Bounty Act, introduced in 1750 to increase Britain's maritime and naval skill base.[24] Dundee, and Scotland more generally, saw rapid population increase at end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, with the city's population increasing from 12,400 in 1751 to 30,500 in 1821.[25]

The phasing out of the linen export bounty between 1825 and 1832 stimulated demand for cheaper textiles, particularly for cheaper, tough fabrics.[26] The discovery that the dry fibres of jute could be lubricated with whale oil (of which Dundee had a surfeit, following the opening of its gasworks) to allow it to be processed in mechanised mills resulted in the Dundee mills rapidly converting from linen to jute, which sold at a quarter of the price of flax.[27] Interruption of Prussian flax imports during the Crimean War and of cotton during the American Civil War resulted in a period of inflated prosperity for Dundee and the jute industry dominated Dundee throughout the latter half of the 19th century.[28] Unprecedented immigration, notably of Irish workers, led to accelerated urban expansion, and at the height of the industry's success, Dundee supported 62 jute mills, employing some 50,000 workers.[29] Cox Brothers, who owned the massive Camperdown Works in Lochee, were one of the largest jute manufacturers in Europe and employed more than 5,000 workers.[30]

The rise of the textile industries brought with it an expansion of supporting industries, notably of the whaling, maritime and shipbuilding industries,[31] and extensive development of the waterfront area started in 1815 to cope with increased demand for port capacity.[32] At its height, 200 ships per year were built there, including Robert Falcon Scott's Antarctic research vessel, the RRS Discovery. This ship is now on display at Discovery Point in the city.[33] A significant whaling industry was also based in Dundee, largely existing to supply the jute mills with whale oil. Whaling ceased in 1912 and shipbuilding ceased in 1981.[34]

The original Tay Bridge (from the south) the day after the disaster. The collapsed section can be seen near the northern end

While the city's economy was dominated by the jute industry, it also became known for smaller industries. Most notable among these were James Keiller's and Sons, established in 1795, which pioneered commercial marmalade production,[35] and the publishing firm DC Thomson & Co., which was founded in the city in 1905 and remains the largest employer after the health and leisure industries.[36] Dundee was said to be built on the 'three Js': Jute, Jam and Journalism.

The town was also the location of one of the worst rail disasters in British history, the Tay Bridge disaster. The first Tay Rail Bridge was opened in 1878. It collapsed some 18 months later during a storm, as a passenger train passed over it, resulting in the loss of 75 lives.[37] The most destructive fire in the city's history came in 1906, reportedly sending "rivers of burning whisky" through the street.

The jute industry fell into decline in the early 20th century, partly due to reduced demand for jute products and partly due to an inability to compete with the emerging industry in Calcutta.[38] This gave rise to unemployment levels far in excess of the national average, peaking in the inter-war period,[39] but major recovery was seen in the post-war period, thanks to the arrival first of American light engineering companies like Timex and NCR, and subsequent expansion into microelectronics.[40]

A £1 billion master plan to regenerate Dundee Waterfront is expected to last for a 30-year period between 2001 and 2031.[41] The aims of the project are to reconnect the city centre to the waterfront; to improve facilities for walking, cyclists and buses; to replace the existing inner ring road with a pair of east/west tree-lined boulevards; and to provide a new civic square and a regenerated railway station and arrival space at the western edge. A new Victoria and Albert museum is also being built, set for completion by 2018.[41]

Governance[edit | edit source]

City of Dundee Arms since 1996

Dundee was granted Royal Burgh status on the coronation of John Balliol as King of Scotland in 1292.[14] The city has two mottos—Latin: Dei Donum (Gift of God) and Prudentia et Candore (With Thought and Purity) although usually only the latter is used for civic purposes.[42]

Prior to 1996, Dundee was governed by the City of Dundee District Council. This was formed in 1975, implementing boundaries imposed in the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973. Under these boundaries, the Angus burgh and district of Monifieth, and the Perth electoral division of Longforgan (which included Invergowrie) were annexed to the county of the city of Dundee. In 1996, the Dundee City unitary authority was created following implementation of the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994.[43] This placed Monifieth and Invergowrie in the unitary authorities of Angus and Perth and Kinross, largely reinstating the pre-1975 county boundaries. Some controversy has ensued as a result of these boundary changes, with Dundee city councillors arguing for the return of Monifieth and Invergowrie.[44]

Local government[edit | edit source]

Dundee City Chambers, where the city council meets

Dundee is one of 32 council areas of Scotland,[43] and is represented by the Dundee City Council – a local council composed of 29 elected councillors. Previously the city was a county of a city and later a district of the Tayside region. Council meetings take place in the City Chambers, which opened in 1933 in City Square. The civic head and chair of the council is known as the Lord Provost, a position similar to that of mayor in other cities. Dundee House, the new headquarters for the city council on North Lindsay Street, opened in August 2011.[45] This has replaced Tayside House which was demolished in 2013 as part of the Dundee Waterfront improvements.[45][46]

Elections to the council are on a four-year cycle, the most recent being on 3 May 2012. Since 2007, the Local Governance (Scotland) Act 2004 has meant that there are eight multi-member wards which elect three or four councillors by single transferable vote, to produce a form of proportional representation.[47] The 2012 elections gave the SNP overall control of the council. Scotland's longest-serving councillor, Ian Borthwick, sits on the council.

Westminster and Holyrood[edit | edit source]

For elections to the British House of Commons at Westminster, the city area and portions of the Angus council area are divided in two constituencies.[48] The constituencies of Dundee East and Dundee West are as of 2015 represented by Stewart Hosie (Scottish National Party)[49] and Chris Law (Scottish National Party), respectively. For elections to the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood, the city area is divided between three constituencies. The Dundee East (Holyrood) constituency and the Dundee West (Holyrood) constituency are entirely within the city area. The Angus South (Holyrood) constituency includes north-eastern and north-western portions of the city area.[48] All three constituencies are within the North East Scotland electoral region: Shona Robison (SNP) is the Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) for the Dundee East constituency;[50] Joe Fitzpatrick (SNP) is the current MSP for the Dundee West constituency[51] and Graeme Dey (SNP) is the current MSP for the Angus South constituency.[52]

Dundee is also part of the pan-Scotland European Parliament constituency which elects seven Members of the European Parliament (MEP)s using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.[53] Scotland returns two Labour MEPs, two SNP MEPs, one Conservative and Unionist MEP and one UKIP MEP, to the European Parliament.[53]

Winston Churchill served as the MP for Dundee from 1908 to 1922.

2014 Scottish Referendum[edit | edit source]

On 18 September 2014, Dundee was one of four council areas to vote "Yes" in the Scottish Independence Referendum, with 57.3% voting "Yes" on a 78.8% turnout. With the highest Yes vote for any local authority in Scotland, some in the Yes Scotland campaign nicknamed Dundee the 'Yes City', including former First Minister Alex Salmond.[54][55]

Geography[edit | edit source]

The Dundee Law

Dundee sits on the north bank of the Firth of Tay on the eastern, North Sea Coast of Scotland. The city lies 36.1 miles (58 km) NNE of Edinburgh[56] and 360.6 miles (580 km) NNW of London.[56] The built-up area occupies a roughly rectangular shape 8.3 miles (13 km) long by 2.5 miles (4 km) wide, aligned in an east to west direction and occupies an area of 60 square kilometres (23 sq mi).[57][58] The town is bisected by a line of hills stretching from Balgay Hill (elevation of 143 m) in the west end of the city, through the Dundee Law (174 m) which occupies the centre of the built up area, to Gallow Hill (83 m), between Baxter Park and the Eastern Cemetery. North of this ridge lies a valley through which cuts the Dighty Water burn, the elevation falling to around 45 m. North of the Dighty valley lie the Sidlaw Hills, the most prominent hill being Craigowl Hill (455 m).[57]

The western and eastern boundaries of the city are marked by two burns that are tributaries of the River Tay. On the western-most boundary of the city, the Lochee burn meets the Fowlis burn, forming the Invergowrie burn, which meets the Tay at Invergowrie basin.[57] The Dighty Water enters Dundee from the village of Strathmartine and marks the boundaries of a number of northern districts of the city, joining the Tay between Barnhill and Monifieth.[57] The Scouring burn in the west end of the city and Dens Burn in the east, both of which played important roles in the industrial development of the city, have now been culverted over.

Geology[edit | edit source]

The city lies within the Sidlaw-Ochil anticline, and the predominant bedrock type is Old Red Sandstone of the Arbuthnott-Garvock group.[59] Differential weathering of a series of igneous intrusions has yielded a number of prominent hills in the landscape, most notably the Dundee Law (a late Silurian/early Devonian Mafic rock intrusion) and Balgay hill (a Felsic rock intrusion of similar age).[59] In the east of the city, in Craigie and Broughty Ferry, the bedrock geology is of extrusive rocks, including mafic lava and tuff.[59]

The land surrounding Dundee, particularly that in the lower lying areas to the west and east of the city, bears high quality soil that is particularly suitable for arable farming. It is predominantly of a brown forest soil type with some gleying, the lower parts being formed from raised beach sands and gravels derived from Old Red Sandstone and lavas.[60]

Location[edit | edit source]

Urban environment[edit | edit source]

View from The Law, overlooking Dundee City Centre and the Tay Road Bridge

Very little of pre-Reformation Dundee remains, the destruction suffered in the War of the Rough Wooing being almost total, with only scattered, roofless shells remaining.[61] The area occupied by the medieval burgh of Dundee extends between East Port and West Port, which formerly held the gates to the walled city. The shoreline has been altered considerably since the early 19th century through development of the harbour area and land reclamation.[62] Several areas on the periphery of the burgh saw industrial development with the building of textile mills from the end of the 18th century. Their placement was dictated by the need for a water supply for the modern steam powered machinery, and areas around the Lochee Burn (Lochee), Scouring Burn (Blackness) and Dens Burn (Dens Road area) saw particular concentrations of mills.[63] The post war period saw expansion of industry to estates along the Kingsway.[64]

Working class housing spread rapidly and without control throughout the Victorian era, particularly in the Hawkhill, Blackness Road, Dens Road and Hilltown areas.[65] Despite the comparative wealth of Victorian Dundee as a whole, living standards for the working classes were very poor. A general lack of town planning coupled with the influx of labour during the expansion of the jute industry resulted in insanitary, squalid and cramped housing for much of the population.[66] While gradual improvements and slum clearance began in the late 19th century, the building of the groundbreaking Logie housing estate marked the beginning of Dundee's expansion through the building of planned housing estates, under the vision of city architect James Thomson, whose legacy also includes the housing estate of Craigiebank and the beginnings of an improved transport infrastructure by planning the Kingsway bypass.[67]

Modernisation of the city centre continued in the post-war period. The mediaeval Overgate was demolished in the early 1960s to make way for a shopping centre, followed by construction of the inner ring road and the Wellgate Shopping Centre.[68] The Tay Road Bridge, completed in 1966 had as its northern landfall the docklands of central Dundee, and the new associated road system resulted in the city centre being cut off from the river.[69] An acute shortage of housing in the late 1940s was addressed by a series of large housing estates built in the northern environs including the Fintry, Craigie, Charleston and Douglas areas in the 1950s and early 1960s.[70] These were followed by increasingly cost-effective and sometimes poorly planned housing in throughout the 1960s.[71] Much of this, in particular the high-rise blocks of flats at Lochee, Kirkton, Trottick, Whitfield, Ardler and Menzieshill, and the prefabricated Skarne housing blocks at Whitfield, have been demolished since the 1990s or are scheduled for future demolition.[72]

Climate[edit | edit source]

Haar (fog) travelling up the River Tay by advection

The climate, like the rest of lowland Scotland, is Oceanic (Köppen-Geiger classification Cfb).[73] Mean temperature and rainfall are typical for the east coast of Scotland, and with the city's sheltered estuarine position, mean daily maxima are slightly higher than coastal areas to the North, particularly in spring and summer.[74] The summers are still chilly when compared with similar latitudes in continental Europe, something compensated for by the mild winters, similar to the rest of the British Isles. The nearest official Met Office weather station is Mylnefield, Invergowrie which is about 4 miles (6.4 km) west of the City Centre.

A record high of 28.7 °C (83.7 °F) was recorded in August 1995.[75] The warmest month was July 2006,[76] with an average temperature of 17.4 °C (63.3 °F) (mean maximum 22.5 °C (72.5 °F), mean minimum 12.3 °C (54.1 °F)). In an 'average' year the warmest day should reach[77] 25.2 °C (77.4 °F), and in total just 1.63 days[78] should equal or exceed a temperature of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) per year, illustrating the rarity of such warmth.

Climate data for Mylnefield, elevation 31m, 1981–2010, extremes 1960–2010
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.6
(58.3)
15.2
(59.4)
18.3
(64.9)
22.9
(73.2)
23.7
(74.7)
27.8
(82.0)
28.2
(82.8)
28.7
(83.7)
25.0
(77.0)
22.8
(73.0)
16.7
(62.1)
14.5
(58.1)
28.7
(83.7)
Average high °C (°F) 6.4
(43.5)
6.9
(44.4)
9.1
(48.4)
11.5
(52.7)
14.4
(57.9)
17.1
(62.8)
19.3
(66.7)
19.2
(66.6)
16.5
(61.7)
12.7
(54.9)
9.1
(48.4)
6.5
(43.7)
12.4
(54.3)
Average low °C (°F) 0.7
(33.3)
1.0
(33.8)
2.2
(36.0)
3.9
(39.0)
6.3
(43.3)
9.1
(48.4)
11.0
(51.8)
10.9
(51.6)
8.9
(48.0)
6.1
(43.0)
3.0
(37.4)
0.7
(33.3)
5.3
(41.5)
Record low °C (°F) −17.1
(1.2)
−11.2
(11.8)
−10
(14.0)
−4.4
(24.1)
−2.3
(27.9)
−0.7
(30.7)
2.8
(37.0)
1.7
(35.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
−3.4
(25.9)
−10.4
(13.3)
−12.7
(9.1)
−17.1
(1.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 71.1
(2.799)
47.2
(1.858)
53.3
(2.098)
46.3
(1.823)
48.1
(1.894)
57.3
(2.256)
56.9
(2.24)
64.6
(2.543)
65.7
(2.587)
82.0
(3.228)
68.4
(2.693)
61.2
(2.409)
722.0
(28.425)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 53.6 77.3 116.2 145.9 191.2 166.4 174.3 166.3 126.0 95.9 69.8 43.1 1,426.3
Source #1: KNMI/ Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute[79]
Source #2: Met Office [80]

Demography[edit | edit source]

City of Dundee compared according to UK Census 2001[81][82]
City of Dundee Scotland
Total population 154,674 5,062,011
Foreign born 5.84% 3.78%
Over 75 years old 8.18% 7.09%
Unemployed 5.18% 3.97%

According to the 2001 census, the City of Dundee had a population of 154,674.[81] A more recent population estimate of the City of Dundee has been recorded at 156,561 in 2012. The demographic make-up of the population is much in line with the rest of Scotland. The age group from 30 to 44 forms the largest portion of the population (20%).[81] The median age of males and females living in Dundee was 37 and 40 years, respectively, compared to 37 and 39 years for those in the whole of Scotland.[81]

The place of birth of the town's residents was 94.16% United Kingdom (including 87.85% from Scotland), 0.42% Republic of Ireland, 1.33% from other European Union countries, and 3.09% from elsewhere in the world. The economic activity of residents aged 16–74 was 35.92% in full-time employment, 10.42% in part-time employment, 4.25% self-employed, 5.18% unemployed, 7.82% students with jobs, 4.73% students without jobs, 15.15% retired, 4.54% looking after home or family, 7.92% permanently sick or disabled, and 4.00% economically inactive for other reasons. Compared with the average demography of Scotland, Dundee has both low proportions of people born outside the United Kingdom and for people over 75 years old.

Natives of Dundee are called Dundonians and are often recognisable by their distinctive dialect of Scots as well as their accent, which most noticeably substitutes the monophthong /ɛ/ (pronounced "eh") in place of the diphthong /aj/ (pronounced "ai").[83] Dundee, and Scotland more generally, saw rapid population increase at end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, with the city's population increasing from 12,400 in 1751 to 30,500 in 1821.[25] Of particular significance was an influx of Irish workers in the early to mid-19th century, attracted by the prospect of employment in the textiles industries. In 1851, 18.9% of people living in Dundee were of Irish birth.[84]

The city has also attracted immigrants from Italy, fleeing poverty and famine, in the 19th century Jews, fleeing from the Russia controlled portions of partitioned Poland and from German occupation in the 20th. Today, Dundee has a sizeable ethnic minority population, and has around (4.0%) 4,000 Asian residents which is the fourth-largest Asian community in Scotland. The city also has 1.0% of residents from a Black/African/Caribbean background.[85]

Dundee has a higher proportion of university students – one in seven of the population – than any other town in Europe, except Heidelberg.[86] The 14.2% come from all around the world to attend the local universities and colleges. Dundee is a major attraction for Northern Irish students who make up 5% of the total student population. The city's universities are believed to hold the highest percentage of Northern Irish students outside of Northern Ireland and have a big impact on the local economy and culture. However, this has declined in recent years due to the increase of tuition fees for students elsewhere in the UK. Dundee also has a lot of students from abroad, mostly from the Republic of Ireland and other EU countries but with an increasing number from countries from the Far East and Nigeria.[87]

Economy[edit | edit source]

Cox's Stack, a chimney from the former Camperdown Works jute mill. The chimney takes its name from jute baron James Cox who later became Provost of the city

The period following World War II was notable for the transformation of the city's economy. While jute still employed one-fifth of the working population, new industries were attracted and encouraged. NCR Corporation selected Dundee as the base of operations for the UK in late 1945,[88] primarily because of the lack of damage the city had sustained in the war, good transport links and high productivity from long hours of sunshine. Production started in the year before the official opening of the plant on 11 June 1947. A fortnight after the 10th anniversary of the plant the 250,000th cash register was produced.

By the 1960s, NCR had become the principal employer of the city producing cash registers, and later ATMs, at several of its Dundee plants. The firm developed magnetic-strip readers for cash registers and produced early computers.[89] Astral, a Dundee-based firm that manufactured and sold refrigerators and spin dryers was merged into Morphy Richards and rapidly expanded to employ over 1,000 people. The development in Dundee of a Michelin tyre-production facility helped to absorb the unemployment caused by the decline of the jute industry, particularly with the abolition of the jute control by the Board of Trade on 30 April 1969.[90]

Employment in Dundee changed dramatically during the 1980s with the loss of nearly 10,000 manufacturing jobs due to closure of the shipyards, cessation of carpet manufacturing and the disappearance of the jute trade. To combat growing unemployment and declining economic conditions, Dundee was declared an Enterprise Zone in January 1984. In 1983, the first Sinclair ZX Spectrum home computers were produced in Dundee by Timex. In the same year the company broke production records, despite a sit-in by workers protesting against job cuts and plans to demolish one of the factory buildings to make way for a supermarket. Timex closed its Dundee plant in 1993 following an acrimonious six-month industrial dispute.[91]

Modern day[edit | edit source]

Ninewells Hospital, one of the largest employers in the Dundee area

Dundee is a regional employment and education centre, with around 325,000 people within 30 minutes' drive of the city centre and 860,000 people within one hour.[92] Many people from North East Fife, Angus and Perth and Kinross commute to the city.[93] As of 2015, there were 395 employers who employed 250 or more staff; over a five-year period (2011-2015) the number of registered enterprises in Dundee increased by 20.9% from 2,655 to 3,210. [93] The largest employers in the city are NHS Tayside, Dundee City Council, University of Dundee, Tayside Contracts, Tesco, D. C. Thomson & Co and BT.[93]

Other employers include limited and private companies such as NCR, Michelin, Alliance Trust, Aviva, Royal Bank of Scotland, Asda, Stagecoach Strathtay, Tokheim, Scottish Citylink, C J Lang & Son (SPAR Scotland), Joinery and Timber Creations, HBOS, Debenhams, Xplore Dundee, and W. L. Gore and Associates. Between 2009 and 2014 the hardest-hit sectors, in terms of jobs, were Information and Communication, Construction and Manufacturing which each lost around 500 full-time jobs. By contrast, the Professional, Scientific and Technical sector saw an upsurge in jobs in addition to the Business Administration and Support Service sector which increased by approximately 1,000 full-time and 300 part-time jobs in the same six-year period.[93] Gross median weekly earnings of full-time employees in Dundee in 2015 was £523.50; men received £563.40 and women £451.80.[93] Gross weekly pay for all employees in Dundee has increased from £325.00 in 2000 to £380.00 in 2015.[93]

The biomedical and biotechnology sectors, including start-up biomedical companies arising from university research, employ just under 1,000 people directly and nearly 2,000 indirectly. Information technology and Video game development have been important industries in the city for more than 20 years.[94] Rockstar North, developer of Lemmings and the Grand Theft Auto series was founded in Dundee as DMA Design by David Jones; an undergraduate of the Abertay University.[95] Other game development studios in Dundee include Denki, Ruffian Games, Dynamo Games, 4J Studios, Cohort Studios amongst others.

NCR Dundee

Dundee is also a key retail destination for North East Scotland and has been ranked 4th in Retail Rankings in Scotland.[96] The city centre offers a wide variety of retailers, department stores and independent/specialist stores. The Murraygate and High Street forms the main pedestrian area and is home to a number of main anchors such as Marks and Spencer, Accessorise and Zara.[96] The main pedestrian area also connects the two large shopping centres; the Template:Convert/LoffAnoneDbSmid Overgate Centre which is anchored by Debenhams, H&M, Next, Argos, and The Perfume Shop and the Template:Convert/LoffAnoneDbSmid Wellgate Centre by BHS, Home Bargains, B&M, Superdrug, Iceland, Holland & Barrett, Poundland, Savers, The Works, Hydro Electric, Bright house,[96] Other retail areas in the city include Gallagher Retail Park, Kingsway East Retail Park and Kingsway West Retail Park.[96]

Landmarks[edit | edit source]

St Mary's Tower, oldest building in Dundee, dating to late 15th century

The city and its landscape are dominated by The Law and the Firth of Tay. The Law, a large hill to the north of the City Centre was the site of an Iron Age Hill Fort, upon which the Law War Memorial, designed by Thomas Braddock, was erected in 1921 to commemorate the fallen of World War I.[97] The waterfront, much altered by reclamation in the 19th century, retains several of the docks that once were the hub of the jute and whaling industries, including the Camperdown and Victoria Docks.[98] The Victoria Dock is the home of the frigate HMS Unicorn and the North Carr Lightship, while Captain Scott's RRS Discovery occupies Craig Pier, from where the ferries to Fife once sailed.

The oldest building in the city is St Mary's Tower, which dates from the late 15th century.[99] This forms part of the City Churches, which consist of St Clement's Church, dating to 1787–8 and built by Samuel Bell, Old St Paul's and St David's Church, built in 1841–42 by William Burn, and St Mary's Church, rebuilt in 1843–44, also by Burn, following a fire.[100] Other significant churches in the city include the Gothic Revival Episcopal Cathedral of St Paul's, built by Sir George Gilbert Scott in 1853 on the former site of Dundee Castle in the High Street,[101] and the Roman Catholic Cathedral of St Andrew, built in 1835 by George Mathewson in Nethergate.[102]

As a result of the destruction suffered during the Rough Wooing, little of the mediaeval city (aside from St Mary's Tower) remains and the earliest surviving domestic structures date from the Early Modern Era. A notable example is the Wishart Arch (or East Port) in Cowgate. It is the last surviving portion of the city walls. Dating from prior to 1548, it owes its continued existence to its association with the Protestant martyr George Wishart, who is said to have preached to plague victims from the East Port in 1544.[103] Another is the building complex on the High Street known as Gardyne's Land, parts of which date from around 1560.[104] The Howff burial ground in the northern part of the City Centre also dates from this time; it was given to the city by Mary Queen of Scots in 1564, having previously served as the grounds of a Franciscan abbey.[105]

Claypotts Castle, dating from the late 16th century

Several castles can be found in Dundee, mostly from the Early Modern Era. The earliest parts of Mains Castle in Caird Park were built by David Graham in 1562 on the site of a hunting lodge of 1460.[106] Dudhope Castle, originally the seat of the Scrymgeour family, dates to the late 16th century and was built on the site of a keep of 1460.[107] Claypotts Castle, a striking Z plan castle in West Ferry, was built by John Strachan and dates from 1569–1588.[108] In 1495 Broughty Castle was built and remained in use as a major defensive structure until 1932, playing a role in the Anglo-Scottish Wars and the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The castle stands on a shallow tip projecting into the Firth, alongside two beaches, one of sand, the other of pebbles. The ruins of Powrie Castle, north of Fintry, date from the 16th-century castle north.[109]

North of the City Churches, at the end of Reform Street, lies the High School of Dundee, built in 1829–34 by George Angus in a Greek Revival style.[110] Another school building of note is Morgan Academy on Forfar Road, built in 1863, designed by John Dick Peddie in a Dutch Gothic style.[111]

Dundee's industrial history as a centre for textile production is apparent throughout the city. Numerous former jute mills remain standing and while some lay derelict, many have been converted for other uses. Of particular note are the Tay Works, built by the Gilroy Brothers c.1850–1865,[112] Camperdown Works in Lochee, which built and owned by Cox Brothers, one of Europe's largest jute manufacturing companies, and begun in 1849,[113][114] and Upper Dens Mill and Lower Dens Works, built by the Baxter Brothers in the mid-19th century.[115]

A more recent landmark is the 140-foot (43 m) Tower Building of the University of Dundee built between 1959 and 1961. At the time of its construction only the Old Steeple was taller in the city. The Tower was built to replace the original college buildings which stood on the site.[116][117] The building houses the university's main administration and includes galleries and the university's Archive, Records Management and Museum Services.[118]

Many 1960s landmark multi-storey housing buildings were demolished in the last decade. The former Tayside House block, nicknamed 'Faulty Towers' by many local people, was demolished in 2013 as part of the waterfront redevelopment program.[119] According to the architectural historian Charles McKean and his co-authors of Lost Dundee, the best views in the city were from Tayside House, because these were the only views from the building could not be seen.[120]

Transport[edit | edit source]

Dundee bus station

Dundee is served by the A90 road which connects the city to the M90 and Perth in the west, and Forfar and Aberdeen in the north. The part of the road that is in the city is a dual carriageway and forms the city's main bypass on its north side, known as the Kingsway. East of the A90's Forfar Road junction, the Kingsway East continues as the A972, and meets the A92 at the Scott Fyffe roundabout. Travelling east, the A92 connects the city to Arbroath and Montrose and to the south with Fife via the Tay Road Bridge.

The A930 links the city with coastal settlements to the east, including, Monifieth and Carnoustie. Progressing westward from where the A92 meets the Tay Road Bridge at the Riverside Roundabout, the A85 follows the southern boundary of the city along Riverside Drive and towards the A90 at the Swallow Roundabout. The A85 multiplexes with the A90 and diverges again at Perth.

Also meeting the A92 and A85 at the Riverside Roundabout is the A991 Inner Ring Road, which surrounds the perimeter of the city centre, returning to the A92 on the east side of the Tay Road Bridge. The A923 Dundee to Dunkeld road meets the A991 at the Dudhope Roundabout, and the A929 links the A991 to the A90 via Forfar Road.

External view of Old Dundee (Tay Bridge) Station Building

Dundee has an extensive network of bus routes. The Seagate bus station is the city's main terminus for journeys out of town. Xplore Dundee operates most of the intra-city services, with other more rural services operated by Stagecoach Strathtay. The city's two railway stations are the main Dundee (Tay Bridge) Station near the waterfront, which is currently undergoing reconstruction while remaining open, and the much smaller Broughty Ferry Station at the eastern end of the city.

There are other nearby stations at Invergowrie, Balmossie and Monifieth. Passenger services at Dundee are provided by Abellio ScotRail, CrossCountry, Caledonian Sleeper and Virgin Trains East Coast. No freight trains serve the city since the Freightliner terminal in Dundee was closed in the 1980s. There are also many intercity bus services offered by Megabus, Citylink and National Express.

Dundee Airport offers commercial flights to London Stansted Airport. Flights to Birmingham Airport and Belfast City were discontinued in December 2012.[121] The airport is capable of serving small aircraft and is located 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) west of the city centre, adjacent to the River Tay. The nearest major international airport is Edinburgh Airport, 59.2 miles (95.3 km) to the south.

The nearest international passenger seaport is Aberdeen.

The cargo port of Dundee is one of the largest economic generators in the city and is operated by Forth Ports. Seafarers arriving at the port are given welfare and pastoral assistance by seafarers charity Apostleship of the Sea.

Education[edit | edit source]

Colleges and universities[edit | edit source]

The University of Dundee

Dundee is home to two universities and a student population of approximately 20,000.[122][123]

The University of Dundee became an independent entity in 1967, after 70 years of being incorporated into the University of St Andrews. It was founded in 1881 by Mary Ann Baxter and her distant cousin John Boyd Baxter as University College, Dundee, and teaching began in 1883. It fully merged with the University of St Andrews in 1897 and was reorganised as Queen's College, Dundee in 1954.[124][125] Significant research in biomedical fields and oncology is carried out in the "College of Life Sciences".[126] The University is also home to the renowned Dundee Law School,[127] situated in the Scrymgeour Building on the main campus and one of the UK's top medical schools, based at the city's Ninewells Hospital.[128] The university also incorporates the Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art and Design and the teacher training college.

The Abertay University was founded as Dundee Institute of Technology in 1988. Previously, the buildings formed Bell Street Technical College, a further education college. It was granted university status in 1994 under the Further and Higher Education Act, 1992. The university is noted for its computing and creative technology courses, particularly in computer games technology.[129] and is where the makers of Grand Theft Auto started out.

Dundee College is the city's umbrella further education college, which was established in 1985 as an institution of higher education and vocational training. As of 2013 it merged with Angus College in Arbroath, to become Dundee and Angus College (D&A College).

The Al-Maktoum College of Higher Education was established in Dundee in Blackness Road in 2002. It is a research-led institution of higher education which are currently offering programmes accredited by SQA in the study of Islam and Muslims, Arabic language and Islamic Economics and Finance. It is an independent institution. It is named after its patron, Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum.[130]

Schools[edit | edit source]

Schools in Dundee have a pupil enrolment of over 20,300. There are 37 primary state schools and nine secondary state schools in the city. Of these, 11 primary and two secondary schools serve the city's Catholic population; the remainder are non-denominational.[131] There is also one specialist school that caters for pupils with learning difficulties aged between five and 18 from Dundee and the surrounding area.[132]

Dundee has one independent school, the High School of Dundee, which was founded in the 13th century by the Abbot and monks of Lindores Abbey.[133] The current building was designed by George Angus in a Greek Revival style and built in 1832–34.[134] Early students included Thomas Thomson and Hector Boece,[135] as well as the brothers James, John and Robert Wedderburn who were the authors of The Gude and Godlie Ballatis, used early in the Scottish Reformation as a vehicle to spread Protestant theology.[136] It was the earliest reformed school in Scotland, having adopted the new religion in 1554. According to Blind Harry's largely apocryphal work The Actes and Deidis of the Illustre and Vallyeant Campioun Schir William Wallace, William Wallace was also educated in Dundee.

Religious sites[edit | edit source]

Christian groups[edit | edit source]

Dundee Parish Church, St Mary's is one of three of the Dundee's City Churches which are joined together; only two function as places of worship: St. Mary's and St. Clement's (the Old Steeple) which can be seen in the background.

The Church of Scotland Presbytery of Dundee is responsible for overseeing the worship of 37 congregations in and around the Dundee area, although changing population patterns have led to some of the churches becoming linked charges.[137] Due to their city centre location, the City Churches, Dundee Parish Church (St Mary's) and the Steeple Church, are the most prominent Church of Scotland buildings in Dundee. They are on the site of the medieval parish kirk of St Mary, of which only the 15th-century west tower survives. The attached church was once the largest parish church in medieval Scotland.[138] Dundee was unusual among Scottish medieval burghs in having two parish kirks; the second, dedicated to St Clement, has disappeared, but its site was approximately that of the present City Square.[139]

In the Middle Ages Dundee was also the site of houses of the Dominicans (Blackfriars), and Franciscans (Greyfriars), and had a number of hospitals and chapels. These establishments were sacked during the Scottish Reformation, in the mid-16th century, and were reduced to burial grounds, now Barrack Street (also referred to as the Dek-tarn street) and The Howff burial ground, respectively.[140]

St. Paul's Cathedral is the seat of the Scottish Episcopal Diocese of Brechin. It is charged with overseeing the worship of 9 congregations in the city, as well as a further 17 in Angus, the Carse of Gowrie and parts of Aberdeenshire. The diocese is led by Bishop Nigel Peyton. St. Andrew's Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dunkeld, led by Bishop Stephen Robson. The diocese is responsible for overseeing 15 congregations in Dundee and 37 in the surrounding area, including St Mary, Our Lady of Victories Church in the city.[141]

There are Methodist,[142] Baptist,[143] Congregationalist,[144] United Reformed Church,[145] Pentecostalist[146] and Salvation Army[147] churches in the city, and non-mainstream Christian groups are also well represented, including the Unitarians,[148] the Society of Friends,[149] the Jehovah's Witnesses,[150] Seventh-day Adventists, Christadelphians,[151] and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.[152]

Other religious communities[edit | edit source]

Muslims are served by the Dundee Central Mosque built in 2000 to replace their former premises on the Hilltown.[153] There are three other mosques in the city including; Jamia Masjid Tajdare Madina on Victoria Road, Jame Masjid Bilal on Dura Street and Al Maktoum Mosque on Wilkie's Lane. Alongside these there is an Islamic Society on the University of Dundee campus.[154]

The Sikh community is served by the Guru Nanak Gurdwara on Victoria Road, which serves its community in Dundee.[155]

A recorded Jewish community has existed in the city since the early 19th century.[156] There is a small Orthodox synagogue at Dudhope Park[157] that was built in the 1960s,[158] with the Hebrew Burial Grounds located three miles (5 km) to the east.[159] Samye Dzong Dundee is a Buddhist Temple based in Reform Street.[160] There is also a Hindu mandir in Taylor's Lane situated in the West End of the city.[161]

Culture[edit | edit source]

The McManus Galleries in the city's Albert Square

Dundee is home to a full-time repertory ensemble, which originated in 1939. One of its alumni, Hollywood actor Brian Cox, is a native of the city.[162] The Dundee Repertory Theatre, built in 1982, is also the base for the Scottish Dance Theatre company.

Dundee's principal concert auditorium, the Caird Hall (named after its benefactor, the jute baron James Key Caird) in the City Square regularly hosts the Royal Scottish National Orchestra.[163] Various smaller venues host local and international musicians during Dundee's annual Jazz, Guitar and Blues Festivals. The Dundee Contemporary Arts, which opened in 1999 in the city's cultural quarter, is home to both an art gallery and art-house cinema.[164]

Dundee has hosted the National Mod a number of times – 1902, 1913, 1937, 1959 and 1974.[165]

Dundee Contemporary Arts (abbreviated DCA) is an international art centre in the Nethergate close to Dundee Rep, which houses two contemporary art galleries, a two-screen cinema, a print studio, a visual research centre and a café bar.

The city's main museum and art gallery, McManus Galleries, is in Albert Square.[166] The exhibits include a collection of fine and decorative art, items from Dundee's history and natural history artefacts. Britain's only full-time public observatory, Mills Observatory at the summit of the city's Balgay Hill, was given to the city by linen manufacturer and keen amateur scientist John Mills in 1935.[167] Sensation Science Centre in the Greenmarket is a science centre based on the five senses with a series of interactive shows and exhibits.[168] Verdant Works is a museum dedicated to the once dominant jute industry in Dundee and is based in a former jute mill.[169] The University of Dundee also runs several public museums and galleries, including the D'Arcy Thompson Zoology Museum and the Tayside Medical History Museum. The university, through Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art and Design also offers the Cooper Gallery for contemporary art, and its archives including: the abcD (artists' books collection Dundee); the REWIND Archive (video art collection); and the Richard Demarco Digital Archive. A new £80 million centre for art and design known as the "V&A at Dundee" is to be built south of Craig Harbour onto the River Tay for completion in 2017. The new museum may bring another 500,000 extra visitors to the city and create up to 900 jobs.[170]

The city's archival records are mostly kept by two archives: Dundee City Archives, operated by Dundee City Council and the University of Dundee's Archive Services. Dundee City Archives holds the official records of the city and of the former Tayside Regional Council.[171] The archive also holds the records of various people, groups and organisations connected to the city. The university's Archive Services hold a wide range of material relating to the university and its predecessor institutions and to individuals associated with the university, such as D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson. Archive Services also holds the archives of several individuals, businesses and organisations based in Dundee and the surrounding area.[172] The records held include a substantial number of business archives relating to the jute and linen industry in Dundee; records of other businesses including the archives of the Alliance Trust and the department store G. L. Wilson; the records of the Brechin Diocese of the Scottish Episcopal Church; and the NHS Tayside Archive.[173][174] The same archive also holds the Michael Peto collection which includes thousands of the photojournalist's photographs, negatives, slides, publications and papers.[175]

Dundee Headquarters of DC Thomson & Co.

Dundee is home to DC Thomson & Son Ltd, established in 1905, which produces over 200 million magazines, newspapers and comics every year; these include The Beano, The Dandy and The Press and Journal.[96] Dundee has a strong literary heritage, with several authors having been born, lived or studied in the city. These include A. L. Kennedy, Rosamunde Pilcher, Kate Atkinson, Thomas Dick, Mary Shelley, Mick McCluskey, John Burnside and Neil Forsyth. The Dundee International Book Prize is a biennial competition open to new authors, offering a prize of £10,000 and publication by Polygon Books. Past winners have included Andrew Murray Scott, Claire-Marie Watson and Malcolm Archibald. William McGonagall, regularly cited as the "world's worst poet",[176] worked and wrote in the city, often giving performances of his work in pubs and bars. Many of his poems are about the city and events therein, such as his work The Tay Bridge Disaster. Dundee's poetic heritage is represented by the 2013 poetry anthology 'Whaleback City' edited by W. N. Herbert and Andy Jackson (Dundee University Press) containing poems by McGonagall, Don Paterson, Douglas Dunn, John Burnside and many others. City of Recovery Press was founded in Dundee, and has become a controversial figure in documenting the darker side of the city.[177]

Dundee bid to be named 2017 UK City of Culture, and on 19 June 2013 was named as one of the four short-listed cities alongside Hull, Leicester and Swansea Bay.[178] Ultimately, Dundee's bid was unsuccessful, with Hull winning the contest.[179] Dundee came fifth in a newspaper survey regarding numbers of cultural venues in the United Kingdom, ahead of other Scottish cities.[180][181]

Cinema[edit | edit source]

The Dundee Mountain Film Festival (DMFF), held in the last weekend of November, presents the best presenters and films of the year in mountaineering, mountain culture and adventure sport, along with an art and trade exhibition.[182] DMFF is also one of the members of International Alliance for Mountain Film (IAMF)[183] among other important international Mountain film festivals.

Dundee Contemporary Arts hosts an annual horror film festival called Dundead, which started in 2011.[184]

The city also has two Multiplex cinemas, Odeon and Cineworld.

Music[edit | edit source]

Popular music groups such as the 1970s soul-funk outfit Average White Band, the Associates, the band Spare Snare, Danny Wilson and the Indie rock bands The View and The Law are from Dundee. Ricky Ross of Deacon Blue and singer-songwriter KT Tunstall are former pupils of the High School of Dundee, although Tunstall is not a native of the city.[185] The Northern Irish indie rock band Snow Patrol was formed by students at the University of Dundee,[186] Brian Molko, lead singer of Placebo, grew up in the city.[187] At the end of June, Dundee hosts an annual blues festival known as the Dundee Blues Bonanza.[188]

Television and radio[edit | edit source]

Dundee is home to one of 11 BBC Scotland broadcasting centres, located within the Nethergate Centre.[189] STV North's Tayside news and advertising operations are based in the Seabraes area of the city, from where an STV News Tayside opt-out bulletin is broadcast, (though not on Digital Satellite), within the nightly regional news programme, STV News at Six. The city also had a community internet TV station called The Dundee Channel which was launched on 1 September 2009.

The city has three local radio stations. Radio Tay was launched on 17 October 1980.[190] The station split frequencies in January 1995 launching Tay FM for a younger audience and Tay AM playing classic hits. In 1999, Discovery 102 was launched, later to be renamed Wave 102.

Sports and recreation[edit | edit source]

Football[edit | edit source]

Dundee has two professional football clubs: Dundee, founded in 1893, and Dundee United, founded in 1909 as Dundee Hibernian. Dundee play in the Scottish Premiership and Dundee United play in the Scottish Championship. Their grounds Dens Park and Tannadice Park are just 100 metres apart, closer together than any other football stadiums in the UK. The Dundee Derby is one of the most highly anticipated fixtures in Scottish football. Dundee is one of four British cities to have produced two European Cup semi-finalists. Dundee lost to A.C. Milan in 1963[191] and Dundee United lost to A.S. Roma in 1984.[192] Dundee also reached the semi-finals of the forerunner to the UEFA Cup in 1968 and Dundee United were runners-up in the UEFA Cup in 1987.[193] There are also seven junior football teams in the area: Dundee North End, East Craigie, Lochee Harp, Lochee United, Dundee Violet, Broughty Athletic and Downfield.[194]

Ice hockey[edit | edit source]

Dundee Stars, the main ice hockey team, play at the Dundee Ice Arena. The team joined the Elite League in the 2010/2011 season.[195] They are one of four professional ice hockey teams in Scotland, and play against teams from England, Wales and Northern Ireland in the Elite League. The majority of the team are North American professionals. There are also two amateur ice hockey teams, Dundee Tigers and Dundee Comets, who both play in the Scottish National League.

Rugby[edit | edit source]

The city is also home to five rugby union teams – Dundee High School Former Pupils rugby club who play in the RBS Premiership Division One;[196] Morgan Academy Former Pupils in the RBS Premiership Division Three;[197] Harris Academy Former Pupils in the RBS Caledonian Division Two Midlands[198] and Panmure R.F.C. and Stobswell R.F.C. both in the RBS Caledonian Division Three Midlands.[199]

Other sports[edit | edit source]

Local sports clubs include Dundee Handball Club, Grove Menzieshill Hockey Club; Dundee Wanderers Hockey Club, Dundee Northern Lights floorball club, Dundee Hawkhill Harriers, Dundee City Aquatics, Dundee Hurricanes and Dundee & Angus Radio Controlled Car Klub (DARCCK).

The new £36 million Olympia leisure centre with multi-storey car park was scheduled to open in late 2012, but only three weeks from the original opening date, the date was pushed back by a further six months.[200]

There is a velodrome, Caird Park Velodrome.

Public services[edit | edit source]

Backwater Reservoir

Dundee and the surrounding area is supplied with water by Scottish Water. Dundee, along with parts of Perthshire and Angus is supplied from Lintrathen and Backwater reservoirs in Glen Isla.[201] Electricity distribution is by Scottish Hydro Electric plc, part of the Scottish and Southern Energy group.

Waste management is handled by Dundee City Council. There is a kerbside recycling scheme that currently only serves 15,500 households in Dundee. Cans, glass and plastic bottles are collected on a weekly basis.[202] Compostable material and non-recyclable material are collected on alternate weeks.[203] Paper is collected for recycling on a four-weekly basis.[204]

Recycling centres and points are at a number of locations in Dundee.[205] Items accepted include steel and aluminium cans, cardboard, paper, electrical equipment, engine oil, fridges and freezers, garden waste, gas bottles, glass, liquid food and drinks cartons, plastic bottles, plastic carrier bags, rubble, scrap metal, shoes and handbags, spectacles, textiles, tin foil, wood and yellow pages. According to recent figures taken in 2008, suggest the city council has a recycling rate of 36.1%.[206]

Law enforcement is provided by Police Scotland. The headquarters of the Dundee Branch of Police Scotland is situated in West Bell Street.[207] There are also four police stations which serve the city: Maryfield, Lochee, Downfield and Longhaugh.[207]

Healthcare is supplied in the area by NHS Tayside. Ninewells Hospital, is the only hospital with an accident and emergency department in the area. Primary Health Care in Dundee is supplied by a number of General Practices. Dundee is also served by the East Central Region of the Scottish Ambulance Service which covers the city, Tayside and Kingdom of Fife.[208] There is one ambulance station for the city; on West School Road.[209]

The Scottish Fire and Rescue Service operate three fire stations, covering the city and surrounding villages. The main station is at Blackness Road and there is a control room at Macalpine Road fire station.

See also[edit | edit source]

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. ^ The Courier (7 May 2012). "Lord Provost". D.C. Thomson & Co. Limited. https://www.thecourier.co.uk/news/local/dundee/94327/snp-name-bob-duncan-as-choice-for-new-dundee-lord-provost/. Retrieved 7 July 2016. 
  2. ^ a b "Population Matters". Dundee City Council. Archived from the original on 7 November 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5u3guh0j0. Retrieved 7 July 2016. 
  3. ^ "Scottish Census 2011". Scotland's Census. 28 April 2016. http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/ods-web/area.html. 
  4. ^ "Mid-Year Population Estimates - Scotland". National Records of Scotland. 28 April 2016. http://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/files//statistics/population-estimates/mid-15-cor-12-13-14/mype-2015-corrections-for-12-13-14-correctedb.pdf. 
  5. ^ "Dundee awarded UK's first Unesco City of Design status". BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-tayside-central-30275768. 
  6. ^ "Dundee wins City of Design status from UNESCO". thecourier.co.uk. http://www.thecourier.co.uk/news/local/dundee/dundee-wins-city-of-design-status-from-unesco-1.712577. 
  7. ^ "Dundee the UK’s first Unesco ‘City of Design’". scotsman.com. http://www.scotsman.com/lifestyle/heritage/unesco-hails-dundee-with-city-of-design-award-1-3621185. 
  8. ^ "Dens Park". Dundee Football Club. http://www.dundeefc.co.uk/the-club/dens-park. Retrieved 7 November 2015. 
  9. ^ Urquhart, Frank (13 August 2013). "V&A Museum at Dundee could see 2016 opening". The Scotsman. http://www.scotsman.com/lifestyle/arts/news/v-a-museum-at-dundee-could-see-2016-opening-1-3043218. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  10. ^ Watson 1926, p. 220; Dundee is also recorded as Dun-Tay, e.g. Pont c1583-96
  11. ^ The earliest evidence for human occupation of the area dates from the Mesolithic: Mathewson 1879; RCAHMS Canmore database: Dundee, Stannergate
  12. ^ Barrow 2003, p. 266
  13. ^ Barrow 1990, pp. 20–21; Turnock 1982, p. 23; Mackie 1836, pp. 23–24
  14. ^ a b Barrow 1990, p. 24
  15. ^ Barrow 1965, p. 272; p. 374
  16. ^ Mackie 1836, pp. 30–32; pp. 207–208
  17. ^ McKean 2009, pp. 9–10; Merriman 2000 pp. 263, 292, 304, 360–361
  18. ^ Lythe 1958, pp. 27–28; Reid 1990, pp. 97–99; Cowan 1995, pp. 195–198; Cullen, Whatley & Young 2009, pp. 61–63
  19. ^ Mackie 1836, pp. 32–38; Lythe 1958, pp. 28–30; Cullen, Whatley & Young 2009, pp. 63–64
  20. ^ Lenman 1980, p. 30; Patrick 2009, pp. 85–88
  21. ^ J. Baynes, The Jacobite Rising of 1715 (1970), p.166
  22. ^ Whatley, Swinfen & Smith 1993, pp. 28–30
  23. ^ McKean, Swan & Archibald 2009, p. 274; Whatley 1992, p. 23; Checkland & Checkland 1989, p. 45; Durie 1979 p. 27; p. 52; pp. 146–147;
  24. ^ McKean, Swan & Archibald 2009, p. 275
  25. ^ a b Smout 1998, pp. 240–248
  26. ^ Durie 1979, p. 169
  27. ^ Turnock 1982, p. 60; p. 122; Watson 1990, p. 14; Watson 2004, p. 94
  28. ^ Lenman, Lythe & Gauldie 1969, pp. 23–24; Stewart 1998, p. 1; Checkland & Checkland 1989, p. 48
  29. ^ Swift & Gilley 1989, pp. 117–118; Dundee Heritage Trust 1998, pp. 1–3
  30. ^ "MS 6 Cox Brothers Ltd, Jute Spinners and Manufacturers, and Cox Family Papers". Archive Services Online Catalogue. University of Dundee. http://arccat.dundee.ac.uk/dserve.exe?&dsqIni=Dserve.ini&dsqApp=Archive&dsqCmd=show.tcl&dsqDb=Catalog&dsqPos=2&dsqSearch=((text)=%27cox%20brothers%27). Retrieved 5 February 2016. 
  31. ^ Jackson & Kinnear 1990, pp. 16–22
  32. ^ McCarthy 2007, p. 80; Kenefick 2000, pp. 38–50
  33. ^ Huntford 1986, p. 47
  34. ^ Hunting the Whale: The Whale Ships
  35. ^ Mathew 1998, p. 12
  36. ^ Neuburg 1983, p. 75
  37. ^ Lewis 2004, p. 69
  38. ^ Roul 2009, p. 103; Stewart 1998, pp. 16–17; Stewart 2011, p. 37
  39. ^ Whatley 1990, p. 45; Devine, Lee & Peden 2005, p. 166
  40. ^ Devine, Lee & Peden 2005, p. 169; Cortada 1993, p. 237; Knox & McKinlay 2011, p. 266
  41. ^ a b McKean 2011, p. 100; Dundee Waterfront Brochure; Dundee Central Waterfront Masterplan 2001–2031
  42. ^ Chronicle of The City's Office Bearers, Chambers, Regalia, Castles & Twin Cities; the apocryphal toponym Dei Donum was applied by Hector Boece in the sixteenth century: Ferguson 1998, pp. 60–61
  43. ^ a b Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994
  44. ^ Councils plot revolt over re-draw plan 2005
  45. ^ a b Dundee House
  46. ^ "Bye-bye Tayside House — ‘Muncher’ completes its work". The Courier. 12 July 2013. http://www.thecourier.co.uk/news/local/dundee/bye-bye-tayside-house-muncher-completes-its-work-1.111722. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  47. ^ Local Governance (Scotland) Act 2004
  48. ^ a b Fifth Periodical Review of Constituencies
  49. ^ Stewart Hosie, MP for Dundee East
  50. ^ Shona Robison, MSP for Dundee East
  51. ^ Joe Fitzpatrick, MSP for Dundee West
  52. ^ Graeme Dey, MSP for Angus South
  53. ^ a b List of MEPs in Scotland
  54. ^ "Scotland Decides". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/events/scotland-decides/live. 
  55. ^ "Scottish Independence". The Scotsman. http://www.scotsman.com/scottish-independence/alex-salmond-dundee-is-scotlands-yes-city/. 
  56. ^ a b UK Postcode to Postcode Calculator
  57. ^ a b c d Ordnance Survey Landranger Map 2007
  58. ^ Population density: Scotland: by unitary authority
  59. ^ a b c Bluck 2000, p. 422; GeoIndex Onshore
  60. ^ Soil Survey of Scotland 1982
  61. ^ Merriman 2000, pp. 360–361
  62. ^ McCarthy 2007, p. 80; The progress of waterfront development can be seen in the maps of Wood 1821, Edward 1846 and Bartholomew 1912
  63. ^ Lenman, Lythe & Gauldie 1969, p. 9; Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland 1992 p. 25; Watson 1990, p. 8
  64. ^ Walker 1968, p. 296
  65. ^ Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland 1992 p. 26
  66. ^ McKean 2011, pp. 72–76
  67. ^ Logie Conservation Area; Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland 1992 pp. 51–52; McKean 2011, p. 81
  68. ^ McKean 1990, p. 73; McKean 2011, p. 85
  69. ^ McKean 1990, p. 73; McKean 2011, p. 93
  70. ^ Walker 1968, p. 296; Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland 1992 p. 55
  71. ^ Walker 1968, p. 296; McKean 1990, p. 73; Scott 2002 pp. 73–76; pp. 103–106; Glendinning 1997, pp. 25, 56
  72. ^ Tenants gone, soon multi too; Last of Menzieshill multis to be brought down this week; Four Dundee Hilltown multi-storey blocks to come down; Fate of Whitfield's Skarne blocks to be decided
  73. ^ Peel, Finlayson & McMahon 2007
  74. ^ Regional mapped climate averages
  75. ^ Aug 1995 Maximum
  76. ^ Jul 2006 Mean
  77. ^ 1971–2000 average warmest day
  78. ^ 1971–2000 >25c days
  79. ^ "Climate Normals and extremes". KNMI. http://eca.knmi.nl/utils/mapserver/climatology.php?indexcat=**&indexid=SU&periodidselect=1971-2000&seasonid=0&scalelogidselect=no&minx=-642500.000002&miny=-4174880.952380&maxx=224166.666666&maxy=-3524880.952379&MapSize=560%2C420&imagewidth=560&imageheight=420&mainmap.x=280&mainmap.y=207&CMD=QUERY_POINT&CMD=QUERY_POINT#bottom. Retrieved March 2011. 
  80. ^ "Dundee climate information". Met Office. http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/climate/gfjchqjr3. Retrieved 5 August 2015. 
  81. ^ a b c d Comparative Population: Dundee
  82. ^ Comparative Employment: Dundee
  83. ^ McCluskey 1991; Dundee Scots
  84. ^ Swift & Gilley 1989, p. 117; Little Tipperary: The Irish in Lochee
  85. ^ http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/documents/censusresults/release2a/rel2asbfigure4.pdf
  86. ^ "History of Dundee". http://www.lonelyplanet.com/scotland/central-scotland/dundee/history. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  87. ^ Population Matters
  88. ^ NCR Cash Advance
  89. ^ First Dundee computer next year
  90. ^ General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade 1969
  91. ^ Timex pulls the plug on Dundee plant; Scott 2002, pp. 163–165
  92. ^ "Dundee Economic Profile - Sep 2016". dundeecity.gov.uk. https://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/sites/default/files/publications/Dundee%20City%20Economic%20Profile%20September%202016_0.pdf. 
  93. ^ a b c d e f Dundee Economic Profile
  94. ^ "How Dundee became a computer games centre". BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-29122873. 
  95. ^ The Complete History of DMA Design
  96. ^ a b c d e Discover Dundee Retail
  97. ^ Law Hill War Memorial, Category B listing
  98. ^ Camperdown Dock, Category A listing
    Victoria Dock with Pedestrian and Vehicular Swing Bridges, Category A listing
  99. ^ Nethergate, City Churches, St Mary's Tower or the Steeple, Category A Listing
    McKean & Walker 1985, pp. 52–54
  100. ^ Nethergate, City Churches, St Clement's, or Steeple Church, Category A Listing
    Nethergate, City Churches, Old St Paul's and St David's, or South Church, Category A Listing
    Nethergate, City Churches, St Mary's East, or Dundee Parish Church, Category A Listing
    McKean & Walker 1985, pp. 52–54
  101. ^ 150 Nethergate, St Andrew's Roman Catholic Cathedral, Including Presbytery and Former Sea Wall to South, Category A Listing
    McKean & Walker 1985, p. 57
  102. ^ Castle Hill, St Paul's Episcopal Cathedral, including steps and boundary wall, Category A Listing
    McKean & Walker 1985, p. 57
  103. ^ Dundee, East Port of, Wishart Arch
    McKean & Walker 1985, pp. 32–33
  104. ^ 70–73 (Inclusive Nos) High Street, Including Gardyne's Land, Gray's Close and Clock with Model of the Town House; McKean & Walker 1985, p. 18; Dragging a building into the 21st century; Gardyne's Land wins multiple awards
  105. ^ Meadowside and Barrack Street, The Howff, Category A listing; ; McKean & Walker 1985, pp. 50–51
  106. ^ Caird Park Mains Castle, Category A listing, McKean & Walker 1985, p. 120
  107. ^ Dudhope Castle, Category A listing; McKean & Walker 1985, pp. 74–75
  108. ^ Claypotts Castle, Category A listing; McKean & Walker 1985, p. 103
  109. ^ Powrie, Old Powrie Castle, Including Adjoining Boundary Wall
  110. ^ Euclid Crescent High School, including Lodge, Gatepiers, Boundary wall and railings, Category A listing; McKean & Walker 1985, p. 47
  111. ^ Forfar Road, Morgan Academy, Main Block and Janitor's House with Terrace, Boundary Walls and Gatepiers, Category A listing; McKean & Walker 1985, p. 97
  112. ^ 2 Lochee Road, Tay Works, Category A listing; McKean & Walker 1985, p. 85
  113. ^ Methven Street, Camperdown Works High Mill or Silver Mill, Category A listing; McKean & Walker 1985, p. 89
  114. ^ "MS 6 Cox Brothers Ltd, Jute Spinners and Manufacturers, and Cox Family Papers". Archive Services Online Catalogue. University of Dundee. http://arccat.dundee.ac.uk/dserve.exe?&dsqIni=Dserve.ini&dsqApp=Archive&dsqCmd=show.tcl&dsqDb=Catalog&dsqPos=0&dsqSearch=((text)=%271,000,001%27). Retrieved 9 February 2016. 
  115. ^ Princes Street and Return Elevations to Dens Street, Constable Street and St Roques Lane, Lower Dens Works, Category listing; 2 Princes Street, Upper Dens Mill, Category listing; McKean & Walker 1985, pp. 30–32
  116. ^ (October 2009) "From the Archives: Fifty years since the Tower's foundation stone was laid". Contact: 24–25. 
  117. ^ "Dundee University's Tower Building needing facelift to address safety concerns". The Courier. 9 May 2012. http://www.thecourier.co.uk/news/local/dundee/dundee-university-s-tower-building-needing-facelift-to-address-safety-concerns-1.51518. Retrieved 22 October 2013. 
  118. ^ "Tower Building". University of Dundee. http://www.dundee.ac.uk/general/campusguide/virtualtour/tower/. Retrieved 22 October 2013. 
  119. ^ "Bye-bye Tayside House — ‘Muncher’ completes its work". The Courier.co.uK (D C Thomson & Co, Ltd.). 12 July 2013. http://www.thecourier.co.uk/news/local/dundee/bye-bye-tayside-house-muncher-completes-its-work-1.111722. Retrieved 2 March 2016. 
  120. ^ McKean, Charles; Whatley, Patricia; with Baxter, Kenneth (2013). Lost Dundee. Dundee's Lost Architectural Heritage (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Birlinn. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-78027-106-4. 
  121. ^ Dundee Airport
  122. ^ http://www.dundee.ac.uk/registry/main/statistics/14-15_fst_dpt.xlsx
  123. ^ http://www.abertay.ac.uk/discover/the-university/
  124. ^ "Records of the University of Dundee and its Predecessors". Archival Sources for Local and Scottish History. University of Dundee. Archived from the original on 8 August 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110808121954/http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives/source-history.htm. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  125. ^ Baxter, Kenneth (2007). A Dundee Celebration. Dundee: University of Dundee. 
  126. ^ College of Life Sciences
  127. ^ "Law". Scottish Legal News (Dundee). 12 September 2016. http://www.scottishlegal.com/2016/05/24/law-at-dundee-takes-top-spot-in-guardian-university-guide-2017/. 
  128. ^ "Medicine". The Guardian (London). 17 May 2011. http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/table/2011/may/17/university-guide-medicine. 
  129. ^ money for computer games centre
  130. ^ Al-Maktoum Institute
  131. ^ Primary Schools; Secondary Schools
  132. ^ Kingspark School
  133. ^ Strong 1909, p. 19
  134. ^ Colvin 2008, p. xx
  135. ^ Kerr 1913, p. 13
  136. ^ Dawson 2007, p. 159
  137. ^ Presbytery of Dundee
  138. ^ McKean 2009, p. 5
  139. ^ McKean & Walker 1985, p. 52
  140. ^ Mackie 1836, p. 120; Foggie 2003, p. 35
  141. ^ The Diocese of Dunkeld
  142. ^ Dundee Methodist Church
  143. ^ Trinity Baptist Church
  144. ^ Dundee Congregational Church
  145. ^ National Synod of Scotland, URC East Link
  146. ^ Assemblies of God Scotland
  147. ^ Salvation Army Dundee; Salvation Army Menzieshill
  148. ^ Williamson Unitarian Christian Church Dundee
  149. ^ Dundee Quaker Meeting
  150. ^ Jehovah's Witnesses – Dundee
  151. ^ Dundee Christadelphian Ecclesia
  152. ^ Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
  153. ^ Dundee Islamic Society Central Mosque
  154. ^ UK Mosque Searcher: Mosques in Dundee
  155. ^ Gurudwaras in Scotland
  156. ^ Abrams 2009, pp. 65–94
  157. ^ Dundee Hebrew Congregation
  158. ^ Scotland's Jewish Community
  159. ^ International Jewish Cemetery Project – Scotland
  160. ^ Kagyu Samye Dzong Dundee (Rokpa Dundee)
  161. ^ Hindu Council UK
  162. ^ Cox may be ambassador for Dundee
  163. ^ Day & Milne 2010, p. 78
  164. ^ Jarron 2011, p. 183
  165. ^ List of Mod's places for each year on Sabhal Mòr Ostaig website
  166. ^ Day & Milne 2010, p. 30
  167. ^ Day & Milne 2010, p. 47
  168. ^ Day & Milne 2010, p. 20
  169. ^ Gale & Kaur (2002) p187; Dundee Heritage Trust (1998) pp1-3
  170. ^ Dundee to get its own V&A museum
  171. ^ "Archives". Dundee City Council. http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/archive/. Retrieved 17 November 2011. 
  172. ^ "University of Dundee Archives Services". University of Dundee. http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  173. ^ "University of Dundee Archives Services the Collections". University of Dundee. http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives/archman.htm. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  174. ^ "Business Archives". Archives, Records and Artefacts at the University of Dundee. http://www.archives-records-artefacts.blogspot.com/2011/01/business-archives.html. Retrieved 5 February 2016. 
  175. ^ "Michael Peto Photographic Collection", University of Dundee. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
  176. ^ McGonagall 1992
  177. ^ "cityofrecovery.com". cityofrecovery.com. http://www.cityofrecovery.com. 
  178. ^ "UK City of Culture 2017 shortlist of four announced". BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-22967259. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  179. ^ Cramb, Auslan (20 November 2013). "Dundee loses City of Culture bid, but presses ahead with events". The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/scotland/10462917/Dundee-loses-City-of-Culture-bid-but-presses-ahead-with-events.html. Retrieved 27 September 2016. 
  180. ^ "Dundee crowned Scotland’s most cultural city (and we beat Hull too!)". eveningtelegraph.co.uk. http://www.eveningtelegraph.co.uk/news/local/dundee/dundee-crowned-scotland-s-most-cultural-city-and-we-beat-hull-too-1.619566. 
  181. ^ Joe Birchenall. "Dundee is the fifth most cultural city in the UK according to new survey - STV Dundee - Dundee". STV Dundee. http://dundee.stv.tv/articles/295051-dundee-is-the-fifth-most-cultural-city-in-the-uk-according-to-new-survey/. 
  182. ^ Dundee Mountain Film Festival
  183. ^ International Alliance for Mountain Film
  184. ^ "DCA Unveil Dundead II Festival Line-Up". 5 March 2012. http://zcint.co.uk/article/dca-unveil-dundead-ii-festival-lineup. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  185. ^ Almost Famous
  186. ^ Snow Patrol
  187. ^ NME Interview with Placebo
  188. ^ Dundee Blues Bonanza
  189. ^ Contact numbers for BBC Scotland
  190. ^ Radio Tay's first day
  191. ^ European Cup History, Season 1962–1963
  192. ^ European Cup History, Season 1983–1984
  193. ^ UEFA Cup History, Season 1986–1987
  194. ^ Scottish Junior Football Clubs A–K
  195. ^ Dundee Stars join Elite
  196. ^ Dundee HSFP
  197. ^ Morgan Academy
  198. ^ Harris Academy
  199. ^ Panmure and Stobswell
  200. ^ new Olympia leisure centre
  201. ^ Scrimgeour 1968, pp. 278–283
  202. ^ Kerbside Recycling Box Scheme
  203. ^ Brown Bin Garden Waste Collection
  204. ^ Blue Bin Paper Collections
  205. ^ Recycling Centres; Recycling Points
  206. ^ Waste Aware Tayside
  207. ^ a b Policing in Dundee
  208. ^ Scottish Ambulance Service
  209. ^ Ambulance Stations in Scotland

References[edit | edit source]

News[edit | edit source]

Websites[edit | edit source]

Maps[edit | edit source]

Listed building reports[edit | edit source]

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

  • Abrams, Nathan (2009), Caledonian Jews: A study of seven small communities in Scotland, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., ISBN 978-0-7864-4285-0, https://books.google.com/books?id=IWmiIp3uWEkC, retrieved 24 April 2011 
  • Barrow, G.W.S. (1965), Robert Bruce and the community of the Realm of Scotland, London: Eyre & Spottiswoode 
  • Barrow, G.W.S. (1990), "Earl David's Burgh", in Kay, W., The Dundee Book, Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing, pp. 19–32 
  • Barrow, G.W.S. (2003), "The Beginnings of Military Feudalism", in Barrow, G.W.S., The Kingdom of the Scots (2 ed.), Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press 
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  • Checkland, Sydney; Checkland, Olive (1989), Industry and ethos: Scotland, 1832–1914 (2 ed.), Melksham: The Cromwell Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-0102-8, https://books.google.com/books?id=-MPTw6QQJ-4C, retrieved 21 April 2011 
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  • Cortada, James W. (1993), Before the computer: IBM, NCR, Burroughs, & Remington Rand & the industry they created. 1856 – 1956, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 
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  • Devine, Thomas Martin; Lee, Clive Howard; Peden, G. C. (2005), The transformation of Scotland. The Economy Since 1700, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press 
  • Dundee Heritage Trust (1998), Verdant Works, Derby: The Pilgrim Press 
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  • Gale, Colin; Kaur, Jasbir (2002), The Textile Book, Oxford: Berg Publishers 
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  • Jackson, Gordon; Kinnear, Kate (1990), The trade and shipping of Dundee 1780 – 1850, Dundee: Abertay Historical Society 
  • Jarron, Matthew (2011), "Dundee: Art, Artists and their Public from 1900", in Tomlinson, Jim; Whatley, Christopher A. Whatley, Jute No More: Transforming Dundee, Dundee: Dundee University Press, pp. 163–188 
  • Kenefick, William (2000), "The growth and development of the port of Dundee in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries", in Miskell, Louise; Whatley, Christopher; Harris, Bob, Victorian Dundee: Image and Realities, East Linton: Tuckwell Press 
  • Kerr, J (1913), Scottish Education school and university from early times to 1908 with an addendum 1908–1913, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, https://books.google.com/?id=XO48AAAAIAAJ 
  • Knox, Bill; McKinlay, Alan (2011), "The Union Makes us Strong? Work and Trade Unionism in Timex, 1946–83", in Tomlinson, Jim; Whatley, Christopher A. Whatley, Jute No More: Transforming Dundee, Dundee: Dundee University Press, pp. 266–290 
  • Lenman, Bruce; Lythe, Charlotte; Gauldie, Enid (1969), Dundee and its textile industry, 1850–1914, Dundee: Abertay Historical Society 
  • Lenman, Bruce (1980), The Jacobite risings in Britain 1689–1746, London: Eyre Methuen 
  • Lewis, Peter Rhys (2004), Beautiful Railway Bridge of the Silvery Tay: reinvestigating the Tay Bridge disaster of 1879, Stroud: Tempus 
  • Lythe, S.G.E. (1958), "Life and labour in Dundee from the Reformation to the Civil War", Abertay Historical Society Publication 5, https://books.google.com/books?id=9aJnAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA5, retrieved 23 April 2011 
  • Macdonald, Murdo (2000), "The patron, the professor and the painter: Cultural activity in Dundee at the close of the nineteenth century", in Miskell, Louise; Whatley, Christopher; Harris, Bob, Victorian Dundee: Image and Realities, East Linton: Tuckwell Press, pp. 135–150 
  • Mackie, C. (1836), Historical description of the town of Dundee, Glasgow: Joseph Swan, https://books.google.com/?id=VN8HAAAAQAAJ 
  • McGonagall, William (1992), World's Worst Poet: Selections from "Poetic Gems", Templegate Publishers 
  • Mathew, William M . (1998), Keiller's of Dundee, The Rise of the Marmalade Dynasty 1800–1879, Dundee: Abertay Historical Society 
  • McCarthy, John (2007), Partnership, Collaborative planning and urban regeneration, Aldershot: Ashgate, ISBN 978-0-7546-1375-6, https://books.google.com/books?id=xwFlZ0YVB_YC, retrieved 21 April 2011 
  • McCluskey, Mick (1991), Dundonian for beginners, Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing 
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  • McKean, Charles (1990), "Beauty Revealed and Concealed: The City Through Her Architecture", in Kay, W., The Dundee Book, Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing, pp. 63–90 
  • McKean, Charles (2009), "What Kind of a Renaissance Town was Dundee?", in McKean, Charles; Harris, Bob; Whatley, Christopher A., Dundee: Renaissance to Enlightenment, Dundee: Dundee University Press, pp. 1–32 
  • McKean, Charles; Swan, Claire; Archibald, Malcolm (2009), "Maritime Dundee and its Harbour c. 1755–1820", in McKean, Charles; Harris, Bob; Whatley, Christopher A., Dundee: Renaissance to Enlightenment, Dundee: Dundee University Press, pp. 268–293 
  • McKean, Charles (2011), "Beautifying and Improving the City: The Pursuit of a Monumental Dundee during the Twentieth Century", in Tomlinson, Jim; Whatley, Christopher A. Whatley, Jute No More: Transforming Dundee, Dundee: Dundee University Press, pp. 70–106 
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