This list shows the most senior line of direct royal lineal descent to the current monarch of the United Kingdom from William the Conqueror of England. Each person on the list is the son or daughter of the person above him or her on the list. There are many other more junior lines of descent of the family (some of which are shorter), but the crown, at least in theory, descends only through the most senior line. Due to extinct lines, large parts of entire royal houses (Lancaster, Tudor, Stuart) are bypassed in the current most senior line. The numbers can be used to calculate the number of generations between two individuals on this list, but they may have shorter links (notably that of George III to George VI through the latter's mother).

The direct royal line from William the Conqueror to Elizabeth II[edit | edit source]

The most royal line, not the shortest[edit | edit source]
  1. William I, King of England (1027-1087)
  2. Henry I, King of England (1068-1135)
  3. Matilda of Normandy (1102-1167)
  4. Henry II, King of England (1133-1189)
  5. John, King of England (1167-1216)
  6. Henry III, King of England (1207-1272)
  7. Edward I, King of England (1239-1307)
  8. Edward II, King of England (1284-1327)
  9. Edward III, King of England (1312-1377)
  10. Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence (1338-1368)
  11. Philippa Plantagenet, 5th Countess of Ulster (1355-1382)
  12. Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March (1374-1398)
  13. Anne Mortimer (1390-1411)
  14. Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (1411-1460)
  15. Edward IV, King of England (1442-1483)
  16. Elizabeth of York (1465-1503) (wife of Henry VII)
  17. Margaret Tudor (1489-1541)
  18. James V, King of Scotland (1512-1542)
  19. Mary Stewart, Queen of Scotland (1542-1586)
  20. James I of England (1566-1625)
  21. Elizabeth Stuart, Electress Palatine (1596-1662)
  22. Sophia, Electress of Hanover (1630-1714)
  23. George I of Great Britain (1660-1727)
  24. George II of Great Britain (1683-1760)
  25. Frederick, Prince of Wales (1707-1751)
  26. George III of the United Kingdom (1738-1820)
  27. Prince Edward Augustus (1767-1820)
  28. Victoria of the United Kingdom (1819-1901)
  29. Edward VII of the United Kingdom (1841-1910)
  30. George V of the United Kingdom (1865-1936)
  31. George VI of the United Kingdom (1895-1952)
  32. Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom (1926)
Shorter line of descent[edit | edit source]

(Prefix is latest known "order of Charlemagne"; further work may show a shorter line.)

Elizabeth's shortest line from Charlemagne bypasses William I and Henry I.

Monarchs not in the direct royal line, and why[edit | edit source]

The number after each monarch is their generation number (it corresponds to the number on the list above and the list below).

Monarchs of each generation[edit | edit source]

This table shows the generation of each monarch based on their descent from William I via the royal line.

The generational jump between Henry VII and Henry VIII is an interesting case shown on this list. Henry VIII is the son of Henry VII (generation 14 through an illegitimate junior line of John of Gaunt) as well as the son of Elizabeth of York (generation 16 through the senior Lionel, Duke of Clarence line). Henry VIII is counted as generation 17 because the royal line passes through his mother, who is of the senior line.

This process will continue in the future. Prince William of Wales, if he becomes king, will add a line to Charles II, from whom he is descended through his mother Lady Diana.

  1. William I
  2. William IIHenry I
  3. Stephen Empress Matilda
  4. Henry II
  5. Richard Lionheart John Lackland
  6. Henry III
  7. Edward I
  8. Edward II
  9. Edward III
  10. none
  11. Richard II Henry IV
  12. Henry V
  13. Henry IV
  14. Henry VII
  15. Edward IVRichard III
  16. Edward V
  17. Henry VIII
  18. Edward VIMary IElizabeth I
  19. Lady Jane Grey
  20. James I
  21. Charles I
  22. Charles IIJames II
  23. Mary II William IIIAnne George I
  24. George II
  25. none
  26. George III
  27. George IVWilliam IV
  28. Victoria
  29. Edward VII
  30. George V
  31. Edward VIII George VI
  32. Elizabeth II

Genealogical relationships to Elizabeth II[edit | edit source]

The closest known relationships between Elizabeth and each king or queen of England, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom are given below.

Monarch Relation to Elizabeth II
William I of England 22nd Great-Grandfather
Henry I of England 21st Great-Grandfather
Stephen of England 20th Great-Grandfather
Henry II of England 19th Great-Grandfather
Richard I of England 18th Great-Granduncle
John of England 18th Great-Grandfather
Henry III of England 19th Great-Grandfather
Edward I of England 18th Great-Grandfather
Edward II of England 18th Great-Grandfather
Edward III of England 17th Great-Grandfather
Richard II of England 16th Great-Granduncle
Henry IV of England 17th Great-Grandfather
Henry V of England 16th Great-Granduncle
Henry VI of England ½-14th Great-Granduncle
Edward IV of England 15th Great-Grandfather
Edward V of England 13th Great-Granduncle
Richard III of England 14th Great-Granduncle
Henry VII of England 13th Great-Grandfather
Henry VIII of England 12th Great-Granduncle
Edward VI of England 1st Cousin, 12 times Removed
Lady Jane Grey 10th Great-Grandaunt
Mary I of England 1st Cousin 13 times Removed
Elizabeth I of England 1st Cousin 13 times Removed
James I of England 9th Great-Grandfather
Charles I of England 8th Great-Granduncle
Charles II of England 1st Cousin 9 times Removed
James II of England 1st Cousin 9 times Removed
William III of England 1st Cousin 8 times Removed
Mary II of England 2nd Cousin 8 times Removed
Anne of Great Britain 2nd Cousin 8 times Removed
George I of Great Britain 6th Great-Grandfather
George II of Great Britain 5th Great-Grandfather
George III of the United Kingdom 3rd Great-Grandfather
George IV of the United Kingdom 2nd Great-Granduncle
William IV of the United Kingdom 2nd Great-Granduncle
Victoria of the United Kingdom 2nd Great-Grandmother
Edward VII of the United Kingdom Great-Grandfather
George V of the United Kingdom Grandfather
Edward VIII of the United Kingdom Uncle
George VI of the United Kingdom Father
Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom Self

Family tree[edit | edit source]

This tree shows the descent of all British monarchs from William I, and their relationships with each other. Only branches that were used to determine succession of a monarch are shown. The direct royal line can be followed as the leftmost line.

 William I
 Henry I    William II    Adela of Normandy
 Empress Matilda  Stephen
 Henry II
 John     Richard I
 Henry III
 Edward I
 Edward II
 Edward III
 Lionel of Antwerp  Edward the Black Prince  John of Gaunt
 Philippa of Ulster  Richard II   Henry IV  Earl John Beaufort
 Roger de Mortimer  Henry V  Duke John Beaufort
 Anne de Mortimer  Henry VI  Margaret Beaufort
 Richard, Duke of York  Henry VII
 Edward IV    Richard III  
 Elizabeth of York  Edward V  
 Margaret Tudor  Henry VIII  Mary Tudor
 James V of Scotland  Edward VI  Mary I  Elizabeth I  Lady Frances Brandon
 Mary, Queen of Scots  Lady Jane Grey
 James I
 Elizabeth Stuart    Charles I
 Sophia of Hanover  Mary Stuart  James II  Charles II
  George I  William III  =  Mary II  Anne
  George II
 Frederick, Prince of Wales
  George III
 Edward Augustus  George IV  William IV
  Edward VII
  George V
  George VI     Edward VIII
  Elizabeth II

Descent of Elizabeth II from other royal lines[edit | edit source]

The generation numbering of the primary list above is maintained in the lines below for comparison purposes. The last person listed on each of the lines belows is an English monarch listed on the primary list above, and the line continues from that point down to Elizabeth II following the primary list above.

The descent from the Saxon kings[edit | edit source]

The descent through the West Saxon royal line[edit | edit source]

This list shows the joining of the royal families of England, the West Saxon kings descended from Alfred the Great and the Norman kings. Empress Matilda (Maud), grand daughter of William I (Norman), great-great-grand-daughter of Edmund II (Saxon), is the first person to unite the families in this line. Her son, Henry II, is the first monarch descended from both these families.

-6. Alfred the Great
-5. Edward the Elder
-4. Edmund I
-3. Edgar
-2. Ethelred II (Ethelred the Unready)
-1. Edmund II (Edmund Ironside)
0. Edward the Exile
1. Saint Margaret of Scotland
2. Edith of Scotland
3. Empress Matilda (Maud)
4. Henry II

Alternative descent from Alfred the Great[edit | edit source]

This is not a royal line, but is a closer relationship of the earliest Norman kings to the previous dominant line of kings in England. William I married Matilda of Flanders, who was descended from Alfred the Great's daughter Aelfthryth. This means that Henry I is a descendant of Alfred the Great through this line.

  1. Alfred the Great (849-899)
  2. Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders (?-929)
  3. Arnulf I, Count of Flanders (c890-965)
  4. Baldwin III, Count of Flanders (940-962)
  5. Arnulf II, Count of Flanders (c960-988)
  6. Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders (980-1036)
  7. Baldwin V, Count of Flanders (1012-1067)
  8. Matilda of Flanders (c1031-1083)
  9. Henry I, King of England (1068-1135)
  10. Matilda of Normandy (1102-1167)
  11. Henry II, King of England (1133-1189)

The descent through Harold Godwinson (Harold II of England)[edit | edit source]

The British royal house traces itself back to William, who took the throne by conquest, but Elizabeth is also descended from Harold Godwinson, the last crowned Saxon king who died fighting William at the Battle of Hastings. Harold's daughter Gytha escaped after the conquest and married Vladimir II Monomakh of Kievan Rus', thus preserving the Godwin bloodline. This line rejoins William the Conqueror's bloodline with King Edward III.

-6. Harold Godwinson
-5. Gytha of Wessex
-4. Mstislav I of Kiev
-3. Euphrosyne of Kiev
-2. Béla III of Hungary
-1. Andrew II of Hungary
0. Violant of Hungary
1. Isabella of Aragon
2. Philip IV of France
3. Isabella, Queen of England
4. Edward III

The descent from the Kings of Scotland[edit | edit source]

Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII, married into the Scottish royal family by marrying James IV of Scotland. Elizabeth II thus also descends from Kenneth MacAlpin, the semi-legendary first King of Scotland.

-5. Kenneth MacAlpin (Kenneth I)
-4. Constantine I
-3. Donald II
-2. Malcolm I
-1. Kenneth II
0. Malcolm II
1. Bethoc
2. Duncan I
3. Malcolm III
4. David I (the Saint)
5. Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon
6. David of Scotland
7. Isobel of Huntingdon
8. Robert de Brus
9. Robert de Brus
10. Robert I (the Bruce)
11. Marjorie Bruce
12. Robert II
13. Robert III
14. James I
15. James II
16. James III
17. James IV
18. James V
19. Mary, Queen of Scots
20. James VI (James I of England)

The Merovingian descent through Charlemagne[edit | edit source]

-21. Merowig
-20. Childeric I
-19. Clovis I
-18. Theodoric I
-17. Theudebert I
-16. Theudebald
-15. Grimwald of Aquitaine
-14. Saint Itta
-13. Saint Begga
-12. Pepin the Fat
-11. Charles Martel (686-741) (illegitimate)
-10. Pepin the Short (714-768)
-9. Charlemagne (747-814)
-8. Pepin, King of Italy (773-810)
-7. Bernard, King of Italy (797-818)
-6. Pepin, Count of Vermandois (c815-?)
-5. Herbert I, Count of Vermandois (c848-907)
-4. Berengar of Bayeaux (?-?)
-3. Judicael Berengar (?-?) (disputed)
-2. Conan I of Rennes (927-992), Duke of Brittany
-1. Judith of Brittany (982-1017)
0. Robert II, Duke of Normandy (c1000-1035)
1. William I

External links[edit | edit source]

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Descent of Elizabeth II from William I. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.