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Daniil Aleksandrovich of Moscow (Даниил Александрович), Grand Prince of Moscow, was born 1261 in Vladimir, Vladimir Oblast, Russia to Aleksandr Nevsky (1220-1263) and Aleksandra Bryachislavna of Polotsk (c1221-c1265) and died 4 March 1303 of unspecified causes. He married Mariya Glebovna of Beloozero (c1264-c1300) . Notable ancestors include Charlemagne (747-814), Alfred the Great (849-899). Ancestors are from Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Sweden, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Belgium, the Byzantine Empire.


Daniil Aleksandrovich (November / December 1261 - March 5, 1303 , Moscow ) - the youngest son of Aleksandr Nevsky, the first [1] appanage prince of Moscow (from 1263, in fact from 1277); the ancestor of the Moscow line of Rurikovich : Moscow princes and kings .

Biography

Date of birth

The Laurentian Chronicle mentions the year of the birth of Daniil in the year 6769 (1261). Daniil was named in honor of St.Daniel the Stylite, whose memory is celebrated on December 11, meaning that he probably was born in November-December [2]). This saint remained a lifelong patron of the prince - he portrayed him on the seals and erected a monastery in his honor [3].

At the age of two, Daniil Aleksandrovich lost his father.

Young years

During the reign of Prince Daniil, Russia was under the Mongol-Tatar yoke, and was weakened by princely feuds.

The Tver certificate of 1408 tells about the upbringing by Yaroslav Yaroslavich, Aleksandr Nevsky's brother, for seven years, while he was Grand Prince of Vladimir: from 1264 until his death in 1272 .

After Yaroslav Yaroslavich's death in 1272, the young Daniil inherited the Principality of Moscow, small and unimportant in comparison with other estates, where his elder brothers, Dmitri and Andrei, reigned. A researcher of the history of the Kremlin, Aleksandr Voronov mentions the legend that in the first year of his reign, he arranged the Transfiguration Church in the Moscow Kremlin .[4]

Reign

Daniel participated in the struggle of his brothers princes Dmitri and Andrei for the Grand Principality of Vladimir and for the right to reign in Novgorod. Inevitably involved in the feuds of princes, Daniil Aleksandrovich showed himself as a peace-lover. In 1282, together with the prince of Tver, Svyatoslav Yaroslavich, he connected the Moscow troops with the troops of his brother Andrei, who fought for the great reign of Vladimir against another brother, Dmitri; but at the first meeting near the city of Dmitrov, the armed men made peace, and it was without bloodshed.

Daniil constantly cared about the people of his principality and the capital city of Moscow. Returning to Moscow, in Zamoskvorechye, on the right bank of the Moscow River, on the southern Serpukhov road, Prince Daniel built a monastery in honor of his heavenly patron - St.Daniel the Stylite Monastery received his name - Danilovsky, officially named later as St. Daniel Spassky .[4]

Since 1283, he acted on the side of Prince Dmitri, who became the Grand Prince of Vladimir. In 1293, Andrei Aleksandrovich of Gorodets became the initiator of a new campaign of generals of the Golden Horde to the North-Eastern Russia . The campaign, which is called " Dyudeneva rat " was led by the military leader of Tudan (in the Russian chronicles he is called Dyuden) and in the same year Danilov monastery was ruined along with Moscow. [4]

After the death of Prince Dmitri, in 1294, Daniil Alexandrovich headed the Moscow-Pereyaslav-Tver union against Prince Andrei.

When Andrei became the Grand Prince of Vladimir, in 1296, quarrels were opened between the Russian princes; but Andrei also recognized the rightness of Prince Daniil, and the bishops of Vladimir Simeon and Sarsky Izmail persuaded the princes' congress in Vladimir to stop the quarrel with the world. When, after that, Andrei wanted to take over his army with Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, Daniil, Prince of Moscow, together with Prince of Tver, met Andrei with a strong host, and after the peace negotiations another time was concluded. The increased political influence of Moscow was evidenced by the participation of Prince Daniil Aleksandrovich in the struggle for Novgorod the Great, where he was invited to reign in 1296 . In the same year, Prince Daniel founded another monastery in Moscow - Bogoyavlensky, and in 1300 onAt his command, Krutitsy built a bishop's house and a church in the name of the holy apostles Peter and Paul .

Tradition says that when he was in 1300 in Danilov Monastery established the first in the Moscow principality archimandrite .

In 1301 he participated in the Dmitrov congress of Russian princes. In the same year, Daniil Alexandrovich successfully fought against Ryazan, capturing Kolomna.

After the death of Prince Ivan Dmitrievich Pereyaslavsky in 1302, Pereslavl annexed the Moscow principality.

Legends say that before his death, Prince Daniel took monastic vows (1303) and was buried in the Danilov Monastery. According to the Laurentian Chronicle, Daniel died on Tuesday , March 5, 1303 " on Moscow in his fatherland, in Chernets and Skim " [2]. His relics were recovered in 1652 and transferred, by the order of Tsar Alexis Mikhailovich , to the church of the Sedmi Ecumenical Councils in the monastery founded by him.

His son, Prince Ivah Kalita , with the support of St. Metropolitan of Kiev and All Russia Feognost in 1330 transferred the archimandrite and part of the monks of this monastery to his princely court, creating the Savior-Transfiguration monastery in the forest .

Piety, justice and mercy gained respect for Prince Daniel.

Results of the reign

Becoming the founder of the house of the Moscow princes, Daniil received from his father a very small territory, limited by the basin of the Moscow River , which had no access to the Oka . At the end of the struggle for Vladimir's reign between his elder brothers Dmitri and Andrei, Daniil was Dmitri's ally, and the Dudeneva of Ordynia ruined the Moscow principality as well (1293). After the elimination by the Sarai Tokhta Khan of the "Danube ulus" Nogai (1300), part of the nobility from the South Russian lands, formerly in the sphere of Nogai's influence, transferred to the Moscow service [5].

Under the jurisdiction of Moscow crossed the entire river basin of Moscow. In 1301 Daniil defeated the Pfrince of Ryazan Konstantin Romanovich , took him prisoner and captured the city of Kolomna. In 1302 Daniel managed to get the escheat Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, according to the testament of his childless nephew Ivan Dmitrievich (then he went to the one who received the jarlig for Vladimir's reign of Mikhail of Tvers [5]).

In church relation, Daniel built bishops' houses, churches and monasteries, worthy of receiving metropolitans; rebuilt the wooden church in stone. This reserve, continued by his heirs, will lead to the final official transfer of the ecclesiastical authority to Moscow in 1325.

In addition to the construction of buildings, Daniel created communications. Built under his rule, the Great Horde Road united various directions, strengthening Moscow's role as a crossroads of trade routes. [6]

Marriage and children

According to some authors, Daniil Vasikovich married Mariya Glebovna, daughter of Gleb Vasilkovich of Beloozero and Feodora Sartakovna . Children:

Place of burial

Death and burial

Facial Chronicle - b.07, p.092-093 - Death of Danila of Moscow

Смерть и погребение (миниатюра Лицевого летописного свода)

There are two versions of his burial place:

One goes back to the Trinity Chronicle which burnt in 1812, when Moscow was occupied by the French. Before, the chronicle had been seen by N.M. Karamzin, who had made an extract about the death of Daniil Aleksandrovich. This extract was completed with the words: "It must be in the church of St. Michael to Moscow ". Thus, according to the Trinity Chronicle, the Cathedral of the Archangel in the Moscow Kremlin was the burial place for Daniil [2]. The same version is followed by the Face chronicle. The second version is set out in the Power Book. It claims that Daniel was buried at the brotherly cemetery of Danilov Monastery [2]. The relics of the prince were found in 1652 and transferred, by the order of Tsar Alexis Mikhailovich, to the church of the Sedmi Ecumenical Councils in the Danilov Monastery founded by him. From 1917 to 1930 they were in the Trinity Cathedral; in 1930 transferred to the Church of the Resurrection of the Knower for the southern wall of the monastery. The fate of the relics of Prince Daniel after the closure of the Church of the Resurrection of the Slovene remains unknown.

Memory and veneration

In 1652, the relics of the prince were found; in the opinion of Yevgeni Golubinsky [8], in 1791 he was canonized for local veneration as the holy, blessed Prince Daniil of Moscow. Memorial days: 4 (17) March and 30 August (12 September) - discovery of the relics.

By the definition of the patriarch Pimen and the Holy Synod of December 28, 1988, the Order of Saint Blessed Prince Daniil of Moscow was established in three degrees [9].

In Nakhabina , near Moscow , which is considered the historical center of the engineering forces of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation , the temple of Daniel of Moscow, which is the patron saint of the engineering forces of the Armed Forces of Russia, was built .

Since September 18, 1996, the name of the prince is the nuclear submarine of the Northern Fleet.


Daniil of Moscow (17-18 c., Russia)

The Holy Prince Daniil of Moscow. Icon of the turn of the XVII-XVIII centuries

In culture and art

Daniil Aleksandrovich is dedicated to the historical novel "Younger Son" by writer DM Balashov . In 1997, in commemoration of the 850th anniversary of the founding of Moscow on the square of the Serpukhov Outpost, a monument to Prince Daniel of Moscow was erected by sculptors A. Korovin and V. Mokrousov, architect D. Sokolov [11] . The prince in his left hand holds the temple, in the right - the sword. Daniel keeps arms out of combat readiness, wishing to show that strife, war and bloodshed are acts not pleasing to God. On the pedestal of the monument there is a bas-relief with the inscription: "Holy Blessed Grand Duke Daniil of Moscow 1261-1303".

Notes

  1. ^ Княжество с центром в Москве ранее выделялось во владение его дяде Михаилу Ярославичу Хоробриту, но тот проправил всего два года (1246—1248), и после его смерти Москва вернулась в состав Владимирского великого княжества.
  2. ^ a b c d Кучкин В. А. (1995). "Первый московский князь Даниил Александрович" (1): 93—107. 
  3. ^ {{Литвина А. Ф., Успенский Ф. Б - Выбор имени у русских князей в X-XVI вв., pp. 222
  4. ^ a b c Воронов А. А. Спасо-Преображенский монастырь на бору // Монастыри Московского Кремля. — М.: Изд-во Правосл. Свято-Тихоновского гуманит. ун-та, 2009. — 160 с. — ISBN 978-5-7429-0350-5.
  5. ^ a b БРЭ, том «Россия», с.279
  6. ^ Template:Публикация
  7. ^ Лицевой летописный свод датирует смерть 1309 годом
  8. ^ Канонизация святых в 1721—1894 гг.
  9. ^ III.4.5 Орден святого благоверного князя Даниила Московского

Literature




Children


Offspring of Daniil Aleksandrovich of Moscow (Даниил Александрович) and Mariya Glebovna of Beloozero (c1264-c1300)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Yuri Danilovich of Moscow (1281-1325) 1281 1325 NN Konstantinovna of Rostov (c1282-1299)
Konchaka of the Golden Horde (c1295-1318)

Mikhail Danilovich (c1282-c1300) 1282 1300
Aleksandr Danilovich (c1283-1308) 1283 1308
Simeon Danilovich (c1285-c1325) 1285 1325
Vasili Danilovich (c1287-c1310) 1287 1310
Ivan I Danilovich of Moscow (1288-1340)
Boris Danilovich of Kostroma (c1290-1320) 1289 30 May 1320
Afanasi Danilovich of Novgorod (c1292-1322) 1292 1322 Anna NN

Daniil Danilovich (c1294-c1310) 1294 1310
Anna Danilovna (c1298-c1350) 1298 1350

Siblings


Offspring of Aleksandr Nevsky and Aleksandra Bryachislavna of Polotsk (c1221-c1265)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Vasili Aleksandrovich of Novgorod (c1240-1271) 1240 1271
Dmitri Aleksandrovich of Pereyaslavl (c1250-1294) 1250 Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia 1294 Volokolamsk, Volokolamsk Rayon, Moscow Oblast, Russia
Andrei Aleksandrovich of Gorodets (c1255-1304) 1255 27 July 1304 Vasilisa Dmitriyevna of Rostov (c1281-c1350)

Daniil Aleksandrovich of Moscow (1261-1303) 1261 Vladimir, Vladimir Oblast, Russia 4 March 1303 Mariya Glebovna of Beloozero (c1264-c1300)

Yevdokiya Aleksandrovna (c1245-c1290) 1245 1290 Konstantin Rostislavich Bezruky of Smolensk (c1240-c1295)


Residences

Footnotes (including sources)

Contributors

  Afil