State of Connecticut
Flag of Connecticut State seal of Connecticut
Flag of ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif Seal of ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif
Nickname(s): The Constitution State, The Nutmeg State[1]
Motto(s): Qui transtulit sustinetWp globe tiny.gif[1]
Latin meaning "He who is transplanted still sustains"
Map of the United States with Connecticut highlighted
Official language(s) EnglishWp globe tiny.gif
Capital HartfordWp globe tiny.gif
Largest city BridgeportWp globe tiny.gif[2]
Largest metro area Hartford Metro AreaWp globe tiny.gif[3]
Area  Ranked 48th in the U.S.
 - Total 5,543[4] sq mi
(14,356 km2)
 - Width 70 miles (113 km)
 - Length 110 miles (177 km)
 - % water 12.6
 - Latitude 40°58′ N to 42°03′ N
 - Longitude 71°47′ W to 73°44′ W
Population  Ranked 29th in the U.S.
 - Total {{{2000Pop}}}
 - Density 702.9/sq mi  (271.40/km2)
Ranked 4th in the U.S.
 - Median household income  $55,970 (4th)
Elevation  
 - Highest point South slope of Mount FrisselWp globe tiny.gif[5]
Note: The peak of Mount Frissel
is in Massachusetts
2,380 ft ({{{HighestElev}}} m)
 - Mean 500 ft  (152 m)
 - Lowest point Long Island SoundWp globe tiny.gif[5]
sea level
Admission to Union  January 9Wp globe tiny.gif, 1788Wp globe tiny.gif (5th)
Governor M. Jodi RellWp globe tiny.gif (RWp globe tiny.gif)
Lieutenant Governor {{{Lieutenant Governor}}}
Legislature {{{Legislature}}}
 - Upper house {{{Upperhouse}}}
 - Lower house {{{Lowerhouse}}}
U.S. Senators Christopher DoddWp globe tiny.gif (DWp globe tiny.gif)
Joe LiebermanWp globe tiny.gif (IDWp globe tiny.gif)
U.S. House delegation List
Time zone EasternWp globe tiny.gif: UTCWp globe tiny.gif-5/-4Wp globe tiny.gif
Abbreviations CT. Conn. US-CT
Website ct.gov

Connecticut (English pronunciation: /kəˈnɛtɪkət/)[6] is a stateWp globe tiny.gif located in the New EnglandWp globe tiny.gif region of the northeasternWp globe tiny.gif United States of AmericaWp globe tiny.gif. Southwestern Connecticut is also considered part of the New York metropolitan areaWp globe tiny.gif. Connecticut is the 29thWp globe tiny.gif most populous state with 3.4 million residents and ranked 48thWp globe tiny.gif in size by area, making it the 4thWp globe tiny.gif most densely populated state.[4]. Called the "Constitution State," Connecticut has a long history dating from the early colonial times, and was influential in the development of early American government.

While Connecticut's first European settlers were DutchWp globe tiny.gif, the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English. Thomas HookerWp globe tiny.gif led a band of followers overland from the Massachusetts Bay colonyWp globe tiny.gif and founded what would become the Connecticut ColonyWp globe tiny.gif; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the Saybrook ColonyWp globe tiny.gif and the New Haven ColonyWp globe tiny.gif. Both the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of Fundamental OrdersWp globe tiny.gif, considered the first constitutionWp globe tiny.gifs in North America. In 1662, the disparate colonies merged under a royal charter, making Connecticut a crown colonyWp globe tiny.gif. This colony was one of the Thirteen ColoniesWp globe tiny.gif that revolted against BritishWp globe tiny.gif rule in the American RevolutionWp globe tiny.gif.

Connecticut enjoys a temperateWp globe tiny.gif climate thanks to its long coastline on the Long Island SoundWp globe tiny.gif. This has given the state a strong maritimeWp globe tiny.gif tradition. Modern Connecticut is also known for its wealth. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Connecticut had ready access to raw materials which helped to develop a strong manufacturing industryWp globe tiny.gif. In the 19th and 20th centuries, financial organizations flourished: first insuranceWp globe tiny.gif companies in Hartford, then hedge fundsWp globe tiny.gif along the Gold CoastWp globe tiny.gif. This prosperity has helped give Connecticut the highest per capitaWp globe tiny.gif income and median household incomeWp globe tiny.gif in the country.[7][8]

Geography

Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island SoundWp globe tiny.gif, on the west by New York StateWp globe tiny.gif, on the north by MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif, and on the east by Rhode IslandWp globe tiny.gif. The state capital is HartfordWp globe tiny.gif, and the other major cities include New HavenWp globe tiny.gif, New LondonWp globe tiny.gif, New BritainWp globe tiny.gif, NorwichWp globe tiny.gif, MilfordWp globe tiny.gif, NorwalkWp globe tiny.gif, StamfordWp globe tiny.gif, WaterburyWp globe tiny.gif, DanburyWp globe tiny.gif and BridgeportWp globe tiny.gif. There are 169 incorporated townWp globe tiny.gifs in Connecticut. There is an ongoing civic pride and economic competition between Hartford and New Haven, which stems back to the days when the two cities shared the state's capital, and even back to the rivalry between New Haven ColonyWp globe tiny.gif and Connecticut ColonyWp globe tiny.gif.

Bear Mountain, highest peak in Connecticut

The highest peak in Connecticut is Bear MountainWp globe tiny.gif in SalisburyWp globe tiny.gif in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif, and New YorkWp globe tiny.gif meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of Mount FrissellWp globe tiny.gif, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts.[9]

The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound, Connecticut's outlet to the Atlantic OceanWp globe tiny.gif.

Despite its size, the state has regional variations in its landscape and culture from the wealthy estates of Fairfield County's "Gold CoastWp globe tiny.gif" to the rolling mountains and horse-farms of the Litchfield HillsWp globe tiny.gif of northwestern Connecticut. Connecticut's rural areas and

Highest point in Connecticut on slope of Mount Frissell, as seen from Bear Mountain

small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New Haven, then northwards to Hartford, as well as further up the coast near New London. Many towns center around a small park, known as a "green," (such as the New Haven GreenWp globe tiny.gif), Litchfield Green, Simsbury Green, and New Milford Green(the largest in the state). Near the green may stand a small white church, a town meeting hall, a tavern and several colonial houses. Forests, rivers, lakes, waterfalls and a sandy shore add to the state's beauty.

The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the distinctive Southwick JogWp globe tiny.gif/Granby NotchWp globe tiny.gif, an approximately 2.5 mile (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut slightly west of the center of the border. Somewhat surprisingly, the actual origin of this anomaly is not absolutely certain, with stories ranging from surveyors who were drunk, attempting to avoid hostile Native Americans, or taking a shortcut up the Connecticut River; Massachusetts residents attempting to avoid Massachusetts' high taxes for the low taxes of Connecticut; Massachusetts' interest in the resources represented by the Congamond LakesWp globe tiny.gif which lie on the border of the jog; and the need to compensate Massachusetts for an amount of land given to Connecticut due to inaccurate survey work.[10][11] The dispute over the border slowed development in the region, since neither state would invest in public services for the area until the dispute had been settled.

The southwestern border of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State, is marked by a panhandleWp globe tiny.gif in Fairfield CountyWp globe tiny.gif, containing the towns of GreenwichWp globe tiny.gif, StamfordWp globe tiny.gif, New CanaanWp globe tiny.gif and DarienWp globe tiny.gif. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputesWp globe tiny.gif in the late 1600s, culminating with New York giving up its claim to this area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield, ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif to the Massachusetts border as well as undisputed claim to Rye, New YorkWp globe tiny.gif.[12]

Areas maintained by the National Park ServiceWp globe tiny.gif include: Appalachian National Scenic TrailWp globe tiny.gif; Quinebaug & Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage CorridorWp globe tiny.gif; and Weir Farm National Historic SiteWp globe tiny.gif.

Climate

Connecticut has a Humid Continental Climate, with seasonal extremes tempered by its proximity to the Atlantic OceanWp globe tiny.gif. Winters are cold, with average temperatures ranging from 31 °F (-1 °C) in the southeast to 23 °F (-5 °C) in the northwest in January. The average yearly snowfall is about 25–100" (64–254 cm) across the state, with higher totals in the northwest. Spring has variable temperatures with frequent rainfall. Summer is hot and humid throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81 °F (27 °C) and 87 °F (31 °C) in Windsor Locks. Fall months are mild, and bring foliage across the state in October and November. During hurricane season, tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the summer, occurring on average 30 times annually. These storms can be severe, though tornadoes are rare.[13]

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Connecticut Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Bridgeport 37/23 39/25 47/32 57/41 67/51 76/60 82/66 81/65 74/58 63/46 53/38 42/28
Hartford 34/17 38/20 48/28 60/38 72/48 80/57 85/62 82/61 74/52 63/41 51/33 39/23
[1]

History

A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies.

The name "Connecticut" originates from the MoheganWp globe tiny.gif word quinnitukqut, meaning "place of long tidal river."[14] The first European explorer in Connecticut was the Dutch explorer Adriaen BlockWp globe tiny.gif. After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (Named Versche Rivier by the Dutch) and built a fort at Dutch Point near present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" (DutchWp globe tiny.gif: Huis van Hoop).

John WinthropWp globe tiny.gif, then of Massachusetts, got permission to create a new colony at Old SaybrookWp globe tiny.gif at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635. This was the first of three distinct colonies that later would be combined to make up Connecticut. Saybrook Colony was a direct challenge to Dutch claims. The colony was not more than a small outpost and never matured. In 1644, the Saybrook Colony merged itself into the Connecticut Colony.

The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled Windsor and Wethersfield. However the main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. The settlers were PuritanWp globe tiny.gifs from Massachusetts, led by Thomas HookerWp globe tiny.gif. Hooker had been prominent in England, and was a professor of Theology at Cambridge. He was also an important political writer, and made a significant contribution to Constitutional theory. He broke with the political leadership in Massachusetts, and, just as Roger WilliamsWp globe tiny.gif created a new polity in Rhode IslandWp globe tiny.gif, Hooker and his cohort did the same and established the Connecticut ColonyWp globe tiny.gif at Hartford in 1636. This was the second of the three colonies.

Because the Dutch were outnumbered by the flood of English settlers from Massachusetts, they left their fort in 1654.

The third colony was founded in March of 1638. New Haven ColonyWp globe tiny.gif, (originally known as the Quinnipiack Colony), was established by John DavenportWp globe tiny.gif, Theophilus EatonWp globe tiny.gif and others at New Haven. The New Haven Colony had its own Constitution, 'The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony' which was signed on June 4, 1639.

Neither the establishment of the Connecticut Colony or the Quinnipiack Colony were done with the sanction of British imperial authorities, and were independent political entities. They naturally were presumptively English, but in a legal sense, they were only secessionist outposts of Massachusetts Bay. In 1662, Winthrop took advantage of this void in political affairs, and obtained in England the charter by which the colonies of Connecticut and Quinnipiack were united. Although Winthrop's charter favored the Connecticut colony, New Haven remained a seat of government with Hartford, until after the American Revolution.

Winthrop was very politically astute, and secured the charter from the newly restored Charles IIWp globe tiny.gif; who granted the most liberal political terms.

Historically important colonial settlements included:

WindsorWp globe tiny.gif (1633),
WethersfieldWp globe tiny.gif (1634),
SaybrookWp globe tiny.gif (1635),
HartfordWp globe tiny.gif (1636),
New HavenWp globe tiny.gif (1638),
FairfieldWp globe tiny.gif (1639),
StratfordWp globe tiny.gif (1639),
New LondonWp globe tiny.gif (1646),
MiddletownWp globe tiny.gif (1647)

Its first constitution, the "Fundamental OrdersWp globe tiny.gif," was adopted on January 14Wp globe tiny.gif, 1639Wp globe tiny.gif, while its current constitutionWp globe tiny.gif, the third for Connecticut, was adopted in 1965. Connecticut is the fifth of the original thirteen states. The original constitutions influenced the US Constitution as one of the leading authors was Roger ShermanWp globe tiny.gif of New Haven.

The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. According to a 1650 agreement with the DutchWp globe tiny.gif, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from the west side of Greenwich BayWp globe tiny.gif "provided the said line come not within 10 miles [16 km] of Hudson River." On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea," i.e. the Pacific Ocean. Most colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut took its grant seriously, and established a ninth county between the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers, named Westmoreland CountyWp globe tiny.gif. This resulted in the brief Pennamite WarsWp globe tiny.gif with PennsylvaniaWp globe tiny.gif. Connecticut's lands also extended across northern Ohio, called the Western ReserveWp globe tiny.gif lands. The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio. Agreements with Pennsylvania and New York extinguished the land claims by Connecticut within its neighbors, and the Western Reserve lands were relinquished to the federal government, which brought the state to its present boundaries.

Names and symbols

Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–39.[1] Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as "The NutmegWp globe tiny.gif State".[1] The nutmeg connection to Connecticut may come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice in New England). It is also said to come from YankeeWp globe tiny.gif peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers.[15] George WashingtonWp globe tiny.gif gave Connecticut the title of "The Provisions State"[1] because of the material aid the state rendered to the Revolutionary WarWp globe tiny.gif effort. Connecticut is also known as "The Land of Steady Habits".[1]

According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter". There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "Connecticotian" - Cotton MatherWp globe tiny.gif in 1702. "Connecticutensian" - Samuel PetersWp globe tiny.gif in 1781. "Nutmegger" is sometimes used,[16] as is "Yankee" (the official State Song is "Yankee DoodleWp globe tiny.gif"), though this usually refers someone from the wider New EnglandWp globe tiny.gif region.[17] Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn."; the official postal abbreviationWp globe tiny.gif is CT.

Commemorative stampWp globe tiny.gifs issued by the United States Postal ServiceWp globe tiny.gif with Connecticut themes include Nathan HaleWp globe tiny.gif, Eugene O'NeillWp globe tiny.gif, Josiah Willard GibbsWp globe tiny.gif, Noah WebsterWp globe tiny.gif, Eli WhitneyWp globe tiny.gif, the whalingWp globe tiny.gif shipWp globe tiny.gif the Charles W. MorganWp globe tiny.gif which is docked in Mystic SeaportWp globe tiny.gif, and a decoyWp globe tiny.gif of a broadbill duckWp globe tiny.gif.

The Charter Oak

The USS Nautilus

Connecticut state insignia and historical figures[1], except where noted
State treeWp globe tiny.gif White OakWp globe tiny.gif; or more specifically, the Charter OakWp globe tiny.gif
State birdWp globe tiny.gif American RobinWp globe tiny.gif
State flowerWp globe tiny.gif Mountain LaurelWp globe tiny.gif
State insectWp globe tiny.gif European MantisWp globe tiny.gif
State animalWp globe tiny.gif Sperm WhaleWp globe tiny.gif
State mineralWp globe tiny.gif GarnetWp globe tiny.gif
State shellfishWp globe tiny.gif Eastern OysterWp globe tiny.gif
State fishWp globe tiny.gif American ShadWp globe tiny.gif
State fossilWp globe tiny.gif Eubrontes giganteusWp globe tiny.gif
State shipWp globe tiny.gif USS Nautilus (SSN-571)Wp globe tiny.gif
State flagshipWp globe tiny.gif and tall shipWp globe tiny.gif ambassador Freedom Schooner AmistadWp globe tiny.gif
State aircraftWp globe tiny.gif F4U CorsairWp globe tiny.gif
State tartanWp globe tiny.gif visible here
State songWp globe tiny.gif Yankee DoodleWp globe tiny.gif
State folk danceWp globe tiny.gif Square danceWp globe tiny.gif
State cantataWp globe tiny.gif The Nutmeg
State heroWp globe tiny.gif Nathan HaleWp globe tiny.gif
State heroineWp globe tiny.gif Prudence CrandallWp globe tiny.gif
State composerWp globe tiny.gif Charles Edward IvesWp globe tiny.gif
State statues in Statuary HallWp globe tiny.gif Roger ShermanWp globe tiny.gif and Jonathan TrumbullWp globe tiny.gif[18]
State poet laureateWp globe tiny.gif John HollanderWp globe tiny.gif
Connecticut State TroubadourWp globe tiny.gif Pierce CampbellWp globe tiny.gif[19]
State composer laureateWp globe tiny.gif Jacob DruckmanWp globe tiny.gif

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1790 237,946
1800 251,002 5.5%
1810 261,942 4.4%
1820 275,248 5.1%
1830 297,675 8.1%
1840 309,978 4.1%
1850 370,792 19.6%
1860 460,147 24.1%
1870 537,454 16.8%
1880 622,700 15.9%
1890 746,258 19.8%
1900 908,420 21.7%
1910 1,114,756 22.7%
1920 1,380,631 23.9%
1930 1,606,903 16.4%
1940 1,709,242 6.4%
1950 2,007,280 17.4%
1960 2,535,234 26.3%
1970 3,031,709 19.6%
1980 3,107,576 2.5%
1990 3,287,116 5.8%
2000 3,405,565 3.6%
Sources:[20][21]

Connecticut Population Density Map

As of 2005, Connecticut has an estimated population of 3,510,297,[22] which is an increase of 11,331, or 0.3%, from the prior year and an increase of 104,695, or 3.1%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. ImmigrationWp globe tiny.gif from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and migrationWp globe tiny.gif within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moves from the 29th most populous state to 30th.[22]

6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.

In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut were classified as "rural". The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, it was only 12.3%. The southwestern coast is all urban and is most widely known from New York City. The eastern half of the state though mostly is associated with Boston because of proximity. This split has caused a lack of more than a few professional sport teams. ie: NHL hockey since the mid 1990s, NFL football, MLS soccer and men's basketball.

The center of populationWp globe tiny.gif of Connecticut is located in the town of CheshireWp globe tiny.gif.[23]

Race, ancestry, and language

Demographics of Connecticut (csv)
By race White Black AIAN Asian NHPI
AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native   -   NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
2000 (total population) 87.09% 10.46% 0.73% 2.83% 0.13%
2000 (Hispanic only) 8.31% 1.04% 0.14% 0.07% 0.04%
2005 (total population) 86.09% 10.88% 0.76% 3.56% 0.15%
2005 (Hispanic only) 9.74% 1.09% 0.16% 0.07% 0.05%
Growth 2000-2005 (total population) 1.89% 7.19% 6.59% 29.77% 15.41%
Growth 2000-2005 (non-Hispanic only) -0.11% 7.16% 3.74% 30.12% 16.21%
Growth 2000-2005 (Hispanic only) 20.87% 7.40% 18.36% 14.98% 13.68%

As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born, and 10% of the foreign-born in the state were illegal aliens (about 1.1% of the population). In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.

As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke EnglishWp globe tiny.gif at home and 8.42% spoke SpanishWp globe tiny.gif, followed by ItalianWp globe tiny.gif at 1.59%, FrenchWp globe tiny.gif at 1.31% and PolishWp globe tiny.gif at 1.20%.[24]

The five largest reported ancestries in the state are: ItalianWp globe tiny.gif (18.6%), IrishWp globe tiny.gif (16.6%), EnglishWp globe tiny.gif (10.3%), GermanWp globe tiny.gif (9.9%), and French/French CanadianWp globe tiny.gif (9.9%).

Connecticut has large Italian-AmericanWp globe tiny.gif and Irish-AmericanWp globe tiny.gif populations , as well as German and Portuguese-AmericanWp globe tiny.gif, second highest percentage of any state behind Rhode Island. ItalianWp globe tiny.gif is the largest ancestry group in five of the state's counties, while the IrishWp globe tiny.gif are the largest group in Tolland county, French-CanadiansWp globe tiny.gif the largest group in Windham county, and old stock New England YankeesWp globe tiny.gif are present throughout. Connecticut is the most Italian-American state percentage-wise, just above Rhode Island. BlacksWp globe tiny.gif and HispanicsWp globe tiny.gif (mostly Puerto RicansWp globe tiny.gif) are numerous in the urban areas of the state. Connecticut also has a sizable Polish AmericanWp globe tiny.gif population, with New BritainWp globe tiny.gif containing the largest Polish-American population in the state.

More recent immigrant populations include those from LaosWp globe tiny.gif, VietnamWp globe tiny.gif, ThailandWp globe tiny.gif, IndonesiaWp globe tiny.gif, MexicoWp globe tiny.gif, BrazilWp globe tiny.gif, GuatemalaWp globe tiny.gif, PanamaWp globe tiny.gif, and former SovietWp globe tiny.gif countries.

Religion

A 2001 survey of Connecticut residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations:[25]

There is a significant JewishWp globe tiny.gif population in the state, concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between GreenwichWp globe tiny.gif and New HavenWp globe tiny.gif, in Greater New HavenWp globe tiny.gif and in Greater HartfordWp globe tiny.gif, especially the suburb of West HartfordWp globe tiny.gif.

Recent immigrationWp globe tiny.gif has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low.

Economy

Connecticut welcome sign being updated as Rell takes office on July 1, 2004.

Connecticut quarter, reverse side, 1999.jpg

The total gross state productWp globe tiny.gif for 2004 was $187 billion. The per capita incomeWp globe tiny.gif for 2005 was $47,819, ranking first among the states.[26] There is, however, a great disparity in incomes through the state; although New Canaan has one of the highest per capita incomes in America, Hartford is one of the ten cities with the lowest per capita incomesWp globe tiny.gif in America (The low number may partially be due to the fact that the city, like other cities in the area, has a small footprint relative to a typical American city (only about 18 square miles) and therefore does not have more middle-income areas included in its total to "balance out", statistically, inner areas with older housing stock and a poorer population). Should Hartford (or similar cities New Haven and Bridgeport) be combined with its immediate suburbs, it would rank as one of the richest cities in the country. Fairfield County has become a bedroom communityWp globe tiny.gif for higher-paid New York CityWp globe tiny.gif workers seeking a less urban lifestyle. This in turn has attracted businesses wishing to remain near New York City to southwestern Connecticut, most notably to StamfordWp globe tiny.gif.

New CanaanWp globe tiny.gif is the wealthiest town in ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif, with a per capita income of $85,459. DarienWp globe tiny.gif, GreenwichWp globe tiny.gif, StamfordWp globe tiny.gif, WestonWp globe tiny.gif, WoodbridgeWp globe tiny.gif, WestportWp globe tiny.gif and WiltonWp globe tiny.gif also have per capita incomes over $65,000. HartfordWp globe tiny.gif is the poorest city in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 (although see above). There are other lower-income and blue-collar towns, mostly parts of towns, in the eastern part of the State. Poor and medium wealth households are particularly affected by a very high cost of living, due to a combination of expensive real estate, expensive heating for the winters, and other factors.

Taxation

Prior to 1991, Connecticut had a highly populist income taxWp globe tiny.gif system. Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at the highest rate in the United States: 13%. And this burden was further increased by the method of calculation: no deductions were allowed for the cost (for example, interest on borrowing) of producing the investment income. Under Governor Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.Wp globe tiny.gif, an Independent, this was reformed to the present system.

This system prior to 1991 made it an attractive haven for high-salaried earners fleeing the heavy taxes of New York StateWp globe tiny.gif, but highly unattractive for members of Wall Street partnerships. It put an enormous burden on Connecticut property taxWp globe tiny.gif payers, particularly in the cities with their more extensive municipal servicesWp globe tiny.gif. As a result, the middle classWp globe tiny.gif largely fled the urban areas for the suburbWp globe tiny.gifs, taking stores and other tax-paying businesses with them, leaving mostly the urban poor in the older, central areas of Connecticut cities.

With Weicker's 1991 tax reform, the tax on employment and investment income was equalized at a then-maximum of 4%. Since then, Greenwich, Connecticut, has become the headquarters of choice for a large number of America's largest hedge fundWp globe tiny.gifs, and Connecticut income from that industry has soared. Today the income tax rate on Connecticut individuals is divided into two tax brackets of 3% and 5%.[27] All wageWp globe tiny.gifs of a Connecticut resident are subject to the state's income tax, even when the resident works outside of the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Since New York state has higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents that work in New York state pay no income tax to Connecticut.

Connecticut levies a 6% state sales taxWp globe tiny.gif on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods. Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by statuteWp globe tiny.gif. There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. During the summer there is one week of duty free buying to spur retail sales.

All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of fair market valueWp globe tiny.gif. Another 20% of the value may be taxed by the local government though. The maximum property tax credit is $500 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward.[27] Connecticut does not levy an intangible personal property taxWp globe tiny.gif.

Real estate

Homes in southwestern Connecticut on the fringes of the New York CityWp globe tiny.gif metropolitan area are quite expensive. Many towns have median home prices over $500,000, with some more desirable homes exceeding $1 million. Greenwich has the most expensive real estate market, with most houses selling at over $1 million and most condos selling at over $600,000. Connecticut has the most million-dollar homes in the northeast, and the second most in the nation after California, with 3.3% of homes in Connecticut priced over one million dollars in 2003.[28] In 2007, the median price for a house in Connecticut passed $300,000 for the first time, even though most of the country was mired in a real estate slump.[29]

Industries

The agricultural output for the state is nursery stockWp globe tiny.gif, eggsWp globe tiny.gif, dairy productWp globe tiny.gifs, cattleWp globe tiny.gif, and tobaccoWp globe tiny.gif. Its industrial outputs are transportWp globe tiny.gifation equipment (especially helicopterWp globe tiny.gifs, aircraftWp globe tiny.gif parts, and nuclear submarineWp globe tiny.gifs), heavy industrial machinery and electrical equipment, military weaponry and fabricated metal products, chemicalWp globe tiny.gif and pharmaceuticalWp globe tiny.gif products, and scientific instrumentWp globe tiny.gifs.

Downtown Hartford's Central Business DistrictWp globe tiny.gif.

Due to the prominence of the aircraft industry in the state, Connecticut has an official state aircraft, the F4U CorsairWp globe tiny.gif, and an official Connecticut Aviation Pioneer, Igor SikorskyWp globe tiny.gif. The state officially recognizes aircraft designer Gustav WhiteheadWp globe tiny.gif as "Father of Connecticut Aviation" for his research into powered flight in Bridgeport, ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif in 1901, two years before the Wright brothersWp globe tiny.gif at Kitty Hawk, North CarolinaWp globe tiny.gif.[30] Governor John Dempsey also declared August 15 to be "Gustave Whitehead Day."[31]

A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7Wp globe tiny.gif, 2006 demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides $9 billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7 billion in state and local revenue.[32]

Transportation

Map of Connecticut showing major highways

Roads

GlacierWp globe tiny.gifs carved valleys in Connecticut running north to south; as a result, many more roadways in the state run north to south than do east to west, mimicking the previous use of the many north-south rivers as transportation. The Interstate highwayWp globe tiny.gifs in the state are I-95Wp globe tiny.gif (the Connecticut TurnpikeWp globe tiny.gif) running southwest to northeast along the coast, I-84Wp globe tiny.gif running southwest to northeast in the center of the state, I-91Wp globe tiny.gif running north to south in the center of the state, and I-395Wp globe tiny.gif running north to south near the eastern border of the state. The other major highways in Connecticut are the Merritt ParkwayWp globe tiny.gif and Wilbur Cross ParkwayWp globe tiny.gif, which together form State Route 15Wp globe tiny.gif, running from the Hutchinson River ParkwayWp globe tiny.gif in New York StateWp globe tiny.gif parallel to I-95 before turning north of New HavenWp globe tiny.gif and running parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in Berlin, ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif. Route 15 and I-95 were originally toll roadWp globe tiny.gifs; they relied on a system of toll plazaWp globe tiny.gifs at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988.[33] Other major arteries in the state include U.S. Route 7Wp globe tiny.gif in the west running parallel to the NY border, State Route 8Wp globe tiny.gif farther west near the industrial city of Waterbury and running north-south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with U.S. 7, and State Route 9Wp globe tiny.gif in the east. See List of State Routes in ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif for an overview of the state's highway system.

Between New Haven and the New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Many people now drive longer distances to work in the New York City area. This strains the three lanes of traffic capacity, resulting in lengthy rush hourWp globe tiny.gif delays. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway. The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and ride-sharingWp globe tiny.gif.[34]

Public transportation

Rail

Since many Connecticut residents commute to New York CityWp globe tiny.gif, there is an extensive commuter railWp globe tiny.gifway network connecting New York City to New HavenWp globe tiny.gif on Metro North RailroadWp globe tiny.gif (a commuter railroad based in New York and operated by the Metropolitan Transit Authority) with spurs servicing Waterbury, Danbury, and New Canaan. Rail service does not end with New Haven, however. Connecticut is in the heart of Amtrak's Northeast CorridorWp globe tiny.gif and the Amtrak Regional line makes stops in New Haven-State Street, Old Saybrook, New London, and Mystic. Smaller town stops between New Haven and New London are served by Shore Line EastWp globe tiny.gif, which takes commuters to those stations to catch a main train. These commuter services are heavily utilized during weekday rush hours. Regional rail service is provided by AmtrakWp globe tiny.gif, which makes regular stops in Stamford, Bridgeport, New Haven, and Hartford, as well as in Wallingford, Meriden, Berlin, Windsor, and Windsor Locks. There are plans to operate commuter trains from New Haven to Springfield on Amtrak's New Haven-Springfield LineWp globe tiny.gif.[35]

Bus

Statewide busWp globe tiny.gif service is supplied by Connecticut TransitWp globe tiny.gif, owned by the Connecticut Department of TransportationWp globe tiny.gif, with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. A three-year construction project to build a busway from New Britain to Hartford will begin in August 2009.[36][37]

Air

Bradley International AirportWp globe tiny.gif, which became truly 'International' in the summer of 2007 beginning service to Europe, is located in Windsor LocksWp globe tiny.gif, 15 miles (24 km) north of HartfordWp globe tiny.gif. Regional air service is provided at Tweed-New Haven AirportWp globe tiny.gif. Larger civil airports include Danbury Municipal AirportWp globe tiny.gif and Waterbury-Oxford AirportWp globe tiny.gif in western Connecticut. The Westchester County AirportWp globe tiny.gif in Harrison, New YorkWp globe tiny.gif serves part of southwestern Connecticut.

Law and government

The Connecticut State Capitol in downtown Hartford

HartfordWp globe tiny.gif has been the sole capital of Connecticut since 1875. Before then, New HavenWp globe tiny.gif and Hartford alternated as capitals.[14]

Constitutional History

Connecticut is known as the “Constitution State.” While the origin on this title is uncertain, the nickname is assumed to reference the Fundamental OrdersWp globe tiny.gif of 1638-39. These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal governmentWp globe tiny.gif written by a representative body in Connecticut. The government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of Connecticut Constitutional HistoryWp globe tiny.gif. After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut was granted governmental authority by King Charles II of EnglandWp globe tiny.gif through the Connecticut Charter of 1662. While these two documents acted to lay the ground work for the state’s government, both lacked essential characteristics of a constitutionWp globe tiny.gif. The Fundamental Orders and the Connecticut Charter could both be altered simply by a majority vote of the General AssemblyWp globe tiny.gif. Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority. A true constitution was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965. The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications. Another possible source of the nickname "constitution state" comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, during which Roger Sherman and Oliver EllsworthWp globe tiny.gif helped to orchestrate what became known as the Connecticut CompromiseWp globe tiny.gif, or the Great Compromise. This plan combined the Virginia PlanWp globe tiny.gif and the New Jersey PlanWp globe tiny.gif to form a bicameral legislature, a form copied by almost every state constitution since the adoption of the federal constitution.

Executive

The governor heads the executive branch. The current Governor of ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif is M. Jodi RellWp globe tiny.gif (Republican). The current Lieutenant GovernorWp globe tiny.gif is Michael FedeleWp globe tiny.gif. From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. Connecticut was the first state in the United States to elect a woman as governor without electing her husband first, Ella GrassoWp globe tiny.gif in 1974.

There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, Developmental Services, Education, Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Information Technology, Insurance, Labor, Mental Health and Addiction Services, Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Safety, Public Utility Control, Public Works, Revenue Services, Social Services, Transportation, Veterans Affairs. In addition to these departments, there are other independent bureaus, offices and commissions.[38]

In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, there are four other executive officers named in the state constitution that are elected directly by voters: Secretary of State, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General. All executive officers are elected to four year terms.[14]

Legislative

The legislatureWp globe tiny.gif is the General AssemblyWp globe tiny.gif. The General Assembly is a bicameralWp globe tiny.gif body consisting of an upper body, the State SenateWp globe tiny.gif (36 senators); and a lower body, the House of RepresentativesWp globe tiny.gif (151 representatives).[14] Bills must pass each house in order to become law. The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Senators and representatives, all of whom must be at least eighteen years of age, are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the President Pro TemporeWp globe tiny.gif presides. The Speaker of the HouseWp globe tiny.gif presides over the House; James A. AmannWp globe tiny.gif is the current Speaker of the House of Connecticut. The DemocratsWp globe tiny.gif currently hold the majority in both houses of the General Assembly.

Connecticut's U.S. senators are Christopher J. DoddWp globe tiny.gif (Democrat) and Joseph I. LiebermanWp globe tiny.gif (Democrat) who is part of the Democratic Caucus. Connecticut currently has five representatives in the U.S. HouseWp globe tiny.gif, four of whom are Democrats.

Judicial

The highest courtWp globe tiny.gif of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. The current Chief JusticeWp globe tiny.gif is Chase T. RogersWp globe tiny.gif.

Before 1818 the highest court in Connecticut was the General Assembly, and later, the Upper House, with the Governor having the title "Chief Judge". In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches.[39] The Appellate Court is a lesser state-wide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states.

Local government

and several lists: List of municipalities of Connecticut by populationWp globe tiny.gif, List of towns in ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif, List of cities in ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif, Borough (Connecticut)Wp globe tiny.gif, List of counties in ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif

Connecticut has 169 townsWp globe tiny.gif, which serve as the fundamental local political subdivision of the state; the entire state is divided into towns.[14] Connecticut shares a local form of government with the rest of New EnglandWp globe tiny.gif called the New England townWp globe tiny.gif. There are also 21 cities,[14] most of which are coterminous with their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. There are two exceptions: City of GrotonWp globe tiny.gif, which is a subsection of the Town of GrotonWp globe tiny.gif and the City of WinstedWp globe tiny.gif in the Town of WinchesterWp globe tiny.gif. There are also nine incorporated boroughWp globe tiny.gifs which may provide additional services to a section of town.[14][40] One, NaugatuckWp globe tiny.gif, is a consolidated town and borough.

Unlike most other states, Connecticut does not have countyWp globe tiny.gif government. Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of the sheriffWp globe tiny.gif system.[41] In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the state marshalWp globe tiny.gif system, which has districts that follow the old county territories. The judicial system is divided, at the trial court level, into judicial districts.[42] The eight countiesWp globe tiny.gif are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as weather reportWp globe tiny.gifs, and census reporting.

The state is divided into 15 planning regionsWp globe tiny.gif defined by the state Office of Planning and Management.[43] The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; designation or redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations."[43]

Politics

Presidential elections results[44]
Year RepublicanWp globe tiny.gif DemocraticWp globe tiny.gif
2004Wp globe tiny.gif 43.95% 693,826 54.31% 857,488
2000Wp globe tiny.gif 38.44% 561,094 55.91% 816,015
1996Wp globe tiny.gif 34.69% 483,109 52.83% 735,740
1992Wp globe tiny.gif 35.78% 578,313 42.21% 682,318
1988Wp globe tiny.gif 51.98% 750,241 46.87% 676,584
1984Wp globe tiny.gif 60.73% 890,877 38.83% 569,597
1980Wp globe tiny.gif 48.16% 677,210 38.52% 541,732
1976Wp globe tiny.gif 52.06% 719,261 46.90% 647,895
1972Wp globe tiny.gif 58.57% 810,763 40.13% 555,498
1968Wp globe tiny.gif 44.32% 556,721 49.48% 621,561
1964Wp globe tiny.gif 32.09% 390,996 67.81% 826,269
1960Wp globe tiny.gif 46.27% 565,813 53.73% 657,055

Connecticut is a generally left-leaning state, allotting its electoral votes to Democratic candidates in the past four presidential elections but to Republican presidential candidates five times in the 1970s and 1980s. Connecticut has a high number of voters who are not registered with a major party. As of 2004, 33.7% of registered voters were registered Democratic, 22.0% were registered Republican, and 44.0% were unaffiliated with any party, with 0.2% registered with a minor party.[45] Voters in the state are more supportive of fiscal conservativesWp globe tiny.gif and may be considered to be generally socially liberalWp globe tiny.gif.

Many Connecticut towns show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party. Democrats hold a registration edge especially in the cities of HartfordWp globe tiny.gif; New HavenWp globe tiny.gif; and BridgeportWp globe tiny.gif, where Democratic machines have held power since the great immigration waves of the 1800s. The state's Republican-leaning areas are the rural Litchfield CountyWp globe tiny.gif and adjoining towns in the west of Hartford CountyWp globe tiny.gif, the industrial towns of the Naugatuck River ValleyWp globe tiny.gif, and some of the affluent Fairfield CountyWp globe tiny.gif towns near the New YorkWp globe tiny.gif border. The suburban towns of New CanaanWp globe tiny.gif and DarienWp globe tiny.gif in Fairfield County are considered the most Republican areas in the state, the former being the hometown of conservative activist Ann CoulterWp globe tiny.gif. WestportWp globe tiny.gif, a wealthy town a few miles to the east, is often considered one of the most loyally-Democratic, liberal towns in Fairfield County. NorwalkWp globe tiny.gif and StamfordWp globe tiny.gif, two larger, affluent communities in Fairfield County, have in many elections favored moderate Republicans including former Governor John G. RowlandWp globe tiny.gif and Congressman Chris ShaysWp globe tiny.gif, however they have favored Democrats in recent US presidential candidates. WaterburyWp globe tiny.gif has a Democratic registration edge, but usually favors conservative candidates in both parties. In DanburyWp globe tiny.gif unaffiliated voters outnumber voters registered with either major party. Other smaller cities including MeridenWp globe tiny.gif, New BritainWp globe tiny.gif, and MiddletownWp globe tiny.gif favor Democratic candidates.

Democrats hold veto-proof majorities in both houses of the state legislature. In 2006, Republicans were reduced from three out of five to one out of five congressional seats. The remaining Republican, Chris ShaysWp globe tiny.gif, is the only Republican from New England in the House of Representatives in the current CongressWp globe tiny.gif and is also one of the most liberal Republicans in the House. Christopher DoddWp globe tiny.gif and Joseph LiebermanWp globe tiny.gif are Connecticut's U.S. senators. The senior Dodd is a Democrat while the junior Lieberman serves as an Independent DemocratWp globe tiny.gif caucusing with Senate Democrats after his victory on the Connecticut for LiebermanWp globe tiny.gif ballot line in the 2006 general election. Lieberman's predecessor, Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.Wp globe tiny.gif, was the last Connecticut Republican to serve as Senator. Weicker was known as a liberal Republican. He broke with President Richard NixonWp globe tiny.gif during WatergateWp globe tiny.gif and successfully ran for governor in 1990 as an independent, creating A Connecticut PartyWp globe tiny.gif as his election vehicle. Before Weicker, the last RepublicanWp globe tiny.gif to represent Connecticut in the Senate was Prescott BushWp globe tiny.gif, the father of former President George H.W. BushWp globe tiny.gif and the grandfather of President George W. BushWp globe tiny.gif. He served from 1953–1963.

Political corruption

Several mayors, state legislators, and government employees have been convicted and imprisoned for crimes ranging from bribery to racketeering. In 2004, Governor John G. RowlandWp globe tiny.gif, a Republican, was forced to resign when it was discovered he helped steer state contracts to firms that offered him gifts and free vacations.[46] Following his resignation, he pled guilty to corruption charges and served ten months in federal prison. Former WaterburyWp globe tiny.gif Mayor and 2000 GOP Senate candidate Philip GiordanoWp globe tiny.gif was stripped of power in 2001 after a corruption investigation had to be cut short when phone taps unexpectedly revealed alleged sexual acts with 8- and 10-year-old minor girls and other possible acts of pedophiliaWp globe tiny.gif.[47] In 2003, he was convicted and sentenced to 37 years in federal prison.[48] Democrats have been convicted of corruption as well, most notably former Bridgeport Mayor Joe GanimWp globe tiny.gif. The current Mayor of Bridgeport, John FabriziWp globe tiny.gif admitted to using cocaine while in office, but has stayed on while not running for re-election.[49][50] In August 2007 Hartford Mayor Eddie PerezWp globe tiny.gif announced he had been investigated for ties to a city contractor. [2]

Several state agencies, including the Department of Transportation (DOT)Wp globe tiny.gif, Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV)Wp globe tiny.gif, and Department of Children and Families (DCF)Wp globe tiny.gif have been rocked by scandals over the past decade.

A more recent scandal involved a botched construction project on Interstate 84Wp globe tiny.gif near Waterbury. An independent audit of the project in late 2006 revealed that over 300 storm drains installed by the now-defunct L.G. DeFelice Construction Company, were either filled with sand, were improperly installed, or were connected with pipes that led to nowhere. In addition to the faulty storm drains, officials discovered light fixtures with defective mounting brackets when one of the fixtures fell off of its support pole and onto the highway. Inspectors also discovered the structural steel for an overpass was not properly installed, raising serious questions about the bridge's structural integrity. Following the uncovering of this scandal, Attorney-General Richard BlumenthalWp globe tiny.gif filed suit against L.G. DeFelice, its bonding company USF&GWp globe tiny.gif, and the consultants (the Maguire Group) hired by CONNDOT to oversee the project, resulting in a $17.5 million settlement to fix the problems. A federal grand juryWp globe tiny.gif and FBI investigation were also launched into the operations of L.G. DeFelice before the company ceased operations in 2004. Several CONNDOT employees were fired after being implicated in the scandal, and are also subjects of state and federal investigations for allegedly taking bribesWp globe tiny.gif in exchange for covering up substandard work on the I-84 project. Finally, the scandal prompted the Connecticut General AssemblyWp globe tiny.gif to consider contract reform legislation and Governor M. Jodi RellWp globe tiny.gif to order a complete reorganization of CONNDOT.

On June 1, 2007, Senate Minority Leader Louis DeLucaWp globe tiny.gif (R-Woodbury) was arrested on conspiracy charges after it was discovered he was dealing with a local Mafia boss who is currently facing federal charges stemming from his trash-hauling operations, [51] and allegations that he tried to use these same ties to intimidate the husband of his grandaughter, whom he claimed was abusing her.

Following Rowland's resignation, the state legislature passed a campaign finance reform bill that bans contributions from lobbyists and state contractors in future campaigns.[52]

Education

Connecticut is well-known as the home of Yale UniversityWp globe tiny.gif, which maintains a consistent ranking as one of the world's most renowned universities, and has the most selective undergraduate program of any university in the United States (an 8.6% acceptance rate in 2006).[53][54] Yale is one of the largest employers in the state, and its research activity has recently spun off dozens of growing biotechnology companies.

Connecticut is also the host of many other academic institutions, including Trinity CollegeWp globe tiny.gif, (1825), and Wesleyan UniversityWp globe tiny.gif, (1832). The University of ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif has been the highest ranked public university in New England for eight years running, according to U.S. News and World ReportWp globe tiny.gif. The State's capital university,University of HartfordWp globe tiny.gif, (1877), is a private, independent, and nonsectarian coeducational university located in West Hartford, Connecticut. It was chartered through the joining of the Hartford Art School, Hillyer College, and The Hartt School of Music in 1957.

Additionally, the State has many noted boarding schoolWp globe tiny.gifs, such as Miss Porter's SchoolWp globe tiny.gif, Choate Rosemary HallWp globe tiny.gif, HotchkissWp globe tiny.gif, Pomfret SchoolWp globe tiny.gif, Avon Old FarmsWp globe tiny.gif, Loomis ChaffeeWp globe tiny.gif, Salisbury SchoolWp globe tiny.gif and The Taft SchoolWp globe tiny.gif which draw students from all over the world. Also Connecticut has many noted private day schools such as Kingswood-Oxford SchoolWp globe tiny.gif located in West HartfordWp globe tiny.gif and the Hopkins SchoolWp globe tiny.gif based in New HavenWp globe tiny.gif.

for a comprehensive listing.

Sports

Club Sport League
Bridgeport Sound TigersWp globe tiny.gif Ice hockeyWp globe tiny.gif American Hockey LeagueWp globe tiny.gif
Danbury TrashersWp globe tiny.gif Ice hockey United Hockey LeagueWp globe tiny.gif
Hartford Wolf PackWp globe tiny.gif Ice hockey American Hockey League
New England StarsWp globe tiny.gif Ice hockey North Eastern Hockey LeagueWp globe tiny.gif
Connecticut DefendersWp globe tiny.gif BaseballWp globe tiny.gif Minor League BaseballWp globe tiny.gif (AA)
New Britain Rock CatsWp globe tiny.gif Baseball Minor League Baseball (AA)
Bridgeport BluefishWp globe tiny.gif Baseball Atlantic LeagueWp globe tiny.gif
Manchester SilkwormsWp globe tiny.gif Baseball New England Collegiate Baseball LeagueWp globe tiny.gif
New Haven County CuttersWp globe tiny.gif Baseball Canadian-American LeagueWp globe tiny.gif
Stamford RobinsWp globe tiny.gif Baseball Atlantic Collegiate Baseball LeagueWp globe tiny.gif
Torrington TwistersWp globe tiny.gif Baseball New England Collegiate Baseball LeagueWp globe tiny.gif
Connecticut SunWp globe tiny.gif BasketballWp globe tiny.gif Women's National Basketball AssociationWp globe tiny.gif
Connecticut Roller Girls Flat Track Roller DerbyWp globe tiny.gif Women's Flat Track Roller Derby AssociationWp globe tiny.gif
  • Since 1952, a PGA TourWp globe tiny.gif golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area. Originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open," the event is now know as the Travelers ChampionshipWp globe tiny.gif.

The Pilot Pen Tennis Tournament is held annually at the Connecticut Tennis Center at Yale University. It is one of the few dual-sex tournaments in professional tennis and is the warm-up tournament to the US Open, played the following week in Queens, New York. The court speed and weather conditions are identical to those at the US Open.

The Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference (CIAC)Wp globe tiny.gif is the state's sanctioning body for high school sports. Xavier High School (Middletown, CT)Wp globe tiny.gif claimed the 2005 Class LL football championship. Other state champions in football include Staples (in Westport), Greenwich High School (Greenwich, CT) 2006 state LL champions, Branford, Daniel Hand (in Madison), Woodland Regional (in Beacon Falls), East Lyme High School (in East Lyme), Hyde Leadership (in Hamden), Southington High School (in Southington).

Famous residents

George Walker BushWp globe tiny.gif, the current President of the United States, was born in Connecticut. He is a member of the Bush political familyWp globe tiny.gif, with roots in the state extending three generations. Other notable figures from the state span American political and cultural history, including Ralph NaderWp globe tiny.gif, Eli WhitneyWp globe tiny.gif, Benedict ArnoldWp globe tiny.gif, Nathan HaleWp globe tiny.gif, Harriet Beecher StoweWp globe tiny.gif, Mark TwainWp globe tiny.gif, John BrownWp globe tiny.gif, Eugene O'NeillWp globe tiny.gif, Charles IvesWp globe tiny.gif and Katharine HepburnWp globe tiny.gif, and Roger ShermanWp globe tiny.gif. The state is home to many actors, entertainers and businesspeople.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named SOTS
  2. ^ Population Estimates for All Places: 2000 to 2006: Connecticut SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls. United States Census Bureau. Last accessed 2007-10-16Wp globe tiny.gif.
  3. ^ State Data from the State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006. United States Census Bureau. Last accessed 2007-10-16Wp globe tiny.gif.
  4. ^ a b Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named pop
  5. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. 29 AprilWp globe tiny.gif 2005Wp globe tiny.gif. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved 2006-11-03. 
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  7. ^ "Highest wages in East, lowest in South". USA Today. 29 NovemberWp globe tiny.gif 2005Wp globe tiny.gif. http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2005-11-29-wage_x.htm. 
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  9. ^ "Mount Frissell-South Slope". peakbagger.com. http://peakbagger.com/peak.aspx?pid=7083. 
  10. ^ "The Southwick Jog". http://www.southwickma.org/Public_Documents/F000102F9/S00476B50-00476B5B.0/The%20Southwick%20Jog.pdf. 
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  17. ^ See YankeeWp globe tiny.gif main article.
  18. ^ See National Statuary Hall CollectionWp globe tiny.gif
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  27. ^ a b Connecticut income tax instructions
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  44. ^ "Presidential General Election Results Comparison - Connecticut". Dave Leip's Atlas of United States Presidential Elections. 2005. http://www.uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/compare.php?year=2004&fips=9&f=0&off=0&elect=0&type=state. Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  45. ^ Party Enrollment in Connecticut. Connecticut Office of the Secretary of State. Last retrieved 2007-02-22Wp globe tiny.gif.
  46. ^ "Connecticut governor announces resignation". CNNWp globe tiny.gif.com. 1 JulyWp globe tiny.gif 2004Wp globe tiny.gif. http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/06/21/connecticut.governor/index.html. Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  47. ^ "Federal Child Sex Charges Against Republican Mayor Giordano". New York Daily NewsWp globe tiny.gif. 23 NovemberWp globe tiny.gif 2001Wp globe tiny.gif. http://liberty.hypermart.net/voices/2002/Giordano.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  48. ^ "Ex-Republican Mayor in Connecticut Is Sentenced to 37 Years for Sex Abuse". New York TimesWp globe tiny.gif (AP). 14 JuneWp globe tiny.gif 2003Wp globe tiny.gif. http://liberty.hypermart.net/voices/2002/Giordano.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  49. ^ "Politics top state stories of 2006". The Stamford Times (AP). http://nwkpublish.bits.baseview.com/stamford_templates/stamford_story/319603830946543.php. Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  50. ^ Cummings, Bill (21 JuneWp globe tiny.gif 2006Wp globe tiny.gif). "Fabrizi: I used coke". Connecticut PostWp globe tiny.gif. http://www.connpost.com/news/ci_3958182. Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  51. ^ State Sen. DeLuca arrested. WTNH Channel 8 New Haven, June 1, 2007
  52. ^ "Connecticut Legislature Passes Sweeping Campaign Finance Reform Bill" (Press release). Brennan Center for Justice. 1 DecemberWp globe tiny.gif 2005Wp globe tiny.gif. http://www.brennancenter.org/press_detail.asp?key=100&subkey=10529&init_key=84. Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  53. ^ "College acceptance rates: How many get in?". USA TodayWp globe tiny.gif. 8 NovemberWp globe tiny.gif 2006Wp globe tiny.gif. http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2006-11-02-collegerates_x.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  54. ^ Lutts, Chloe (4 AprilWp globe tiny.gif 2006Wp globe tiny.gif). "Class of 2010 acceptance rate lowest in University history". The Brown Daily Herald. http://media.www.browndailyherald.com/media/storage/paper472/news/2006/04/04/CampusNews/Class.Of.2010.Acceptance.Rate.Lowest.In.University.History-1779032.shtml?sourcedomain=www.browndailyherald.com&MIIHost=media.collegepublisher.com. Retrieved 2007-01-20. 

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Preceded by
GeorgiaWp globe tiny.gif
List of U.S. states by date of statehoodWp globe tiny.gif
Ratified ConstitutionWp globe tiny.gif on January 9Wp globe tiny.gif, 1788Wp globe tiny.gif (5th)
Succeeded by
MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif

41°36′N 72°42′W / 41.6, -72.7

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