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{{two other uses|the U.S. state of Connecticut|the river|Connecticut River|other uses}}
{{US state |
 
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{{Infobox U.S. state
Name = Connecticut |
 
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|Name = Connecticut
Fullname = State of Connecticut |
 
Flag = Flag of Connecticut.svg |
+
|Fullname = State of Connecticut
  +
|Flag = Flag of Connecticut.svg
Seal = Connecticut state seal.png |
 
  +
|Seal = Seal of Connecticut.svg
Flower = Mountain Laurel<ref name=SOTS>[http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/SectionX/SITESEALSYMB.htm STATE OF CONNECTICUT, Sites ° Seals ° Symbols]; ''Connecticut State Register & Manual''; retrieved on [[December 15]], [[2006]]</ref>|
 
Tree = White Oak<ref name=SOTS/>|
+
|Flower = Mountain Laurel<ref name=SOTS/>
  +
|Tree = White Oak<ref name=SOTS/>
Flaglink = [[Wikipedia:Flag of Connecticut|Flag of Connecticut]] |
 
Seallink=[[Wikipedia:Seal of Connecticut|Seal of Connecticut]]|
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|Flaglink = [[Flag of Connecticut|Flag]]
Map = Map_of_USA_CT.svg |
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|Map = Map_of_USA_CT.svg
Nickname = The Constitution State, The Nutmeg State<ref name=SOTS/> |
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|Nickname = The Constitution State<br />The Nutmeg State<br />The Provisions State<br />The Land of Steady Habits<ref name=SOTS/><ref name=cslib/>
  +
|Motto = [[Qui transtulit sustinet]].<ref name=SOTS/> ([[Latin]])
 
Motto = [[Wikipedia:Qui transtulit sustinet|Qui transtulit sustinet]]<ref name=SOTS/><br /> Latin meaning "He who is transplanted still sustains" |
+
|MottoEnglish = He who transplanted sustains.
Capital = [[Wikipedia:Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] |
+
|Former = Connecticut Colony
  +
|Capital = [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]
LargestMetro = [[Wikipedia:Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford Metro Area]]<ref name=metrocompare>[http://www.census.gov/compendia/smadb/SMADBmetro.html State Data from the State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006]. United States Census Bureau. Last accessed [[2007-10-16|]].</ref> |
 
LargestCity = [[Wikipedia:Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]]<ref name=popcompare>[http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls Population Estimates for All Places: 2000 to 2006: Connecticut SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls]. United States Census Bureau. Last accessed [[2007-10-16|]].</ref> |
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|LargestMetro = [[Greater Hartford]]<ref name=metrocompare>[http://www.census.gov/compendia/smadb/SMADBmetro.html State Data from the State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006]. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2007-10-16.</ref> |
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|LargestCity = [[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]]<ref name=popcompare>[http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls Population Estimates for All Places: 2000 to 2006: Connecticut SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls]. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2007-10-16.</ref>
Governor = [[Wikipedia:M. Jodi Rell|M. Jodi Rell]] ([[Wikipedia:Republican Party (United States)|R]])|
 
  +
|Demonym = Connecticuter,<ref>United States Government Printing Office Style Manual (2000), §5.23, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/stylemanual/index.html</ref> [[Nutmegger]]<ref>SHG Resources, http://www.shgresources.com/resources/symbols/names/residentnames/</ref>
Senators = [[Wikipedia:Christopher Dodd|Christopher Dodd]] ([[Wikipedia:Democratic Party (United States)|D]])<br />[[Wikipedia:Joe Lieberman|Joe Lieberman]] ([[Wikipedia:Independent Democrat|ID]]) |
 
  +
|Governor = [[Dannel Malloy]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])
PostalAbbreviation = CT. |
 
  +
|Lieutenant Governor = [[Nancy Wyman]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])
OfficialLang = [[English language|English]] |
 
  +
|Legislature = [[Connecticut General Assembly|General Assembly]]
AreaRank = 48<sup>th</sup> |
 
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|Upperhouse = [[Connecticut Senate|Senate]]
TotalArea = 14,356|
 
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|Lowerhouse = [[Connecticut House of Representatives|House of Representatives]]
TotalAreaUS = 5,543<ref name=pop/>|
 
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|Senators = [[Joe Lieberman]] ([[Independent Democrat|ID]]) <br /> [[Richard Blumenthal]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])
LandArea = 12,559 |
 
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|Representative=5 Democrats
LandAreaUS = 4,849 |
 
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|PostalAbbreviation = CT
WaterArea = 1,809 |
 
  +
|OfficialLang = None
WaterAreaUS = 698 |
 
  +
|AreaRank = 48th
PCWater = 12.6 |
 
  +
|TotalArea = 14,357
PopRank = 29<sup>th</sup> |
 
  +
|TotalAreaUS = 5,543
2004Pop = 3,503,604<ref name=pop>[http://factfinder.census.gov/bf/_lang=en_vt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTPH1R_US9S_geo_id=01000US.html GCT-PH1-R. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (geographies ranked by total population): 2000]. United States Census Bureau. Last accessed [[2007-02-20|]].</ref>|
 
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|LandArea = 12,559
DensityRank = 4<sup>th</sup> |
 
  +
|LandAreaUS = 4,849
2000Density = 271.40 |
 
  +
|WaterArea = 1,809
2000DensityUS = 702.9 |
 
  +
|WaterAreaUS = 698
MedianHouseholdIncome = $55,970 |
 
  +
|PCWater = 12.6
IncomeRank = 4<sup>th</sup> |
 
  +
|PopRank = 29th
AdmittanceOrder = 5<sup>th</sup> |
 
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|2000Pop = ([[2010 United States Census|2010]]) 3,574,097<ref>{{cite web | title = Connecticut QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau | publisher = United States Census Bureau | accessdate = June 15, 2011 | url = http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/09000.html}}</ref>
AdmittanceDate = [[January 9]], [[1788]] |
 
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|DensityRank = 4th
TimeZone = [[Wikipedia:Eastern Standard Time (North America)|Eastern]]: [[Wikipedia:Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]]-5/[[Wikipedia:Daylight saving time|-4]] |
 
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|2000Density = 271.40
Longitude = 71°47′ W to 73°44′ W |
 
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|2000DensityUS = 702.9
Latitude = 40°58′ N to 42°03′ N |
 
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|MedianHouseholdIncome = $68,595
Width = 113 |
 
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|IncomeRank = 3<sup>rd</sup>
WidthUS = 70 |
 
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|HumanDevelopmentIndex = 0.962
Length = 177 |
 
  +
|HDIRank = 1<sup>rd</sup>
LengthUS = 110 |
 
  +
|AdmittanceOrder = 5th
HighestPoint = [[Wikipedia:Mount Frissell|South slope of Mount Frissel]]<ref name=usgs>
 
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|AdmittanceDate = January 9, 1788
{{cite web| date =[[29 April]] [[2005]] |
 
  +
|TimeZone = [[Eastern Standard Time (North America)|Eastern]]: [[Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]]-5/[[Daylight saving time|-4]]
url =http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest|
 
  +
|Longitude = 71°47′ W to 73°44′ W
title =Elevations and Distances in the United States|
 
  +
|Latitude = 40°58′ N to 42°03′ N
publisher =U.S Geological Survey|
 
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|Width = 113
accessdate =2006-11-03}}</ref><br>Note: The peak of Mount Frissel<br>is in Massachusetts | The highest peak in Connecticut lays forty miles south in the town of New Milford as part of a ridge.
 
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|WidthUS = 70
HighestElev = 726 |
 
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|Length = 177
HighestElevUS = 2,380 |
 
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|LengthUS = 110
MeanElev = 152 |
 
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|HighestPoint = South slope of [[Mount Frissell]]<ref name=usgs>
MeanElevUS = 500 |
 
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{{cite web| date =29 April 2005
LowestPoint = [[Wikipedia:Long Island Sound|Long Island Sound]]<ref name=usgs/> |
 
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|url = http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest
LowestElev = 0 |
 
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|title =Elevations and Distances in the United States
LowestElevUS = 0 |
 
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|publisher = U.S Geological Survey
ISOCode = US-CT |
 
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|accessdate = 2006-11-03}}</ref><br />''<small>Note: The summit of Mount Frissell<br />is in Massachusetts</small>''
TradAbbreviation = Conn.|
 
  +
|HighestElev = 726
Website = www.ct.gov
 
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|HighestElevUS = 2,380
  +
|MeanElev = 152
  +
|MeanElevUS = 500
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|LowestPoint = [[Long Island Sound]]<ref name=usgs/>
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|LowestElev = 0
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|LowestElevUS = 0
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|ISOCode = US-CT
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|TradAbbreviation = Conn.
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|Website = www.ct.gov
 
}}
 
}}
'''Connecticut''' ({{IPAEng|kəˈnɛtɪkət}})<ref>{{cite web |url= http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/connecticut|title= Connecticut - Definitions from Dictionary.com |accessdate=2007-09-17 }}</ref> is a [[U.S. state|state]] located in the [[Wikipedia:New England|New England]] region of the [[Wikipedia:Northeastern United States|northeastern]] [[United States of America|United States of America]]. Southwestern Connecticut is also considered part of the [[Wikipedia:New York metropolitan area|New York metropolitan area]]. Connecticut is the [[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by population|29th]] most populous state with 3.4 million residents and ranked [[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by area|48th]] in size by area, making it the [[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by population density|4th]] most densely populated state.<ref name=pop/>. Called the "Constitution State," Connecticut has a long history dating from the early colonial times, and was influential in the development of early American government.
 
   
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'''Connecticut''' ({{IPAc-en|en-us-Connecticut.ogg|k|ə|ˈ|n|ɛ|t|ɨ|k|ə|t}})<ref>{{cite web |url= http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/connecticut|title= Connecticut - Definitions from Dictionary.com |accessdate=2007-09-17 |archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkvMGho |archivedate = 2010-11-18|deadurl=no}}</ref> is a [[U.S. state|state]] in the [[New England]] region of the [[northeastern United States]]. It is bordered by [[Rhode Island]] to the east, [[Massachusetts]] to the north, the state of [[New York]] to the west, and by the [[Long Island Sound]] to the south.
While Connecticut's first European settlers were [[Wikipedia:Dutch people|Dutch]], the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English. [[Wikipedia:Thomas Hooker|Thomas Hooker]] led a band of followers overland from the [[Wikipedia:Massachusetts Bay colony|Massachusetts Bay colony]] and founded what would become the [[Wikipedia:Connecticut Colony|Connecticut Colony]]; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the [[Wikipedia:Saybrook Colony|Saybrook Colony]] and the [[Wikipedia:New Haven Colony|New Haven Colony]]. Both the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of [[Wikipedia:Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders]], considered the first [[Wikipedia:constitution|constitution]]s in North America. In 1662, the disparate colonies merged under a royal charter, making Connecticut a [[Wikipedia:crown colony|crown colony]]. This colony was one of the [[Wikipedia:Thirteen Colonies|Thirteen Colonies]] that revolted against [[United Kingdom|British]] rule in the [[American Revolution|American Revolution]].
 
   
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Named for the [[Connecticut River]], the major U.S. river that approximately bisects the state, Connecticut's capital city is [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]. The [[Knowledge Corridor]] surrounding Hartford and [[Springfield, Massachusetts]], the latter of which lies only 5 miles north of the Connecticut state line, constitute New England's second most populous metropolitan region (with approximately 1.8 million residents and 110,000 university students.) <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.westernmassedc.com/Data__Demographics/knowledgecorridor/ |title=Western Mass EDC Knowledge Corridor® |publisher=Westernmassedc.com |date= |accessdate=2011-06-05}}</ref> Southwestern Connecticut is considered part of the [[New York metropolitan area]]; three of Connecticut's eight counties are in the [[New York metropolitan area#Components of the metropolitan area|New York City combined statistical area]], commonly called the ''[[Tri-State area (NY-NJ-CT)|Tri-State area]]''. Connecticut's center of population is in [[Cheshire, Connecticut|Cheshire]], [[New Haven County, Connecticut|New Haven County]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/INFO/COP/ct_links.htm|title= State of Connecticut Center of Population - From ngs.noaa.gov|accessdate=2009-01-30 |archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkvhYPB |archivedate = 2010-11-18|deadurl=no}}</ref>
Connecticut enjoys a [[Wikipedia:temperate|temperate]] climate thanks to its long coastline on the [[Wikipedia:Long Island Sound|Long Island Sound]]. This has given the state a strong [[Wikipedia:maritime|maritime]] tradition. Modern Connecticut is also known for its wealth. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Connecticut had ready access to raw materials which helped to develop a strong [[Wikipedia:History of Connecticut industry|manufacturing industry]]. In the 19th and 20th centuries, financial organizations flourished: first [[Wikipedia:insurance|insurance]] companies in Hartford, then [[Wikipedia:hedge funds|hedge funds]] along the [[Wikipedia:Gold Coast, Connecticut|Gold Coast]]. This prosperity has helped give Connecticut the highest [[Wikipedia:per capita|per capita]] income and [[Wikipedia:Household income in the United States|median household income]] in the country.<ref>{{cite web| date=[[29 November]] [[2005]]| title=Highest wages in East, lowest in South| publisher=USA Today| url=http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2005-11-29-wage_x.htm}}</ref><ref>{{cite web| date=[[18 March]][[2000]]| title=Census 2000| publisher= United States Census Bureau| url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-_box_head_nbr=GCT-P14&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-format=US-9}}</ref>
 
   
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Connecticut is the 29th [[List of U.S. states by population|most populous state]], with 3.5 million residents, and is ranked 48th [[List of U.S. states by area|in size by area]], making it the 4th [[List of U.S. states by population density|most densely populated state]]. Called the ''[[Connecticut#Constitutional history|Constitution State]]'', ''[[Nutmeg]] State'', and "The Land of Steady Habits",<ref name=SOTS/> Connecticut was influential in the development of the [[Federal government of the United States|federal government]] of the United States.
== Geography ==
 
{{further|[[Wikipedia:Geology of Connecticut|Geology of Connecticut]]}}
 
Connecticut is bordered on the south by [[Wikipedia:Long Island Sound|Long Island Sound]], on the west by [[Wikipedia:New York State|New York State]], on the north by [[Massachusetts|Massachusetts]], and on the east by [[Rhode Island|Rhode Island]]. The state capital is [[Wikipedia:Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]], and the other major cities include [[Wikipedia:New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]], [[Wikipedia:New London, Connecticut|New London]], [[Wikipedia:New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]], [[Wikipedia:Norwich, Connecticut|Norwich]], [[Wikipedia:Milford, Connecticut|Milford]], [[Wikipedia:Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk]], [[Wikipedia:Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], [[Wikipedia:Waterbury, Connecticut|Waterbury]], [[Wikipedia:Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]] and [[Wikipedia:Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]]. There are 169 [[Wikipedia:incorporated town|incorporated town]]s in Connecticut. There is an ongoing civic pride and economic competition between Hartford and New Haven,{{Fact|date=December 2006}} which stems back to the days when the two cities shared the state's capital, and even back to the rivalry between [[Wikipedia:New Haven Colony|New Haven Colony]] and [[Wikipedia:Connecticut Colony|Connecticut Colony]].
 
[[Image:Approaching Summit Again.JPG|left|thumb|155px|Bear Mountain, highest peak in Connecticut]]
 
The highest peak in Connecticut is [[Wikipedia:Bear Mountain (Connecticut)|Bear Mountain]] in [[Wikipedia:Salisbury, Connecticut|Salisbury]] in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, [[Massachusetts|Massachusetts]], and [[New York|New York]] meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of [[Wikipedia:Mount Frissell|Mount Frissell]], whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://peakbagger.com/peak.aspx?pid=7083| title=Mount Frissell-South Slope| publisher=peakbagger.com}}</ref>
 
   
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Connecticut's first European settlers were [[Dutch (ethnic group)|Dutch]] and established a small, short-lived settlement in present-day Hartford at the confluence of the [[Park River (Connecticut)|Park]] and [[Connecticut River|Connecticut]] rivers, called ''[[Fort Hoop|Huys de Goede Hoop]]''. Initially, half of Connecticut was a part of the Dutch colony, [[New Netherland]], which included much of the land between the Connecticut and [[Delaware River|Delaware]] rivers.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound, Connecticut's outlet to the [[Atlantic Ocean|Atlantic Ocean]].
 
{{further|[[Wikipedia:List of Connecticut rivers|List of Connecticut rivers]]}}
 
Despite its size, the state has regional variations in its landscape and culture from the wealthy estates of Fairfield County's "[[Wikipedia:Gold Coast, Connecticut|Gold Coast]]" to the rolling mountains and horse-farms of the [[Wikipedia:Litchfield Hills|Litchfield Hills]] of northwestern Connecticut. Connecticut's rural areas and [[Image:Highest Point here.JPG|right|thumb|155px|Highest point in Connecticut on slope of Mount Frissell, as seen from Bear Mountain]]small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New Haven, then northwards to Hartford, as well as further up the coast near New London. Many towns center around a small park, known as a "green," (such as the [[Wikipedia:New Haven Green|New Haven Green]]), Litchfield Green, Simsbury Green, and New Milford Green(the largest in the state). Near the green may stand a small white church, a town meeting hall, a tavern and several colonial houses. Forests, rivers, lakes, waterfalls and a sandy shore add to the state's beauty.
 
{{further|[[Wikipedia:List of Connecticut state forests|List of Connecticut state forests]]}}
 
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the distinctive [[Wikipedia:Southwick Jog|Southwick Jog]]/[[Wikipedia:Granby Notch|Granby Notch]], an approximately 2.5 mile (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut slightly west of the center of the border. Somewhat surprisingly, the actual origin of this anomaly is not absolutely certain, with stories ranging from surveyors who were drunk, attempting to avoid hostile Native Americans, or taking a shortcut up the Connecticut River; Massachusetts residents attempting to avoid Massachusetts' high taxes for the low taxes of Connecticut; Massachusetts' interest in the resources represented by the [[Wikipedia:Congamond Lakes|Congamond Lakes]] which lie on the border of the jog; and the need to compensate Massachusetts for an amount of land given to Connecticut due to inaccurate survey work.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.southwickma.org/Public_Documents/F000102F9/S00476B50-00476B5B.0/The%20Southwick%20Jog.pdf | title=The Southwick Jog}} </ref><ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/jog.htm|title=Connecticut's Southwick Jog| publisher=Connecticut State Library}}</ref> The dispute over the border slowed development in the region, since neither state would invest in public services for the area until the dispute had been settled. {{Fact|date=December 2006}}
 
   
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The first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the [[English people|English]]. [[Thomas Hooker]] led a band of followers overland from the [[Massachusetts Bay Colony]] and founded what would become the [[Connecticut Colony]]; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the [[Saybrook Colony]] and the [[New Haven Colony]]. Both the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of [[Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders]], considered the first [[constitution]]s in North America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a [[royal charter]], making Connecticut a [[crown colony]]. This colony was one of the [[Thirteen Colonies]] that revolted against British rule in the [[American Revolution]].
The southwestern border of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State, is marked by a [[Wikipedia:panhandle|panhandle]] in [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]], containing the towns of [[Wikipedia:Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]], [[Wikipedia:Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], [[Wikipedia:New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan]] and [[Wikipedia:Darien, Connecticut|Darien]]. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of [[History of Connecticut#Territorial disputes|territorial disputes]] in the late 1600s, culminating with New York giving up its claim to this area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from [[Wikipedia:Ridgefield, Connecticut|Ridgefield]] to the Massachusetts border as well as undisputed claim to [[Wikipedia:Rye, New York|Rye]].<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/panhandle.htm| title=Connecticut's "Panhandle"| publisher=Connecticut State Library}}</ref>
 
{{further|[[Wikipedia:Connecticut Panhandle|Connecticut Panhandle]]}}
 
   
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The Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along the Long Island Sound have given the state a strong [[wiktionary:Maritime|maritime]] tradition, which continues today. Connecticut's other traditional industry is financial services; for example, [[insurance]] companies in Hartford and [[hedge funds]] in [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield county]]. As of the 2010 Census, Connecticut features the highest [[per capita]] income, [[Human Development Index]] (0.962), and [[Household income in the United States|median household income]] in the United States.<ref>{{cite news| date=29 November 2005| title=Highest wages in East, lowest in South| publisher=USA Today| url=http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2005-11-29-wage_x.htm | first1=Stephen | last1=Ohlemacher | accessdate=2010-04-30|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkvtVNF |archivedate = 2010-11-18|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web| date=18 March 2000| title=Census 2000| publisher= United States Census Bureau| url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-_box_head_nbr=GCT-P14&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-format=US-9|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkweQ74 |archivedate = 2010-11-18|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite news| date=17 July 2008| title=US slips down development index| publisher=BBC| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7511426.stm|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkxLjnC |archivedate = 2010-11-18|deadurl=no}}</ref> Although Connecticut is a wealthy state by most measures, the income gap between its urban and suburban areas is striking, with several of Connecticut's cities ranking among the nation's poorest and most dangerous.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/09/nyregion/09income.html | work=The New York Times | title=Income Gap in Connecticut Is Growing Fastest, Study Finds | date=2008-04-09}}</ref><ref>http://os.cqpress.com/citycrime/2010/City_crime_rate_2010-2011_hightolow.pdf</ref>
Areas maintained by the [[Wikipedia:National Park Service|National Park Service]] include: [[Wikipedia:Appalachian National Scenic Trail|Appalachian National Scenic Trail]]; [[Wikipedia:Quinebaug & Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor|Quinebaug & Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor]]; and [[Wikipedia:Weir Farm National Historic Site|Weir Farm National Historic Site]].
 
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==Geography==
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{{further|[[Geology of Connecticut]]}}
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{{stack begin|clear=true}}
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[[File:Nhskyline eastshore.jpg|thumb|[[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]]]]
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[[File:View of City of New London.jpg|thumb|[[New London, Connecticut|New London]]]]
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[[File:Hartford Connecticut Skyline.JPG|thumb|[[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]]]
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[[File:StamfordCTRRstaLookingNE11112007.jpg|thumb|[[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]]]]
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{{stack end}}
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Connecticut is bordered on the south by [[Long Island Sound]], on the west by [[New York State]], on the north by [[Massachusetts]], and on the east by [[Rhode Island]]. The state capital is [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]], and other major cities (by population) include [[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]], [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]], [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], [[Waterbury, Connecticut|Waterbury]], [[Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk]], [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]], [[New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]] and [[Bristol, Connecticut|Bristol]]. There are 169 [[New England town|incorporated towns]] in Connecticut.
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[[File:Approaching Summit Again.JPG|left|thumb|155px|Bear Mountain, highest peak in Connecticut.]]
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The highest peak in Connecticut is [[Bear Mountain (Connecticut)|Bear Mountain]] in [[Salisbury, Connecticut|Salisbury]] in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, [[Massachusetts]], and New York meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of [[Mount Frissell]], whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts.<ref>{{cite peakbagger |pid=7083 |name=Mount Frissell-South Slope, Connecticut/Massachusetts}}</ref>
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The [[Connecticut River]] cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound. The state's most populous metropolitan region, the [[Knowledge Corridor]], lies in the [[Connecticut River Valley]]. Despite Connecticut's relatively small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape; for example, in the northwestern [[Litchfield Hills]], it features rolling mountains and horse farms, whereas in the southeastern [[New London County]], it features beaches and maritime activities.
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Although Connecticut has a long maritime history, and a reputation based on that history, Connecticut has no direct access to the sea. The jurisdiction of New York actually extends east at [[Fishers Island]], where New York shares a sea border with [[Rhode Island]] dividing [[Narragansett Bay]]. Although Connecticut has easy access to the Atlantic, between [[Long Island Sound]] and [[Block Island Sound]], Connecticut has no direct ocean coast.
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{{further|[[List of Connecticut rivers]]}}
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[[File:Highest Point here.JPG|left|thumb|155px|Highest point in Connecticut on slope of Mount Frissell, as seen from Bear Mountain.]]
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Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London, then northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns center around a "[[village green|green]]", such as the Litchfield Green, Simsbury Green, Lebanon Green (the largest in the state), and Wethersfield Green (the oldest in the state). Near the green typically stand historical visual symbols of [[New England]] towns, such as a white [[Church (building)|church]], a [[colonial meeting house]], a colonial [[tavern]] or "[[inne]]", several [[colonial house]]s, and so on, establishing a scenic historic appearance maintained for both [[historic preservation]] and [[tourism]].
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Connecticut consists of [[temperate broadleaf and mixed forests]]. [[Northeastern coastal forests]] of [[Quercus|oaks]], [[Carya|hickories]], and [[Acer (genus)|maple]] cover much of the state.<ref name = "ecoregions">{{cite journal |author = Olson, D. M, E. Dinerstein, ''et al'' |title = Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth |journal = [[BioScience]] |year = 2001 |volume=51 |issue=11 |pages= 933–938 |url = http://gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder/ |doi = 10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0933:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2 |archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkyhbI6 |archivedate = 2010-11-18|deadurl=no}}</ref> In the northwest, these give way to [[New England-Acadian forests]] of the [[Taconic Mountains]].<ref name = "ecoregions"/>
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{{further|[[List of Connecticut state forests]]}}
  +
  +
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the distinctive Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5&nbsp;mile (4.0&nbsp;km) square detour into Connecticut. The actual origin of this anomaly is clearly established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which was finally concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick, (whose residents sought to leave Massachusetts), was split in half.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.southwickma.org/Public_Documents/F000102F9/S00476B50-00476B5B.0/The%20Southwick%20Jog.pdf | title=The Southwick Jog|format=PDF|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5p1plFeFC |archivedate = 2010-04-16|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/jog.htm|title=Connecticut's Southwick Jog| publisher=Connecticut State Library|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkzcI4A |archivedate = 2010-11-18|deadurl=no}}</ref>
  +
  +
The southwestern border of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State, is marked by a [[panhandle]] in [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]], containing the towns of [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]], [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], [[New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan]], [[Darien, Connecticut|Darien]] and part of [[Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk]]. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of [[History of Connecticut#Territorial disputes|territorial disputes]] in the late 17th century, culminating with New York giving up its claim to the area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from [[Ridgefield, Connecticut|Ridgefield]] to the Massachusetts border as well as undisputed claim to [[Rye (town), New York|Rye, New York]].<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/panhandle.htm| title=Connecticut's "Panhandle"| publisher=Connecticut State Library|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKl03gYx |archivedate = 2010-11-18|deadurl=no}}</ref>
  +
{{further|[[Connecticut Panhandle]]}}
  +
  +
Areas maintained by the [[National Park Service]] include: [[Appalachian National Scenic Trail]]; [[Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor]]; and [[Weir Farm National Historic Site]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Connecticut | publisher = National Park Service | accessdate = 2008-07-15 | url = http://www.nps.gov/state/ct/index.htm}}</ref>
  +
  +
The Scoville Memorial Libraries collection began in 1771, when Richard Smith, owner of a local blast furnace, used community contributions to buy 200 books in London. Patrons could borrow and return books on the third Monday of every third month. Fees were collected for damages, the most common being "greasing" by wax dripped from the candles by which the patrons read.
   
 
===Climate===
 
===Climate===
  +
Interior portions of Connecticut have a [[humid continental climate]], while other parts, especially the Connecticut shoreline (southern four counties), have a [[humid subtropical climate]] with seasonal extremes tempered by proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. The city of Bridgeport (on Long Island Sound), like most other areas in [[Tri-State Region|metropolitan New York]], has a humid subtropical climate under the Koppen Climate Classification system. Hartford (35&nbsp;miles inland) has a humid continental climate. Consistent with its coastal reputation, Connecticut is a moderately sunny state, averaging between 2,400 and 2,800 hours of [[sunshine]] annually.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://maps.howstuffworks.com/united-states-annual-sunshine-map.htm|title=united states annual sunshine map|publisher=HowStuffWorks, Inc|accessdate=2011-03-15}}</ref>
Connecticut has a [[Koppen climate classification#GROUP D: Continental.2Fmicrothermal climate|Humid Continental Climate]], with seasonal extremes tempered by its proximity to the [[Atlantic Ocean|Atlantic Ocean]]. Winters are cold, with average temperatures ranging from 31 °F (-1 °C) in the southeast to 23 °F (-5 °C) in the northwest in January. The average yearly snowfall is about 25–100" (64–254 cm) across the state, with higher totals in the northwest. Spring has variable temperatures with frequent rainfall. Summer is hot and humid throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81 °F (27 °C) and 87 °F (31 °C) in Windsor Locks. Fall months are mild, and bring foliage across the state in October and November. During hurricane season, tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the summer, occurring on average 30 times annually. These storms can be severe, though tornadoes are rare.<ref name= "tornadoes"> {{cite web| url=http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/research/tornado/small/avgt5304.gif| title=Annual average number of tornadoes| publisher=NOAA National Climatic Data Center| accessdate=2006-10-24}} </ref>
 
   
  +
Winters are generally considered to be cold, with average temperatures ranging from 31&nbsp;°F (−1&nbsp;°C) in the maritime influenced southeast to 23&nbsp;°F (−5&nbsp;°C) in the northwest in January. The average yearly snowfall is about 25–100" (64–254&nbsp;cm) across the state, with higher totals in the northwest. Spring has variable temperatures with frequent rainfall. Summer is hot and humid throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81&nbsp;°F (27&nbsp;°C) and 87&nbsp;°F (31&nbsp;°C) in Windsor Locks. Fall months are mild and bring colorful foliage across the state in October and November. During hurricane season, tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the summer, occurring on average 30 times annually. These storms can be severe, and the state usually averages one tornado per year.<ref name="tornadoes">{{cite web| url=http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/research/tornado/small/avgt5304.gif| title=Annual average number of tornadoes| publisher=NOAA National Climatic Data Center| accessdate=2006-10-24}}</ref> Connecticut's warmest temperature is {{convert|106|F|C}} which occurred in [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]] on July 15, 1995; the coldest temperature is {{convert|-32|F|C}} which occurred in [[Falls Village, Connecticut|Falls Village]] on February 16, 1943 and [[Coventry, Connecticut|Coventry]] on January 22, 1961.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/extremes/scec/getextreme.php?elem=ALL&state=CT|title=All-Time Climate Extremes for CT|publisher=[[NOAA]]|accessdate=2011-03-18}}</ref>
 
{| class="wikitable" "text-align:center;font-size:90%;"|
 
{| class="wikitable" "text-align:center;font-size:90%;"|
| colspan="13" style="text-align:center;font-size:120%;background:#E8EAFA;"|Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Connecticut Cities
+
| colspan="13" style="text-align:center;font-size:120%;background:#E8EAFA;"|Monthly Normal High and Median Temperatures for Various Connecticut Cities
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color: #000000" height="17" | City
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000; height:17px;"| City
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Jan
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Jan
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Feb
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Feb
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Mar
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Mar
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Apr
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Apr
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | May
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| May
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Jun
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Jun
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Jul
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Jul
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Aug
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Aug
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Sep
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Sep
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Oct
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Oct
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Nov
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Nov
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Dec
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Dec
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" height="16;" | Bridgeport
+
! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000; height:16px;"| Bridgeport
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 37/23
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 37/23
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 39/25
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 39/25
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 47/32
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 47/32
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 57/41
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 57/41
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 67/51
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 67/51
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 76/60
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 76/60
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 82/66
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 82/66
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 81/65
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 81/65
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 74/58
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 74/58
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 63/46
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 63/46
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 53/38
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 53/38
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 42/28
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 42/28
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" height="16;" | Hartford
+
! style="background:#c5dfe1; color:#000; height:16px;"| Hartford
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 34/17
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 34/17
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 38/20
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 38/20
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 48/28
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 48/28
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 60/38
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 60/38
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 72/48
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 72/48
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 80/57
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 80/57
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 85/62
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 85/62
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 82/61
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 82/61
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 74/52
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 74/52
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 63/41
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 63/41
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 51/33
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 51/33
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 39/23
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 39/23
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="13" style="text-align:center;font-size:90%;background:#E8EAFA;"|''[http://www.ustravelweather.com/weather-connecticut/]''
+
| colspan="13" style="text-align:center;font-size:90%;background:#E8EAFA;"|''<ref>[http://www.ustravelweather.com/weather-connecticut/]{{dead link|date=June 2011}} {{Wayback|url=http://www.ustravelweather.com/weather-connecticut/|date =20080525080342}}{{dead link|date=June 2011}}</ref>''
 
|}
 
|}
   
== History ==
+
==History==
{{refimprovesect|date=September 2007}}
+
{{Ref improve section|date=September 2007}}
  +
{{Expand section|date=July 2010}}
{{main|History of Connecticut}}
 
  +
{{Main|History of Connecticut}}
[[Image:Ctcolony.png|thumb|right|400px|A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies.]]
 
  +
[[File:Ctcolony.png|thumb|right|400px|A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies.]]
The name "Connecticut" originates from the [[Wikipedia:Mohegan|Mohegan]] word ''quinnitukqut'', meaning "place of long tidal river."<ref name="AboutCT">{{cite web | url = http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=246434 | title = CT.gov: About Connecticut | accessdate =2005-12-18}}</ref> The first European explorer in Connecticut was the Dutch explorer [[Wikipedia:Adriaen Block|Adriaen Block]]. After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (Named Versche Rivier by the Dutch) and built a fort at Dutch Point near present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" ([[Dutch language|Dutch]]: Huis van Hoop).
 
   
  +
The name of the state is an Anglicized version of the Algonquian word "quinatucquet", meaning "upon the long river".<ref name="Project">{{cite book|author=Federal Writers' Project|title=Connecticut: A Guide to Its Roads, Lore and People|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=CPYfSsQ-WE4C&pg=PA3|accessdate=23 September 2010|publisher=US History Publishers|isbn=978-1-60354-007-0|page=3}}</ref> The Connecticut region was inhabited by the [[Mohegan]] tribe prior to European colonization. The first European explorer in Connecticut was the Dutch explorer [[Adriaen Block]]. After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (then known by the Dutch as Versche Rivier—" Fresh River") and built a fort at Dutch Point in what is present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" ({{lang-nl|Huis van Hoop}}).
[[Wikipedia:John Winthrop the Younger|John Winthrop]], then of Massachusetts, got permission to create a new colony at [[Wikipedia:Saybrook Colony|Old Saybrook]] at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635. This was the first of three distinct colonies that later would be combined to make up Connecticut. Saybrook Colony was a direct challenge to Dutch claims. The colony was not more than a small outpost and never matured. In 1644, the Saybrook Colony merged itself into the Connecticut Colony.
 
   
  +
[[John Winthrop the Younger|John Winthrop]], then of Massachusetts, received permission to create a new colony at [[Saybrook Colony|Old Saybrook]] at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635. This was the first of three distinct colonies that later would be combined to make up Connecticut. Saybrook Colony was a direct challenge to Dutch claims. The colony was not more than a small outpost and never matured. In 1644, the Saybrook Colony merged itself into the Connecticut Colony.
The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled Windsor and Wethersfield. However the main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. The settlers were [[Wikipedia:Puritan|Puritan]]s from Massachusetts, led by [[Wikipedia:Thomas Hooker|Thomas Hooker]]. Hooker had been prominent in England, and was a professor of Theology at Cambridge. He was also an important political writer, and made a significant contribution to Constitutional theory. He broke with the political leadership in Massachusetts, and, just as [[Wikipedia:Roger Williams|Roger Williams]] created a new polity in [[Rhode Island|Rhode Island]], Hooker and his cohort did the same and established the [[Wikipedia:Connecticut Colony|Connecticut Colony]] at Hartford in 1636. This was the second of the three colonies.
 
   
  +
The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled at Windsor, and then at Wethersfield the following year.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cslib.org/earlysettlers.htm |title=Early Settlers of Connecticut – Connecticut State Library |publisher=Cslib.org |date= |accessdate=2010-07-25}}</ref> However, the main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. The settlers were [[Puritan]]s from Massachusetts, led by [[Thomas Hooker]]. Hooker had been prominent in England and was a professor of theology at Cambridge. He was also an important political writer and made a significant contribution to Constitutional theory. He broke with the political leadership in Massachusetts, and, just as [[Roger Williams (theologian)|Roger Williams]] created a new polity in [[Rhode Island]], Hooker and his cohort did the same and established the [[Connecticut Colony]] at Hartford in 1636. This was the second of the three colonies.
Because the Dutch were outnumbered by the flood of English settlers from Massachusetts, they left their fort in 1654.
 
   
The third colony was founded in March of 1638. [[Wikipedia:New Haven Colony|New Haven Colony]], (originally known as the Quinnipiack Colony), was established by [[Wikipedia:John Davenport|John Davenport]], [[Wikipedia:Theophilus Eaton|Theophilus Eaton]] and others at New Haven. The New Haven Colony had its own Constitution, 'The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony' which was signed on June 4, 1639.
+
The third colony was founded in March 1638. [[New Haven Colony]] (originally known as the Quinnipiack Colony) was established by [[John Davenport (clergyman)|John Davenport]], [[Theophilus Eaton]], and others at New Haven. The New Haven Colony had its own constitution, "The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony", which was signed on June 4, 1639.
   
  +
Because the Dutch were outnumbered by the flood of English settlers from Massachusetts, they left their fort in 1654.
Neither the establishment of the Connecticut Colony or the Quinnipiack Colony were done with the sanction of British imperial authorities, and were independent political entities. They naturally were presumptively English, but in a legal sense, they were only secessionist outposts of Massachusetts Bay. In 1662, Winthrop took advantage of this void in political affairs, and obtained in England the charter by which the colonies of Connecticut and Quinnipiack were united. Although Winthrop's charter favored the Connecticut colony, New Haven remained a seat of government with Hartford, until after the American Revolution.
 
   
  +
Neither the establishment of the Connecticut Colony or the Quinnipiack Colony was carried out with the sanction of the English Crown, and they were independent political entities. They naturally were presumptively English, but in a legal sense, they were only secessionist outposts of Massachusetts Bay. In 1662, Winthrop took advantage of this void in political affairs and obtained in England the charter by which the colonies of Connecticut and Quinnipiack were united. Although Winthrop's charter favored the Connecticut colony, New Haven remained a seat of government with Hartford until after the American Revolution.
Winthrop was very politically astute, and secured the charter from the newly restored [[Wikipedia:Charles II of England|Charles II]]; who granted the most liberal political terms.
 
   
  +
Winthrop was very politically astute and secured the charter from the newly restored [[Charles II of England|Charles II]], who granted the most liberal political terms.
Historically important colonial settlements included:
 
:[[Wikipedia:Windsor, Connecticut|Windsor]] (1633),
 
:[[Wikipedia:Wethersfield, Connecticut|Wethersfield]] (1634),
 
:[[Wikipedia:Old Saybrook, Connecticut|Saybrook]] (1635),
 
:[[Wikipedia:Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] (1636),
 
:[[Wikipedia:New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]] (1638),
 
:[[Wikipedia:Fairfield, Connecticut|Fairfield]] (1639),
 
:[[Wikipedia:Stratford, Connecticut|Stratford]] (1639),
 
:[[Wikipedia:New London, Connecticut|New London]] (1646),
 
:[[Wikipedia:Middletown, Connecticut|Middletown]] (1647)
 
   
  +
Historically important colonial settlements included:
Its first constitution, the "[[Wikipedia:Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders]]," was adopted on [[January 14]], [[1639]], while its [[Wikipedia:Connecticut Constitution|current constitution]], the third for Connecticut, was adopted in 1965. Connecticut is the fifth of the original thirteen states. The original constitutions influenced the US Constitution as one of the leading authors was [[Wikipedia:Roger Sherman|Roger Sherman]] of New Haven.
 
  +
:[[Windsor, Connecticut|Windsor]] (1633)
  +
:[[Wethersfield, Connecticut|Wethersfield]] (1634)
  +
:[[Deep River, Connecticut|Saybrook]] (1635)
  +
:[[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] (1636)
  +
:[[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]] (1638)
  +
:[[Fairfield, Connecticut|Fairfield]] (1639)
  +
:[[Guilford, Connecticut|Guilford]] (1639)
  +
:[[Milford, Connecticut|Milford]] (1639)
  +
:[[Stratford, Connecticut|Stratford]] (1639)
  +
:[[Farmington, Connecticut|Farmington]] (1640)
  +
:[[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]] (1641)
  +
:[[New London, Connecticut|New London]] (1646)
   
  +
Its first constitution, the "[[Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders]]", was adopted on January 14, 1639, while its [[Connecticut Constitution|current constitution]], the third for Connecticut, was adopted in 1965. Connecticut is the fifth of the original 13 states. The original constitutions influenced the US Constitution as one of the leading authors was [[Roger Sherman]] of New Haven.
The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. According to a 1650 agreement with the [[Netherlands|Dutch]], the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from the west side of [[Wikipedia:Greenwich Bay|Greenwich Bay]] "provided the said line come not within 10 miles [16 km] of Hudson River." On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea," i.e. the Pacific Ocean. Most colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut took its grant seriously, and established a ninth county between the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers, named [[Wikipedia:Westmoreland County, Connecticut|Westmoreland County]]. This resulted in the brief [[Wikipedia:Pennamite Wars|Pennamite Wars]] with [[Pennsylvania|Pennsylvania]].
 
Connecticut's lands also extended across northern Ohio, called the [[Wikipedia:Western Reserve|Western Reserve]] lands. The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio. Agreements with Pennsylvania and New York extinguished the land claims by Connecticut within its neighbors, and the Western Reserve lands were relinquished to the federal government, which brought the state to its present boundaries.
 
   
  +
The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. According to the Hartford Treaty with the [[Netherlands|Dutch]], signed on September 19, 1650, but never ratified by the British, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich Bay]] for a distance of 20&nbsp;miles<ref name="BOWEN">Bowen, Clarence Winthrop: ''Boundary Disputes of Connecticut'': [[Boston]], [[Massachusetts]]: 1882. P. 17–18.</ref><ref name="FLICK">Flick, Alexander C., Editor: ''History of the State of New York. Volume 2'': [[New York, New York]]: [[Columbia University]] Press, 1933–1937: P. 50–57.</ref> "provided the said line come not within {{convert|10|mi|km}} [16&nbsp;km] of Hudson River. This agreement was observed by both sides until war erupted between England and The Netherlands in 1652. No other limits were found. Conflict over uncertain colonial limits continued until the [[Duke of York]] captured [[New Netherland]] in 1664."<ref name="BOWEN"/><ref name="FLICK"/> On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea", i.e. the Pacific Ocean.<ref>{{cite web|author=James Callison, LCITS |url=http://www.law.ou.edu/ushistory/colony.shtml |title=Connecticut Colony Charter of 1662 |publisher=Law.ou.edu |date=2006-03-14 |accessdate=2010-07-25}}</ref><ref>[http://www.ctheritage.org/encyclopedia/topicalsurveys/migration.htm Migration from Connecticut] By Barbara Lacey, Connecticut's Heritage Gateway website.</ref> Most colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut took its grant seriously, and established a ninth county between the [[Susquehanna River|Susquehanna]] and [[Delaware River]]s, named [[Westmoreland County, Connecticut|Westmoreland County]]. This resulted in the brief [[Pennamite Wars]] with [[Pennsylvania]].
==Names and symbols==
 
Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is ''"The Constitution State,"'' based on its colonial constitution of 1638–39.<ref name=SOTS/> Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as ''"The [[Wikipedia:Nutmeg|Nutmeg]] State"''.<ref name=SOTS/> The nutmeg connection to Connecticut may come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice in New England). It is also said to come from [[Wikipedia:Yankee|Yankee]] peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.roadescape.com/nutmeg.html | title=roadscape.com/nutmeg.html}}</ref> [[George Washington|George Washington]] gave Connecticut the title of ''"The Provisions State"''<ref name=SOTS/> because of the material aid the state rendered to the [[Wikipedia:Revolutionary War|Revolutionary War]] effort. Connecticut is also known as ''"The Land of Steady Habits"''.<ref name=SOTS/>
 
   
  +
Connecticut's lands also extended across northern Ohio, called the [[Western Reserve]] lands. The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio. Agreements with Pennsylvania and New York extinguished the land claims by Connecticut within its neighbors, creating the [[Connecticut Panhandle]]. The Western Reserve lands were relinquished to the federal government, which brought the state to its present boundaries other than minor adjustments with Massachusetts.
According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter". There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "Connecticotian" - [[Wikipedia:Cotton Mather|Cotton Mather]] in 1702. "Connecticutensian" - [[Wikipedia:Samuel Peters|Samuel Peters]] in 1781. "Nutmegger" is sometimes used,<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/nicknamesCT.htm| title=Connecticut's Nicknames| publisher=Connecticut State Library}}</ref> as is "Yankee" (the official State Song is "[[Wikipedia:Yankee Doodle|Yankee Doodle]]"), though this usually refers someone from the wider [[Wikipedia:New England|New England]] region.<ref>See [[Yankee|]] main article.</ref> Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn."; the official [[United States postal abbreviations|postal abbreviation]] is CT.
 
   
  +
==Demographics==
[[Wikipedia:Commemorative stamp|Commemorative stamp]]s issued by the [[Wikipedia:United States Postal Service|United States Postal Service]] with Connecticut themes include [[Wikipedia:Nathan Hale|Nathan Hale]], [[Wikipedia:Eugene O'Neill|Eugene O'Neill]], [[Wikipedia:Josiah Willard Gibbs|Josiah Willard Gibbs]], [[Wikipedia:Noah Webster|Noah Webster]], [[Wikipedia:Eli Whitney|Eli Whitney]], the [[Wikipedia:whaling|whaling]] [[Wikipedia:ship|ship]] the [[Wikipedia:Charles W. Morgan (ship)|Charles W. Morgan]] which is docked in [[Wikipedia:Mystic Seaport|Mystic Seaport]], and a [[Wikipedia:decoy|decoy]] of a broadbill [[Wikipedia:duck|duck]].
 
  +
{{US Census population
 
<!-- Image with unknown copyright status removed: [[Image:CT02ZZ-4710.jpg|thumb|right|Connecticut's license plate including the state nickname]] -->
 
[[Image:Charter Oak in Hartford CT.jpg|thumb|right|The Charter Oak]]
 
[[Image:SS-571-Nautilus-trials.gif|thumb|right|The USS Nautilus]]
 
 
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto"
 
|+ Connecticut state insignia and historical figures<ref name=SOTS/><sup>, except where noted</sup>
 
|-
 
<!-- STATE "NATURAL" THINGS -->
 
|[[Wikipedia:State tree|State tree]] || [[Wikipedia:White Oak|White Oak]]; or more specifically, the [[Wikipedia:Charter Oak|Charter Oak]]
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state birds|State bird]] || [[Wikipedia:American Robin|American Robin]]
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:State flower|State flower]] || [[Wikipedia:Mountain Laurel|Mountain Laurel]]
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:State insect|State insect]] || [[Wikipedia:European Mantis|European Mantis]]
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:State animal|State animal]] || [[Wikipedia:Sperm Whale|Sperm Whale]]
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:State mineral|State mineral]] || [[Wikipedia:Garnet|Garnet]]
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:State shellfish|State shellfish]] || [[Wikipedia:Eastern Oyster|Eastern Oyster]]
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:State fish|State fish]] || [[Wikipedia:American Shad|American Shad]]
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:State fossil|State fossil]] || [[Wikipedia:Eubrontes giganteus|Eubrontes giganteus]]
 
|-
 
<!-- STATE "MADE" THINGS -->
 
|[[Wikipedia:State ship|State ship]] || [[Wikipedia:USS Nautilus (SSN-571)|USS Nautilus]]
 
|-
 
|State [[Wikipedia:flagship|flagship]] and [[Wikipedia:tall ship|tall ship]] ambassador || [[Wikipedia:Freedom Schooner Amistad|Freedom Schooner Amistad]]
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:State aircraft|State aircraft]] || [[Wikipedia:F4U Corsair|F4U Corsair]]
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:State tartan|State tartan]] || visible [http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/Images/TARTAN.jpg here]
 
|-
 
<!-- STATE MUSIC -->
 
|[[Wikipedia:State song|State song]] || [[Wikipedia:Yankee Doodle|Yankee Doodle]]
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:State folk dance|State folk dance]] || [[Wikipedia:Square dance|Square dance]]
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:State cantata|State cantata]] || ''The Nutmeg''
 
|-
 
<!-- STATE PEOPLE, MEMORIALS-->
 
|[[Wikipedia:State hero|State hero]] || [[Wikipedia:Nathan Hale|Nathan Hale]]
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:State heroine|State heroine]] || [[Wikipedia:Prudence Crandall|Prudence Crandall]]
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:State composer|State composer]] || [[Wikipedia:Charles Edward Ives|Charles Edward Ives]]
 
|-
 
|State statues in [[Wikipedia:National Statuary Hall Collection|Statuary Hall]] || [[Wikipedia:Roger Sherman|Roger Sherman]] and [[Wikipedia:Jonathan Trumbull|Jonathan Trumbull]]<ref>See [[National Statuary Hall Collection#Collection|National Statuary Hall Collection]]</ref>
 
|-
 
<!-- STATE PEOPLE, HONORARY POSTS-->
 
|[[Wikipedia:State poet laureate|State poet laureate]] || [[Wikipedia:John Hollander|John Hollander]]
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:Connecticut State Troubadour|Connecticut State Troubadour]] || [[Wikipedia:Pierce Campbell|Pierce Campbell]]<ref>[http://www.ct.gov/cct/cwp/view.asp?a=2162&q=293748&cctNav=%7C43587%7C Connecticut State Troubadour]; CT Commission on Culture & Tourism Arts Division website; retrieved [[January 4]], [[2007]]</ref>
 
|-
 
|[[Wikipedia:State composer laureate|State composer laureate]] || [[Wikipedia:Jacob Druckman|Jacob Druckman]]
 
|}
 
 
== Demographics ==
 
{{USCensusPop
 
 
|1790 = 237946
 
|1790 = 237946
 
|1800 = 251002
 
|1800 = 251002
Line 258: Line 234:
 
|1990 = 3287116
 
|1990 = 3287116
 
|2000 = 3405565
 
|2000 = 3405565
|2004 = 3503604
+
|2010 = 3574097
| footnote= '''Sources:'''<ref>[http://www.census.gov/population/censusdata/table-16.pdf Population: 1790 to 1990] census.gov</ref><ref>[http://www.census.gov/population/cen2000/tab02.txt Resident Population of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: Census 2000] census.gov</ref>
+
| footnote= '''Sources:'''<ref>[http://www.census.gov/population/censusdata/table-16.pdf Population: 1790 to 1990] census.gov</ref><ref>[http://www.census.gov/population/cen2000/tab02.txt Resident Population of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: Census 2000] census.gov</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=Resident Population Data |url=http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-pop-text.php |title=Resident Population Data - Census 2010 |publisher=2010.census.gov |date= |accessdate=2011-01-23}}</ref>
 
}}
 
}}
[[Image:Connecticut population map.png|right|thumb|200px|Connecticut Population Density Map]]
+
[[File:Connecticut population map.png|right|thumb|200px|Connecticut Population Density Map.]]
   
As of 2005, Connecticut has an estimated population of 3,510,297,<ref name=stateest>{{cite web |date=[[June 21]] [[2006]] | url = http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2005-01.csv | title = Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005|format = [[Comma-separated values|CSV]]</ref> which is an increase of 11,331, or 0.3%, from the prior year and an increase of 104,695, or 3.1%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. [[Wikipedia:Immigration to the United States|Immigration]] from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and [[Human migration|migration]] within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moves from the 29th most populous state to 30th.<ref name=stateest/>
+
As of 2005, Connecticut has an estimated population of 3,510,297,<ref name=stateest>{{cite web |date=June 21, 2006 | url = http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2005-01.csv | title = Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005|format = [[Comma-separated values|CSV]] | work = 2005 Population Estimates | publisher = U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division | accessdate =2006-11-17|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5mr524oZs |archivedate = 2010-01-17|deadurl=no}}</ref> which is an increase of 11,331, or 0.3%, from the prior year and an increase of 104,695, or 3.1%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. [[Immigration to the United States|Immigration]] from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and [[Human migration|migration]] within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moves from the 29th most populous state to 30th.<ref name=stateest/>
   
 
6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.
 
6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.
   
In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut were classified as "rural". The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, it was only 12.3%. The southwestern coast is all urban and is most widely known from New York City. The eastern half of the state though mostly is associated with Boston because of proximity. This split has caused a lack of more than a few professional sport teams. ie: NHL hockey since the mid 1990s, NFL football, MLS soccer and men's basketball.
+
In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut was classified as "rural". The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, it was only 12.3%. Most of western and southern Connecticut (particularly the [[Gold Coast (Connecticut)|Gold Coast]]) is strongly associated with New York City; this area is the most affluent and populous region of the state. Eastern Connecticut is more culturally influenced by the greater New England area, including the cities of Boston and Providence.
   
The [[Wikipedia:center of population|center of population]] of Connecticut is located in the town of [[Wikipedia:Cheshire, Connecticut|Cheshire]].<ref> {{cite web| url=http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt| title=Population and Population Centers by State: 2000| publisher=US Census Bureau}}</ref>
+
The [[center of population]] of Connecticut is located in the town of [[Cheshire, Connecticut|Cheshire]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Population and Population Centers by State – 2000 | publisher = United States Census Bureau | accessdate = 2008-12-04 | url = http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5mqyj8Y7G |archivedate = 2010-01-17|deadurl=no}}</ref>
   
  +
===Most populated cities===
=== Race, ancestry, and language ===
 
  +
* [[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]]
{{US Demographics}}
 
  +
* [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]]
  +
* [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]
  +
* [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]]
  +
* [[Waterbury, Connecticut|Waterbury]]
  +
* [[Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk]]
  +
* [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]]
  +
* [[New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]]
  +
  +
===Race, ancestry, and language===
  +
  +
According to the [[2010 U.S. Census]], Connecticut had a population of 3,574,097. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 77.6% White (71.2% Non-Hispanic White Alone), 10.1% Black or African American, 0.3% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.8% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 5.6% from Some Other Race, and 2.6% from Two or More Races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 13.4% of the population. <ref>http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_PL_QTPL&prodType=table</ref>
   
 
As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born, and 10% of the foreign-born in the state were illegal aliens (about 1.1% of the population). In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.
 
As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born, and 10% of the foreign-born in the state were illegal aliens (about 1.1% of the population). In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.
   
As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke [[English language|English]] at home and 8.42% spoke [[Spanish language|Spanish]], followed by [[Wikipedia:Italian language|Italian]] at 1.59%, [[Wikipedia:French language|French]] at 1.31% and [[Wikipedia:Polish language|Polish]] at 1.20%.<ref>{{cite web| url = http://www.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=9&mode=state_tops&order=r| title = Most spoken languages in Connecticut| accessdate = 2007-01-16| work = MLA Language Map| publisher = The Modern Language Association}}</ref>
+
As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke English at home and 8.42% spoke Spanish, followed by Italian at 1.59%, French at 1.31% and Polish at 1.20%.<ref>{{cite web| url = http://www.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=9&mode=state_tops&order=r| title = Most spoken languages in Connecticut| accessdate = 2007-01-16| work = MLA Language Map| publisher = The Modern Language Association|archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070930171318/http%3A//www.mla.org/map_data_results%26state_id%3D9%26mode%3Dstate_tops%26order%3Dr |archivedate = September 30, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref>
   
  +
The largest ancestry groups are:<ref>{{cite web|author=American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau |url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&-qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_DP3YR2&-ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_&-tree_id=3308&-redoLog=false&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=04000US09&-format=&-_lang=en |title=American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates |publisher=Factfinder.census.gov |date= |accessdate=2010-07-25}}</ref>
The five largest reported ancestries in the state are: [[Wikipedia:Italian-American|Italian]] (18.6%), [[Ireland|Irish]] (16.6%), [[Wikipedia:British-American|English]] (10.3%), [[Wikipedia:German-American|German]] (9.9%), and [[Wikipedia:French American|French/French Canadian]] (9.9%).
 
   
  +
*{{flagicon|Italy}} 19.3% [[Italian American|Italian]]
Connecticut has large [[Wikipedia:Italian-American|Italian-American]] and [[Wikipedia:Irish-American|Irish-American]] populations , as well as German and [[Wikipedia:Portuguese-American|Portuguese-American]], second highest percentage of any state behind Rhode Island. [[Wikipedia:Italian people|Italian]] is the largest ancestry group in five of the state's counties, while the [[Irish people|Irish]] are the largest group in Tolland county, [[Wikipedia:French-Canadians|French-Canadians]] the largest group in Windham county, and old stock [[Wikipedia:Yankee|New England Yankees]] are present throughout. Connecticut is the most Italian-American state percentage-wise, just above Rhode Island. [[African American|Blacks]] and [[Wikipedia:Hispanics in the United States|Hispanics]] (mostly [[Wikipedia:Puerto Ricans in the United States|Puerto Ricans]]) are numerous in the urban areas of the state. Connecticut also has a sizable [[Wikipedia:Polish American|Polish American]] population, with [[Wikipedia:New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]] containing the largest Polish-American population in the state.
 
  +
*{{flagicon|Ireland}} 17.9% [[Irish American|Irish]]
  +
*{{flagicon|England}} 10.7% [[English American|English]]
  +
*{{flagicon|Germany}} 10.4% [[German American|German]]
  +
*{{flagicon|Poland}} 8.6% [[Polish American|Polish]]
  +
*{{flagicon|France}} 6.6% [[Franco American|French]]
  +
*[[File:Flag of Acadiana.svg|22px|border]] 3.0% [[French Canadian]]
  +
*{{flagicon|USA}} 2.7% [[United States|American]]
  +
*{{flagicon|Russia}} 2.1% [[Russian American|Russian]]
  +
*{{flagicon|Netherlands Antilles}} 2.1% [[West Indies|West Indian]]
  +
*{{flagicon|Scotland}} 2.0% [[Scottish American|Scottish]]
  +
*{{flagicon|Sweden}} 1.9% [[Swedish American|Swedish]]
  +
*{{flagicon|Portugal}} 1.6% [[Portuguese American|Portuguese]]
  +
*{{flagicon|Ulster}} 1.4% [[Scotch-Irish American|Scotch Irish]]
  +
*{{flagicon|Hungary}} 1.3% [[Hungarian American|Hungarian]]
  +
*{{flagicon|Lithuania}} 1.0% [[Lithuanian American|Lithuanian]]
   
  +
Connecticut has large [[Italian American]], [[Irish American]] and [[English American]] populations, as well as [[German American]] and [[Portuguese American]] populations, second highest percentage of any state, behind Rhode Island (19.3%). [[Italian American|Italian]] is the largest ancestry group in five of the state's counties, while the [[Irish American|Irish]] are the largest group in Tolland county, [[French Canadians]] the largest group in Windham county. [[African Americans]] and [[Hispanics in the United States|Hispanics]] (mostly [[Puerto Ricans in the United States|Puerto Ricans]]) are numerous in the urban areas of the state. Like Ohio and New York, Connecticut is also known for its relatively large [[Hungarian American]] population, the majority of which live in and around [[Fairfield, Connecticut|Fairfield]], [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], [[Naugatuck, Connecticut|Naugatuck]] and [[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]]. Connecticut also has a sizable [[Polish American]] population, with [[New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]] containing the largest [[Polish American]] population in the state.
More recent immigrant populations include those from [[Wikipedia:Laos|Laos]], [[Wikipedia:Vietnam|Vietnam]], [[Wikipedia:Thailand|Thailand]], [[Wikipedia:Indonesia|Indonesia]], [[Mexico|Mexico]], [[Brazil|Brazil]], [[Wikipedia:Guatemala|Guatemala]], [[Wikipedia:Panama|Panama]], and former [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] countries.
 
   
  +
More recent immigrant populations include those from [[India]], [[Laos]], [[Vietnam]], [[Thailand]], [[Indonesia]], Mexico, [[Brazil]], [[Guatemala]], [[Panama]], [[Jamaica]], [[Haiti]], [[Cape Verde]] and former [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] countries.
=== Religion ===
 
A 2001 survey of Connecticut residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations:<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/research_briefs/aris/key_findings.htm |title=American Religious Identification Survey, Key Findings, Exhibit 15 |accessdate=2007-01-04 |author=Mayer, Egon |coauthors=Kosmin, Barry A., Keysar, Ariela |year=2001 |publisher= [[City University of New York|]]</ref>
 
   
  +
===Religion===
*[[Wikipedia:Roman Catholicism in the United States|Roman Catholic]] &ndash; 32%
 
  +
A 2001 survey of Connecticut residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations:<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/research_briefs/aris/key_findings.htm |title=American Religious Identification Survey, Key Findings, Exhibit 15 |accessdate=2007-01-04 |author=Mayer, Egon |coauthors=Kosmin, Barry A., Keysar, Ariela |year=2001 |publisher= [[City University of New York]]}}</ref>
*[[Wikipedia:Baptist|Baptist]] &ndash; 10%
 
  +
* [[Protestant]] – 40%
*[[Wikipedia:Episcopal Church in the United States of America|Episcopal]] &ndash; 6%
 
  +
** [[Baptist]] – 10%
*[[Wikipedia:Methodism|Methodist]] &ndash; 4%
 
  +
** Other Christian – 7%
*[[Wikipedia:Lutheranism|Lutheran]] &ndash; 4%
 
  +
** [[Episcopal Church (United States)|Episcopal]] – 6%
*[[Wikipedia:Congregational church|Congregational]]/[[Wikipedia:United Church of Christ|United Church of Christ]] &ndash; 2%
 
  +
** [[Methodism|Methodist]] – 4%
*[[Wikipedia:Presbyterian|Presbyterian]] &ndash; 1%
 
  +
** [[Lutheranism|Lutheran]] – 4%
*[[Wikipedia:Pentecostal|Pentecostal]] &ndash; 1%
 
*Other Protestant or general Protestant &ndash; 4%
+
** Other Protestant or general 9%
  +
* [[Roman Catholicism in the United States|Roman Catholic]] – 32%
*[[Wikipedia:Mormonism|Latter-Day Saint]] &ndash; 2%
 
  +
* [[Non-religious]] – 12%
*[[Wikipedia:Church of Christ|Church of Christ]] &ndash; 2%
 
  +
* No answer – 6%
*[[Wikipedia:Assembly of God|Assembly of God]] &ndash; 1%
 
  +
* Other religions (Including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, and so on.) – 4%
*Non-denominational &ndash; 1%
 
  +
* [[Judaism|Jewish]] – 3%
*Other Christian &ndash; 7%
 
  +
* [[Congregational church|Congregational]]/[[United Church of Christ]] – 2%
*[[Wikipedia:Judaism|Jewish]] &ndash; 1%
 
  +
* [[Mormonism|Latter-Day Saint]] – 2%
*[[Wikipedia:Islam in the United States|Muslim]] &ndash; 1%
 
  +
* [[Churches of Christ]] – 2%
*Other Religions &ndash; 4%
 
  +
* [[Presbyterian]] – 1%
*Non-Religious &ndash; 12%
 
  +
* [[Pentecostal]] – 1%
*No answer &ndash; 6%
 
  +
* [[Assembly of God]] – 1%
  +
* Non-denominational – 1%
  +
* [[Islam in the United States|Muslim]] – 1%
   
There is a significant [[Wikipedia:Jewish American|Jewish]] population in the state, concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between [[Wikipedia:Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]] and [[Wikipedia:New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]], in [[Wikipedia:Greater New Haven|Greater New Haven]] and in [[Wikipedia:Greater Hartford|Greater Hartford]], especially the suburb of [[Wikipedia:West Hartford, Connecticut|West Hartford]].
+
[[Jewish American|Jewish congregations]] had 108,280 (3.2%) members in 2000;<ref name="thearda.com">[http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/reports/state/20_2000.asp The Association of Religion Data Archives] Maps & Reports – State Membership Report / Kansas / Denominational Groups, 2000</ref> The Jewish population is concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]] and [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]], in [[Greater New Haven]] and in [[Greater Hartford]], especially the suburb of [[West Hartford, Connecticut|West Hartford]]. According to the [[Association of Religion Data Archives]], the largest Christian denominations, by number of adherents, in 2000 were: the [[Catholic Church]], with 1,372,562; the [[United Church of Christ]], with 124,770; and the [[Episcopal Church in the United States of America|Episcopal Church]], with 73,550.<ref name="thearda.com"/>
   
Recent [[Wikipedia:immigration|immigration]] has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low.
+
Recent [[immigration]] has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low.
   
  +
Connecticut is also home to New England's largest Protestant Church: [[The First Cathedral]] in [[Bloomfield, Connecticut]] located in [[Hartford County]].
== Economy ==
 
[[Image:RellTakesOver.jpg|thumb|260px|Connecticut welcome sign being updated as Rell takes office on July 1, 2004.]]
 
[[Image:Connecticut quarter, reverse side, 1999.jpg|50px|left]]
 
The total [[Wikipedia:gross state product|gross state product]] for 2004 was $187 billion. The [[per capita income|per capita income]] for 2005 was $47,819, ranking first among the states.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.bea.gov/bea/newsrel/spi_highlights.pdf|title=Per Capita Income Growth in 2005| publisher=Bureau of Economic Analysis, US Dept. of Commerce |date=[[2006-09-26|]]
 
   
  +
Hartford is seat to the Roman Catholic [[Archdiocese of Hartford]], which is sovereign over the [[Diocese of Bridgeport]] and the [[Roman Catholic Diocese of Norwich|Diocese of Norwich]].}
[[Wikipedia:New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan]] is the [[Wikipedia:Connecticut locations by per capita income|wealthiest town in Connecticut]], with a per capita income of $85,459. [[Wikipedia:Darien, Connecticut|Darien]], [[Wikipedia:Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]], [[Wikipedia:Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], [[Wikipedia:Weston, Connecticut|Weston]], [[Wikipedia:Woodbridge, Connecticut|Woodbridge]], [[Wikipedia:Westport, Connecticut|Westport]] and [[Wikipedia:Wilton, Connecticut|Wilton]] also have per capita incomes over $65,000. [[Wikipedia:Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] is the poorest city in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 (although see above).{{Fact|date=February 2007}} There are other lower-income and blue-collar towns, mostly parts of towns, in the eastern part of the State. Poor and medium wealth households are particularly affected by a very high cost of living, due to a combination of expensive real estate, expensive heating for the winters, and other factors.{{Fact|date=December 2006}}
 
   
===Taxation===
+
==Economy==
  +
[[File:RellTakesOver.jpg|thumb|260px|Connecticut welcome sign being updated as Rell takes office on July 1, 2004.]]
Prior to 1991, Connecticut had a highly populist [[Wikipedia:income tax|income tax]] system. Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at the highest rate in the United States: 13%. And this burden was further increased by the method of calculation: no deductions were allowed for the cost (for example, interest on borrowing) of producing the investment income. Under Governor [[Wikipedia:Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.|Lowell P. Weicker]], an Independent, this was reformed to the present system.
 
  +
[[File:Welcome Connecticut.jpg|thumb|Connecticut state welcome sign. Entering [[Enfield, CT]].]]
  +
[[File:Merritt Parkway.jpg|thumb|Entering the Merritt Parkway from New York. Entering [[Greenwich, CT]].]]
  +
[[File:Connecticut quarter, reverse side, 1999.jpg|100px|right]]
  +
The total [[gross state product]] for 2006 was $204 billion. The [[per capita income]] for 2007 was $54,117, ranking first among the states.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.courant.com/news/custom/topnews/hcu-ctrichstate,0,6885224.story|title=CT Named Richest State| publisher=The Hartford Courant |date=2008-03-26 }}</ref> There is, however, a great disparity in incomes throughout the state; although New Canaan has one of the highest per capita incomes in America, Hartford is one of the ten cities with the lowest per capita incomes in America. As with Bridgeport, New Haven and other cities in the state, Hartford is surrounded by wealthier suburbs.
   
  +
[[New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan]] is the wealthiest town in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $85,459. [[Darien, Connecticut|Darien]], [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]], [[Weston, Connecticut|Weston]], [[Westport, Connecticut|Westport]] and [[Wilton, Connecticut|Wilton]] also have per capita incomes over $65,000. [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] is the poorest municipality in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 in 2000.<ref name="CTincome2000">{{cite web|url=http://www.ct.gov/ecd/lib/ecd/economic_data/income/2000_median_hh,_family_&_per_cap_income.xls |title=Connecticut per capita income, median household income, and median family income at State, County and Town level: Census 2000 data |date= |accessdate=2010-07-25}}</ref> There are other lower-income and blue-collar towns, mostly parts of towns, in the eastern part of the State.
This system prior to 1991 made it an attractive haven for high-salaried earners fleeing the heavy taxes of [[Wikipedia:New York State|New York State]], but highly unattractive for members of Wall Street partnerships. It put an enormous burden on Connecticut [[Wikipedia:property tax|property tax]] payers, particularly in the cities with their more extensive [[Wikipedia:municipal services|municipal services]]. As a result, the [[Wikipedia:middle class|middle class]] largely fled the urban areas for the [[Wikipedia:suburb|suburb]]s, taking stores and other tax-paying businesses with them, leaving mostly the urban poor in the older, central areas of Connecticut cities.{{Fact|date=December 2006}}
 
  +
  +
===Taxation===
  +
Prior to 1991, Connecticut had an investment-only [[income tax]] system. Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at 13%, the highest rate in the [[United States|U.S.]], with no deductions allowed for costs of producing the investment income, such as interest on borrowing.
   
With Weicker's 1991 tax reform, the tax on employment and investment income was equalized at a then-maximum of 4%. Since then, Greenwich, Connecticut, has become the headquarters of choice for a large number of America's largest [[Wikipedia:hedge fund|hedge fund]]s, and Connecticut income from that industry has soared. Today the income tax rate on Connecticut individuals is divided into two tax brackets of 3% and 5%.<ref name=inctax>[http://www.ct.gov/drs/lib/drs/forms/2006forms/income/ct-1040booklet.pdf Connecticut income tax instructions]</ref> All [[Wikipedia:wage|wage]]s of a Connecticut resident are subject to the state's income tax, even when the resident works outside of the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Since New York state has higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents that work in New York state pay no income tax to Connecticut.
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In 1991, under Governor [[Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.]], an Independent, the system was changed to one in which the taxes on employment income and investment income were equalized at a maximum rate of 4%. Since then, [[Greenwich, Connecticut]], has become the headquarters for a large number of America's largest [[hedge fund]]s. As of 2009, the income tax rates on Connecticut individuals are divided into three tax brackets of 3%, 5% and 6.5%.<ref name=inctax>{{cite web|url=http://www.ct.gov/drs/lib/drs/forms/2009forms/incometax/ct-1040booklet.pdf |title=Connecticut income tax instructions |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2010-07-25|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uCmk84cj |archivedate = 2010-11-13|deadurl=no}}</ref> All [[wage]]s of Connecticut residents are subject to the state's income tax, even if earned outside the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Since New York and Massachusetts have higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents that work in those states have no Connecticut income tax withheld. Connecticut permits a credit for taxes paid to other jurisdictions, but since residents who work in other states are still subject to Connecticut income taxation, they may owe taxes if the jurisdictional credit does not fully offset the Connecticut tax amount.
   
Connecticut levies a 6% state [[Wikipedia:sales tax|sales tax]] on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods. Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by [[Wikipedia:statute|statute]]. There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. During the summer there is one week of duty free buying to spur retail sales.
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Connecticut levies a 6% state [[sales tax]] on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods. Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by [[statute]]. Specifically, clothing under $50 is excluded from sales tax. There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. During the summer, there is one week during which sales tax on certain items and quantities of clothing is not imposed in order to assist those with children returning to school.
   
All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of [[Wikipedia:fair market value|fair market value]]. Another 20% of the value may be taxed by the local government though. The maximum property tax credit is $500 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward.<ref name=inctax/> Connecticut does not levy an intangible personal [[Wikipedia:property tax|property tax]].
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All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of [[fair market value]]. Another 20% of the value may be taxed by the local government though. The maximum property tax credit is $500 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward.<ref name=inctax/> Connecticut does not levy an intangible personal [[property tax]]. According to the [[Tax Foundation]], the 2010 Census data shows Connecticut residents paying the 2nd highest average property taxes in the nation with only New Jersey ahead of them.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://money.cnn.com/2010/09/30/pf/taxes/highest_property_taxes/index.htm?source=cnn_bin&hpt=Sbin|title=Highest property taxes in the nation, accessdate=2010-09-30 | work=CNN | first=Les|last=Christie|date=2010-09-30}}</ref>
   
 
===Real estate===
 
===Real estate===
Homes in southwestern Connecticut on the fringes of the [[New York City|New York City]] metropolitan area are quite expensive. Many towns have median home prices over $500,000, with some more desirable homes exceeding $1 million. Greenwich has the most expensive real estate market, with most houses selling at over $1 million and most condos selling at over $600,000. Connecticut has the most million-dollar homes in the northeast, and the second most in the nation after California, with 3.3% of homes in Connecticut priced over one million dollars in 2003.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/22/real_estate/february_million_dollar_homes/index.htm?section=money_topstories| title=Million Dollar Homes|last=Christie|first=Les| publisher=[[CNN|]]</ref> In 2007, the median price for a house in Connecticut passed $300,000 for the first time, even though most of the country was mired in a real estate slump.<ref>[http://news.uconn.edu/archive/archive_in_the_news_0807.php UConn in the News: August 2007]</ref>
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Homes in Connecticut vary widely with a median price of approximately $226,000. By contrast, the median value for a home in [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]], for example, is about $370,000.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thewarrengroup.com/portal/Solutions/PressReleases/tabid/190/newsid751/2311/Default.aspx |title=Conn. Median Home Prices Down 18% in First Quarter |publisher=Thewarrengroup.com |date=2009-05-04 |accessdate=2010-07-25}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hartfordbusiness.com/news8814.html |title=CT house prices continue to fall |publisher=Hartford Business |date= |accessdate=2010-07-25}}</ref> Connecticut has the most multi-million dollar homes in the Northeast, and the second most in the nation after California, with 3.3% of homes in Connecticut priced over $1 million in 2003.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/22/real_estate/february_million_dollar_homes/index.htm?section=money_topstories| title=Million Dollar Homes|last=Christie|first=Les| publisher=CNN.com| date=2006-02-23| accessdate=2007-01-23}}</ref>
   
 
===Industries===
 
===Industries===
The agricultural output for the state is [[Wikipedia:Nursery (horticulture)|nursery stock]], [[Wikipedia:egg (food)|eggs]], [[Wikipedia:dairy product|dairy product]]s, [[Wikipedia:cattle|cattle]], and [[Wikipedia:tobacco#shade tobacco|tobacco]]. Its industrial outputs are [[Wikipedia:transport|transport]]ation equipment (especially [[Wikipedia:helicopter|helicopter]]s, [[Wikipedia:aircraft|aircraft]] parts, and [[Wikipedia:nuclear submarine|nuclear submarine]]s), heavy industrial machinery and electrical equipment, military weaponry and fabricated metal products, [[Wikipedia:chemical|chemical]] and [[Wikipedia:pharmaceutical|pharmaceutical]] products, and [[Wikipedia:Measuring instrument|scientific instrument]]s.
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The [[Agriculture|agricultural]] produce of the state includes [[Nursery (horticulture)|nursery stock]]; [[egg (food)|eggs]]; [[clams]] and [[lobster]] ([[shellfish]]); [[dairy product]]s; [[cattle]]; and [[Types of tobacco#Shade tobacco|tobacco]]. Its industrial output includes [[transport]]ation equipment, especially [[helicopter]]s, [[aircraft]] parts, and [[nuclear submarine]]s; heavy industrial machinery and electrical equipment; military weaponry; fabricated metal products; [[chemical]] and [[pharmaceutical]] products; and [[Measuring instrument|scientific instruments]].
   
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Due to the prominence of the aircraft industry in the state, Connecticut has an official state aircraft, the [[F4U Corsair]], and an official Connecticut Aviation Pioneer, [[Igor Sikorsky]]. The state officially recognizes aircraft designer [[Gustav Whitehead]] as "Father of Connecticut Aviation" for his research into powered flight in [[Bridgeport, Connecticut]] in 1901, two years before the [[Wright brothers]] at [[Kitty Hawk, North Carolina]].<ref>{{cite journal | last = O'Dwyer | first = Maj. William J. | title = The "Who Flew First" Debate | journal = Flight Journal | publisher = Air Age Media | month = October | year = 1998 | url =http://www.flightjournal.com/articles/wff/wff2.asp | accessdate = 2007-01-23 | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20061207155338/http://www.flightjournal.com/articles/wff/wff2.asp| archivedate = December 7, 2006}}</ref> Governor John Dempsey also declared August 15 to be "Gustave Whitehead Day".<ref>{{cite journal | last = Delear | first = Frank | title = Gustave Whitehead and the First-Flight Controversy | journal = Aviation History | month = March | year = 1996 | url =http://www.historynet.com/air_sea/aviation_history/3032816.html?page=7&c=y | accessdate = 2007-01-23 }}</ref>
[[Image:IMG 1175 (2) ....jpg|thumb|right|200px|Downtown Hartford's [[Wikipedia:Central Business District|Central Business District]].]]
 
Due to the prominence of the aircraft industry in the state, Connecticut has an official state aircraft, the [[Wikipedia:F4U Corsair|F4U Corsair]], and an official Connecticut Aviation Pioneer, [[Wikipedia:Igor Sikorsky|Igor Sikorsky]]. The state officially recognizes aircraft designer [[Wikipedia:Gustav Whitehead|Gustav Whitehead]] as "Father of Connecticut Aviation" for his research into powered flight in [[Wikipedia:Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]] in 1901, two years before the [[Wikipedia:Wright brothers|Wright brothers]] at [[Wikipedia:Kitty Hawk, North Carolina|Kitty Hawk]].<ref>{{cite journal | last = O'Dwyer | first = Maj. William J. | title = The "Who Flew First" Debate | journal = Flight Journal | publisher = Air Age Media | date = October 1998 | url =http://www.flightjournal.com/articles/wff/wff2.asp | accessdate = 2007-01-23 }}</ref> Governor John Dempsey also declared August 15 to be "Gustave Whitehead Day."<ref>{{cite journal | last = Delear | first = Frank | title = Gustave Whitehead and the First-Flight Controversy | journal = Aviation History | date = March 1996 | url =http://www.historynet.com/air_sea/aviation_history/3032816.html?page=7&c=y | accessdate = 2007-01-23 }}</ref>
 
 
<!-- A list of large companies might be appropriate here -->
 
<!-- A list of large companies might be appropriate here -->
   
A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on [[December 7]], 2006 demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides $9 billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7 billion in state and local revenue.<ref>[http://www.cultureandtourism.org/cct/lib/cct/Econ_Summary_Web2_%282%29.pdf The Economic Impact of the Arts, Film, History, and Tourism Industries in Connecticut (Highlights)] Connecticut Commission on Culture and Tourism</ref>
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A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006, demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides $9 billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7 billion in state and local revenue.<ref>[http://www.cultureandtourism.org/cct/lib/cct/Econ_Summary_Web2_%282%29.pdf The Economic Impact of the Arts, Film, History, and Tourism Industries in Connecticut (Highlights)]
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Connecticut Commission on Culture and Tourism</ref>
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As of November 2010, the state's unemployment rate is 9%.<ref>[http://www.bls.gov/lau/ Bls.gov]; Local Area Unemployment Statistics</ref>
   
 
==Transportation==
 
==Transportation==
[[Image:Map of Connecticut NA cropped.png|300px|right|thumb|Map of Connecticut showing major highways]]
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[[File:Map of Connecticut NA cropped.png|300px|right|thumb|Map of Connecticut showing major highways.]]
   
 
===Roads===
 
===Roads===
[[Wikipedia:Glacier|Glacier]]s carved valleys in Connecticut running north to south; as a result, many more roadways in the state run north to south than do east to west, mimicking the previous use of the many north-south rivers as transportation.{{Fact|date=December 2006}} The [[Wikipedia:Interstate highway|Interstate highway]]s in the state are [[Wikipedia:Interstate 95 in Connecticut|I-95]] (the [[Wikipedia:Connecticut Turnpike|Connecticut Turnpike]]) running southwest to northeast along the coast, [[Wikipedia:Interstate 84 (east)|I-84]] running southwest to northeast in the center of the state, [[Wikipedia:I-91|I-91]] running north to south in the center of the state, and [[Wikipedia:Interstate 395 (Connecticut)|I-395]] running north to south near the eastern border of the state. The other major highways in Connecticut are the [[Wikipedia:Merritt Parkway|Merritt Parkway]] and [[Wikipedia:Wilbur Cross Parkway|Wilbur Cross Parkway]], which together form [[Wikipedia:Route 15 (Connecticut)|State Route 15]], running from the [[Wikipedia:Hutchinson River Parkway|Hutchinson River Parkway]] in [[Wikipedia:New York State|New York State]] parallel to I-95 before turning north of [[Wikipedia:New Haven|New Haven]] and running parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in [[Wikipedia:Berlin, Connecticut|Berlin]]. Route 15 and I-95 were originally [[Wikipedia:toll road|toll road]]s; they relied on a system of [[Wikipedia:toll plaza|toll plaza]]s at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988.<ref>[http://www.nycroads.com/roads/ct-turnpike/ Connecticut Turnpike (I-95)] nycroads.com</ref> Other major arteries in the state include [[Wikipedia:U.S. Route 7|U.S. Route 7]] in the west running parallel to the NY border, [[Wikipedia:Route 8 (Connecticut)|State Route 8]] farther west near the industrial city of Waterbury and running north-south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with U.S. 7, and [[Wikipedia:Route 9 (Connecticut)|State Route 9]] in the east. See [[Wikipedia:List of State Routes in Connecticut|List of State Routes in Connecticut]] for an overview of the state's highway system.
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The [[Interstate highway]]s in the state are [[Interstate 95 in Connecticut|I-95]] (the [[Connecticut Turnpike]]) running southwest to northeast along the coast, [[Interstate 84 (east)|I-84]] running southwest to northeast in the center of the state, [[I-91]] running north to south in the center of the state, and [[Interstate 395 (Connecticut)|I-395]] running north to south near the eastern border of the state. The other major highways in Connecticut are the [[Merritt Parkway]] and [[Wilbur Cross Parkway]], which together form [[Route 15 (Connecticut)|State Route 15]], running from the [[Hutchinson River Parkway]] in [[New York State]] parallel to I-95 before turning north of [[New Haven]] and running parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in [[Berlin, Connecticut]]. Route 15 and I-95 were originally [[toll road]]s; they relied on a system of [[toll plaza]]s at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988.<ref>[http://www.nycroads.com/roads/ct-turnpike/ Connecticut Turnpike (I-95)] nycroads.com</ref> Other major arteries in the state include [[U.S. Route 7]] in the west running parallel to the NY border, [[Route 8 (Connecticut)|State Route 8]] farther east near the industrial city of Waterbury and running north-south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with U.S. 7, and [[Route 9 (Connecticut)|State Route 9]] in the east. See [[List of State Routes in Connecticut]] for an overview of the state's highway system.
   
Between New Haven and the New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Many people now drive longer distances to work in the New York City area. This strains the three lanes of traffic capacity, resulting in lengthy [[Wikipedia:rush hour|rush hour]] delays. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway. The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and [[Wikipedia:ride-sharing|ride-sharing]].<ref>[http://www.ctrides.com/ ctrides.com]</ref>
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Between New Haven and the New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Many people now drive longer distances to work in the New York City area. This strains the three lanes of traffic capacity, resulting in lengthy [[rush hour]] delays. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway. The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and [[ride-sharing]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ctrides.com/ |title=ctrides.com |publisher=ctrides.com |date=2010-04-15 |accessdate=2010-07-25}}</ref>
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Connecticut also has a very active bicycling community, with one of the highest rates of bicycling ownership and use in the United States. New Haven's cycling community, organized in a local advocacy group called [[ElmCityCycling]], is particularly active. According to the U.S. Census 2006 American Community Survey, New Haven has the highest percentage of commuters who bicycle to work of any major metropolitan center on the East Coast.
   
 
===Public transportation===
 
===Public transportation===
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[[File:Metro-North train 1567 enters Stamford.jpg|250px|right|thumb|A [[Metro-North Railroad]] [[New Haven Line]] train at [[Stamford Transportation Center|Stamford]].]]
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====Rail====
 
====Rail====
Since many Connecticut residents commute to [[New York City|New York City]], there is an extensive [[Wikipedia:commuter rail|commuter rail]]way network connecting New York City to [[Wikipedia:New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]] on [[Wikipedia:Metro North Railroad|Metro North Railroad]] (a commuter railroad based in New York and operated by the Metropolitan Transit Authority) with spurs servicing Waterbury, Danbury, and New Canaan. Rail service does not end with New Haven, however. Connecticut is in the heart of Amtrak's [[Wikipedia:Northeast Corridor|Northeast Corridor]] and the Amtrak Regional line makes stops in New Haven-State Street, Old Saybrook, New London, and Mystic. Smaller town stops between New Haven and New London are served by [[Wikipedia:Shore Line East|Shore Line East]], which takes commuters to those stations to catch a main train. These commuter services are heavily utilized during weekday rush hours. Regional rail service is provided by [[Wikipedia:Amtrak|Amtrak]], which makes regular stops in Stamford, Bridgeport, New Haven, and Hartford, as well as in Wallingford, Meriden, Berlin, Windsor, and Windsor Locks. There are plans to operate commuter trains from New Haven to Springfield on Amtrak's [[Wikipedia:New Haven-Springfield Line|New Haven-Springfield Line]].<ref>{{cite news |first=Stephanie |last=Reitz |title=Conn. looks into building rail line from Springfield to New Haven |url=http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2006/07/30/conn_looks_into_building_rail_line_from_springfield_to_new_haven/ |work=[[2006-07-30|]]</ref>
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Southwestern Connecticut is served by MTA's [[Metro-North Railroad]] [[New Haven Line]], providing commuter service to New York City and New Haven, with branches servicing [[New Canaan Branch|New Canaan]], [[Danbury Branch|Danbury]], and [[Waterbury Branch|Waterbury]]. Connecticut lies along [[Amtrak]]'s [[Northeast Corridor]] which features frequent [[Northeast Regional]] and [[Acela Express]] service. Towns between New Haven and New London are also served by the [[Shore Line East]] commuter line. Operation of commuter trains from New Haven to Springfield on Amtrak's [[New Haven-Springfield Line]] is under consideration.<ref>{{cite news |first=Stephanie |last=Reitz |title=Conn. looks into building rail line from Springfield to New Haven |url=http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2006/07/30/conn_looks_into_building_rail_line_from_springfield_to_new_haven/ |work=[[The Boston Globe]] |publisher=[[The New York Times Company]] |date=2006-07-30 |accessdate=2007-01-29}} {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nhhsrail.com/ |title=NHHS Rail |publisher=NHHS Rail |date=2010-07-19 |accessdate=2010-07-25}}</ref> Amtrak also operates a shuttle service between New Haven and [[Springfield, Massachusetts]], servicing Hartford and other towns on the corridor.
   
 
====Bus====
 
====Bus====
Statewide [[Wikipedia:bus|bus]] service is supplied by [[Wikipedia:Connecticut Transit|Connecticut Transit]], owned by the [[Wikipedia:Connecticut Department of Transportation|Connecticut Department of Transportation]], with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. A three-year construction project to build a busway from New Britain to Hartford will begin in August 2009.<ref>{{cite press release |title=New Britain-to-Hartford ‘Busway’ Receives Final Federal Design Approval |publisher=State of Connecticut |date=[[2006-10-31|]]</ref><ref>[http://www.ctrapidtransit.com/ct_schedule.asp New Britain-Hartford Rapid Transit Project Schedule]</ref>
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Statewide [[bus]] service is supplied by [[Connecticut Transit]], owned by the [[Connecticut Department of Transportation]], with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. A three-year construction project to build a [[bus rapid transit|BRT]] [[New Britain–Hartford Busway|busway from New Britain to Hartford]] began in August 2009.<ref>{{cite press release |title=New Britain-to-Hartford ‘Busway’ Receives Final Federal Design Approval |publisher=State of Connecticut |date=2006-10-31 |url=http://www.ct.gov/governorrell/cwp/view.asp?Q=326626&A=2425 |accessdate=2007-01-29}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ctrapidtransit.com/ct_schedule.asp |title=New Britain-Hartford Rapid Transit Project Schedule |publisher=Ctrapidtransit.com |date= |accessdate=2010-07-25}}{{dead link|date=June 2011}}</ref>
   
 
====Air====
 
====Air====
[[Wikipedia:Bradley International Airport|Bradley International Airport]], which became truly 'International' in the summer of 2007 beginning service to Europe, is located in [[Wikipedia:Windsor Locks|Windsor Locks]], 15 miles (24 km) north of [[Wikipedia:Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]. Regional air service is provided at [[Wikipedia:Tweed-New Haven Airport|Tweed-New Haven Airport]]. Larger civil airports include [[Wikipedia:Danbury Municipal Airport|Danbury Municipal Airport]] and [[Wikipedia:Waterbury-Oxford Airport|Waterbury-Oxford Airport]] in western Connecticut. The [[Wikipedia:Westchester County Airport|Westchester County Airport]] in [[Wikipedia:Harrison, New York|Harrison]] serves part of southwestern Connecticut.
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[[Bradley International Airport]] is located in [[Windsor Locks]], 15&nbsp;miles (24&nbsp;km) north of [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]. Regional air service is provided at [[Tweed New Haven Regional Airport]]. Larger civil airports include [[Danbury Municipal Airport]] and [[Waterbury-Oxford Airport]] in western Connecticut. [[Sikorsky Memorial Airport]] is located in Stratford and mostly services cargo, helicopter and private aviation. The [[Westchester County Airport]] in [[Harrison, New York]] serves much of southwestern Connecticut.
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==Law and government==
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{{See also|Administrative divisions of Connecticut}}
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[[File:Connecticut State Capitol, February 24, 2008.jpg|right|250px|thumb|The [[Connecticut State Capitol]] in downtown Hartford.]]
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[[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] has been the sole capital of Connecticut since 1875. Before then, [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]] and Hartford alternated as capitals.<ref name="AboutCT"/>
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===Constitutional history===
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{{Main|History of the Connecticut Constitution}}
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Connecticut is known as the "Constitution State". While the origin on this title is uncertain, the nickname is assumed to refer to the [[Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders]] of 1638–39. These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal [[government]] written by a representative body in Connecticut. The government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of [[Connecticut Constitutional History]]. After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut was granted governmental authority by King [[Charles II of England]] through the Connecticut Charter of 1662.
   
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Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority. A constitution similar to the modern [[U.S. Constitution]] was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965. The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications.
== Law and government ==
 
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Another possible source of the nickname "constitution state" comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, during which [[Roger Sherman]] and [[Oliver Ellsworth]] helped to orchestrate what became known as the [[Connecticut Compromise]], or the Great Compromise. This plan combined the [[Virginia Plan]] and the [[New Jersey Plan]] to form a bicameral legislature, a form copied by almost every state constitution since the adoption of the federal constitution.
{{seealso|Administrative divisions of Connecticut}}
 
[[Image:Dscn3088 connecticut capitol.jpg|250px|right|thumb|The Connecticut State Capitol in downtown Hartford]]
 
[[Wikipedia:Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] has been the sole capital of Connecticut since 1875. Before then, [[Wikipedia:New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]] and Hartford alternated as capitals.<ref name="AboutCT"/>
 
===Constitutional History===
 
Connecticut is known as the “Constitution State.” While the origin on this title is uncertain, the nickname is assumed to reference the [[Wikipedia:Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders]] of 1638-39. These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal [[Wikipedia:government|government]] written by a representative body in Connecticut. The government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of [[Wikipedia:Connecticut Constitutional History|Connecticut Constitutional History]]. After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut was granted governmental authority by King [[Wikipedia:Charles II of England|Charles II of England]] through the Connecticut Charter of 1662. While these two documents acted to lay the ground work for the state’s government, both lacked essential characteristics of a [[Wikipedia:constitution|constitution]]. The Fundamental Orders and the Connecticut Charter could both be altered simply by a majority vote of the [[Wikipedia:Connecticut General Assembly|General Assembly]]. Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority. A true constitution was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965. The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications.
 
Another possible source of the nickname "constitution state" comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, during which Roger Sherman and [[Wikipedia:Oliver Ellsworth|Oliver Ellsworth]] helped to orchestrate what became known as the [[Wikipedia:Connecticut Compromise|Connecticut Compromise]], or the Great Compromise. This plan combined the [[Wikipedia:Virginia Plan|Virginia Plan]] and the [[Wikipedia:New Jersey Plan|New Jersey Plan]] to form a bicameral legislature, a form copied by almost every state constitution since the adoption of the federal constitution.
 
   
 
===Executive===
 
===Executive===
The governor heads the executive branch. The current [[Wikipedia:List of Governors of Connecticut|Governor of Connecticut]] is [[Wikipedia:M. Jodi Rell|M. Jodi Rell]] (Republican). The current [[Wikipedia:List of Lieutenant Governors of Connecticut|Lieutenant Governor]] is [[Wikipedia:Michael Fedele|Michael Fedele]]. From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. Connecticut was the first state in the United States to elect a woman as governor without electing her husband first, [[Wikipedia:Ella Grasso|Ella Grasso]] in 1974.
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The governor heads the executive branch. [[Dan Malloy]] is the current [[List of Governors of Connecticut|Governor]] and [[Nancy Wyman]] it is the [[List of Lieutenant Governors of Connecticut|Lieutenant Governor]], both are Democrats. Malloy, the former mayor of [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], won the [[Connecticut gubernatorial election, 2010|2010 general election]] for Governor, and was sworn in on January 5, 2011. From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. Connecticut was the first state in the United States to elect a woman as governor without electing her husband first, [[Ella Grasso]] in 1974.
   
There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, Developmental Services, Education, Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Information Technology, Insurance, Labor, Mental Health and Addiction Services, Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Safety, Public Utility Control, Public Works, Revenue Services, Social Services, Transportation, Veterans Affairs. In addition to these departments, there are other independent bureaus, offices and commissions.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=246450| title=Connecticut's Executive Branch of Government| publisher=ct.gov}}</ref>
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There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, Developmental Services, Education, Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Information Technology, Insurance, Labor, Mental Health and Addiction Services, Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Safety, Public Utility Control, Public Works, Revenue Services, Social Services, [[Connecticut Department of Transportation|Transportation]], and Veterans Affairs. In addition to these departments, there are other independent bureaus, offices and commissions.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=246450| title=Connecticut's Executive Branch of Government| publisher=ct.gov}}</ref>
   
In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, there are four other executive officers named in the state constitution that are elected directly by voters: Secretary of State, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General. All executive officers are elected to four year terms.<ref name="AboutCT"/>
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In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, there are four other executive officers named in the state constitution that are elected directly by voters: Secretary of the State, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General. All executive officers are elected to four year terms.<ref name="AboutCT"/>
   
 
===Legislative===
 
===Legislative===
The [[Wikipedia:legislature|legislature]] is the [[Wikipedia:Connecticut General Assembly|General Assembly]]. The General Assembly is a [[Wikipedia:bicameral|bicameral]] body consisting of an upper body, the [[Wikipedia:Connecticut Senate|State Senate]] (36 senators); and a lower body, the [[Wikipedia:Connecticut House of Representatives|House of Representatives]] (151 representatives).<ref name="AboutCT"/> Bills must pass each house in order to become law. The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Senators and representatives, all of whom must be at least eighteen years of age, are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the [[Wikipedia:List of Presidents Pro Tempore of Connecticut|President Pro Tempore]] presides. The [[Wikipedia:List of Speakers of the House of Connecticut|Speaker of the House]] presides over the House; [[Wikipedia:James A. Amann|James A. Amann]] is the current Speaker of the House of Connecticut. The [[Wikipedia:Democratic Party (United States)|Democrats]] currently hold the majority in both houses of the General Assembly.
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The [[legislature]] is the [[Connecticut General Assembly|General Assembly]]. The General Assembly is a [[bicameral]] body consisting of an upper body, the [[Connecticut Senate|State Senate]] (36 senators); and a lower body, the [[Connecticut House of Representatives|House of Representatives]] (151 representatives).<ref name="AboutCT"/> Bills must pass each house in order to become law. The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Senators and representatives, all of whom must be at least 18 years of age, are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the [[President pro tempore]] presides. The [[Speaker (politics)|Speaker of the House]] presides over the House; [[Chris Donovan]] is the current Speaker of the House of Connecticut.
   
Connecticut's U.S. senators are [[Wikipedia:Christopher J. Dodd|Christopher J. Dodd]] (Democrat) and [[Wikipedia:Joseph I. Lieberman|Joseph I. Lieberman]] (Democrat) who is part of the Democratic Caucus. Connecticut currently has five [[Wikipedia:U.S. Congressional Delegations from Connecticut|representatives in the U.S. House]], four of whom are Democrats.
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Connecticut's U.S. senators are [[Richard Blumenthal]] (Democrat) and [[Joseph I. Lieberman]] ([[Connecticut for Lieberman]], [[Independent Democrat]]) who is part of the Democratic Caucus. Connecticut currently has five [[U.S. Congressional Delegations from Connecticut|representatives in the U.S. House]], all of whom are Democrats. Connecticut and [[Vermont]] remain the only two states with Independent Senators.
   
 
===Judicial===
 
===Judicial===
The highest [[Wikipedia:court|court]] of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. The current [[Wikipedia:List of Chief Justices of Connecticut|Chief Justice]] is [[Wikipedia:Chase T. Rogers|Chase T. Rogers]].
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The highest [[court]] of Connecticut's judicial branch is the [[Connecticut Supreme Court]], headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. The current [[Chief Justice]] is [[Chase T. Rogers]].
   
Before 1818 the highest court in Connecticut was the General Assembly, and later, the Upper House, with the Governor having the title "Chief Judge".{{Fact|date=February 2007}} In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches.<ref>[http://www.jud.state.ct.us/ystday/history.html History of the Connecticut Courts]. Last retrieved [[2007-02-20|]].</ref> The Appellate Court is a lesser state-wide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states.
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In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches.<ref>[http://www.jud.state.ct.us/ystday/history.html History of the Connecticut Courts]. Last retrieved 2007-02-20.</ref> The Appellate Court is a lesser state-wide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states.
   
 
===Local government===
 
===Local government===
  +
{{See also| Administrative divisions of Connecticut}}
{{seealso| Administrative divisions of Connecticut}} and several lists: [[Wikipedia:List of municipalities of Connecticut by population|List of municipalities of Connecticut by population]], [[Wikipedia:List of towns in Connecticut|List of towns in Connecticut]], [[Wikipedia:List of cities in Connecticut|List of cities in Connecticut]], [[Wikipedia:Borough (Connecticut)|Borough]], [[List of counties in Connecticut|List of counties in Connecticut]]
 
  +
::''and several lists:'' [[List of municipalities of Connecticut by population]], [[List of towns in Connecticut]], [[List of cities in Connecticut]], [[Borough (Connecticut)]], [[List of counties in Connecticut]]
Connecticut has 169 [[Wikipedia:New England town|towns]], which serve as the fundamental local political subdivision of the state; the entire state is divided into towns.<ref name="AboutCT"/> Connecticut shares a local form of government with the rest of [[Wikipedia:New England|New England]] called the [[Wikipedia:New England town|New England town]]. There are also 21 cities,<ref name="AboutCT"/> most of which are coterminous with their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. There are two exceptions: [[Wikipedia:Groton (city), Connecticut|City of Groton]], which is a subsection of the [[Wikipedia:Groton (town), Connecticut|Town of Groton]] and the City of [[Wikipedia:Winsted, Connecticut|Winsted]] in the Town of [[Wikipedia:Winchester, Connecticut|Winchester]]. There are also nine incorporated [[borough|borough]]s which may provide additional services to a section of town.<ref name="AboutCT"/><ref>[http://www.cslib.org/boroughcity.htm Connecticut's Boroughs and Cities]. Connecticut State Library. Accessed 20 January 2007.</ref> One, [[Wikipedia:Naugatuck|Naugatuck]], is a consolidated town and borough.
 
  +
Connecticut has 169 [[New England town|towns]], which serve as the fundamental local political subdivision of the state; the entire state is divided into towns.<ref name="AboutCT"/> Connecticut shares a local form of government with the rest of [[New England]] called the [[New England town]]. There are also 21 cities,<ref name="AboutCT"/> most of which are coterminous with their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. There are two exceptions: [[Groton (city), Connecticut|City of Groton]], which is a subsection of the [[Groton (town), Connecticut|Town of Groton]] and the City of [[Winsted, Connecticut|Winsted]] in the Town of [[Winchester, Connecticut|Winchester]]. There are also nine incorporated [[Borough (Connecticut)|boroughs]] which may provide additional services to a section of town.<ref name="AboutCT"/><ref>[http://www.cslib.org/boroughcity.htm Connecticut's Boroughs and Cities]. Connecticut State Library. Retrieved 20 January 2007.</ref> One, [[Naugatuck]], is a consolidated town and borough.
   
Unlike most other states, Connecticut does not have [[county|county]] government. Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of the [[Wikipedia:sheriff|sheriff]] system.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/SectionVI/SecVICounty.htm |title= Connecticut State Register and Manual: Counties |accessdate=2006-11-07}}</ref> In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the [[Wikipedia:Connecticut State Marshal|state marshal]] system, which has districts that follow the old county territories. The judicial system is divided, at the trial court level, into judicial districts.<ref> [http://www.jud.ct.gov/directory/directory/location/Default.htm State of Connecticut Judicial Branch]</ref> The [[Wikipedia:list of Connecticut counties|eight counties]] are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as [[Wikipedia:Weather forecasting|weather report]]s, and census reporting.
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Unlike most other states, Connecticut does not have [[County (United States)|county]] government. Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of [[Sheriffs in the United States|sheriffs]] elected in each county.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/SectionVI/SecVICounty.htm |title= Connecticut State Register and Manual: Counties |accessdate=2006-11-07| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20061010172922/http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/SectionVI/SecVICounty.htm| archivedate = October 10, 2006}}</ref> In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the [[Connecticut State Marshal|state marshal]] system, which has districts that follow the old county territories. The judicial system is divided, at the trial court level, into judicial districts which largely follow the old county lines.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.jud.ct.gov/directory/directory/location/Default.htm |title=State of Connecticut Judicial Branch |publisher=Jud.ct.gov |date= |accessdate=2010-07-25}}</ref> The [[list of Connecticut counties|eight counties]] are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as [[Weather forecasting|weather reports]], and census reporting.
   
The state is divided into 15 [[Wikipedia:Administrative divisions of Connecticut#Regions|planning regions]] defined by the state Office of Planning and Management.<ref name="OPM">[http://www.ct.gov/opm/cwp/view.asp?a=2985&q=383124 Regional Planning Coordination at the CT Office of Planning and Management]</ref> The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; designation or redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations."<ref name="OPM"/>
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The state is divided into 15 [[Administrative divisions of Connecticut#Regions|planning regions]] defined by the state Office of Planning and Management.<ref name="OPM">{{cite web|author=Enter your Company or Top-Level Office |url=http://www.ct.gov/opm/cwp/view.asp?a=2985&q=383124 |title=Regional Planning Coordination at the CT Office of Planning and Management |publisher=Ct.gov |date= |accessdate=2010-07-25}}</ref> The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations."<ref name="OPM"/>
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  +
===Same-sex marriage===
  +
{{See also|Same-sex marriage in Connecticut}}
  +
On November 12, 2008, Connecticut became the second state (after Massachusetts) to allow marriages of same-sex couples. Connecticut was the third state to do so, but only the second where the decision was not repealed.
   
 
==Politics==
 
==Politics==
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{{Further|[[U.S. presidential election, 2004, in Connecticut]]|[[Political party strength in Connecticut]]}}
{| align="right" border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="4" style="margin: 2em 2em 2em 2em; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%;"
 
  +
|+ '''Presidential elections results'''<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/compare.php?year=2004&fips=9&f=0&off=0&elect=0&type=state|title = Presidential General Election Results Comparison - Connecticut|publisher=Dave Leip's Atlas of United States Presidential Elections|year=2005|accessdate=2007-01-20}}</ref>
 
  +
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2" style="float:right; margin:2em; border:1px #aaa solid; border-collapse:collapse; font-size:90%;"
|- bgcolor=lightgrey
 
  +
|+ '''Presidential elections results'''<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/compare.php?year=2004&fips=9&f=0&off=0&elect=0&type=state|title = Presidential General Election Results Comparison – Connecticut|publisher=Dave Leip's Atlas of United States Presidential Elections|year=2005|accessdate=2007-01-20}}</ref>
  +
|- style="background:lightgrey;"
 
! Year
 
! Year
! [[Wikipedia:Republican Party (United States)|Republican]]
+
! [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]]
! [[Wikipedia:Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic]]
+
! [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic]]
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|[[Wikipedia:U.S. presidential election, 2004|2004]]
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|[[U.S. presidential election, 2008|2008]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|43.95% ''693,826
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|38.77% ''620,210''
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|'''54.31%''' ''857,488
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|'''61.23%''' ''979,316''
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|[[Wikipedia:U.S. presidential election, 2000|2000]]
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|[[U.S. presidential election, 2004|2004]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|38.44% ''561,094
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|43.95% ''693,826''
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|'''55.91%''' ''816,015
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|'''54.31%''' ''857,488''
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|[[Wikipedia:U.S. presidential election, 1996|1996]]
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|[[U.S. presidential election, 2000|2000]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|34.69% ''483,109
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|38.44% ''561,094''
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|'''52.83%''' ''735,740
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|'''55.91%''' ''816,015''
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|[[Wikipedia:U.S. presidential election, 1992|1992]]
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|[[U.S. presidential election, 1996|1996]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|35.78% ''578,313
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|34.69% ''483,109''
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|'''42.21%''' ''682,318
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|'''52.83%''' ''735,740''
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|[[Wikipedia:U.S. presidential election, 1988|1988]]
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|[[U.S. presidential election, 1992|1992]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|'''51.98%''' ''750,241
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|35.78% ''578,313''
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|46.87% ''676,584
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|'''42.21%''' ''682,318''
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|[[Wikipedia:U.S. presidential election, 1984|1984]]
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|[[U.S. presidential election, 1988|1988]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|'''60.73%''' ''890,877
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|'''51.98%''' ''750,241''
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|38.83% ''569,597
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|46.87% ''676,584''
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|[[Wikipedia:U.S. presidential election, 1980|1980]]
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|[[U.S. presidential election, 1984|1984]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|'''48.16%''' ''677,210
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|'''60.73%''' ''890,877''
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|38.52% ''541,732
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|38.83% ''569,597''
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|[[Wikipedia:U.S. presidential election, 1976|1976]]
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|[[U.S. presidential election, 1980|1980]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|'''52.06%''' ''719,261
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|'''48.16%''' ''677,210''
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|46.90% ''647,895
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|38.52% ''541,732''
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|[[Wikipedia:U.S. presidential election, 1972|1972]]
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|[[U.S. presidential election, 1976|1976]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|'''58.57%''' ''810,763
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|'''52.06%''' ''719,261''
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|40.13% ''555,498
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|46.90% ''647,895''
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|[[Wikipedia:U.S. presidential election, 1968|1968]]
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|[[U.S. presidential election, 1972|1972]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|44.32% ''556,721
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|'''58.57%''' ''810,763''
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|'''49.48%''' ''621,561
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|40.13% ''555,498''
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|[[Wikipedia:U.S. presidential election, 1964|1964]]
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|[[U.S. presidential election, 1968|1968]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|32.09% ''390,996
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|44.32% ''556,721''
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|'''67.81%''' ''826,269
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|'''49.48%''' ''621,561''
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|[[Wikipedia:U.S. presidential election, 1960|1960]]
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|[[U.S. presidential election, 1964|1964]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|46.27% ''565,813
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|32.09% ''390,996''
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|'''53.73%''' ''657,055
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|'''67.81%''' ''826,269''
  +
|-
  +
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|[[U.S. presidential election, 1960|1960]]
  +
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|46.27% ''565,813''
  +
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|'''53.73%''' ''657,055''
 
|}
 
|}
   
Connecticut is a generally left-leaning state, allotting its electoral votes to Democratic candidates in the past four presidential elections but to Republican presidential candidates five times in the 1970s and 1980s. Connecticut has a high number of voters who are not registered with a major party. As of 2004, 33.7% of registered voters were registered Democratic, 22.0% were registered Republican, and 44.0% were unaffiliated with any party, with 0.2% registered with a minor party<!-- editor's note: figures do not add up to 100% due to rounding errors -->.<ref>[http://www.sots.ct.gov/ElectionsServices/election_results/statistics/enrolhst.pdf Party Enrollment in Connecticut]. Connecticut Office of the Secretary of State. Last retrieved [[2007-02-22|]].</ref> Voters in the state are more supportive of [[Wikipedia:fiscal conservatives|fiscal conservatives]] and may be considered to be generally [[Wikipedia:Social liberalism|socially liberal]].
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Currently, Connecticut leans strongly towards the [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic Party]]. However, Connecticut has a high percentage of voters who are not registered with a major party. As of 2004, 33.7% of registered voters were registered Democratic, 22.0% were registered Republican, and 44.0% were unaffiliated with any party, with 0.2% registered with a minor party<!-- editor's note: figures do not add up to 100% due to rounding errors -->.<ref>[http://www.sots.ct.gov/ElectionsServices/election_results/statistics/enrolhst.pdf Party Enrollment in Connecticut]. Connecticut Office of the Secretary of State. Last retrieved 2007-02-22. {{dead link|date=November 2010}}</ref>
   
Many Connecticut towns show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party. Democrats hold a registration edge especially in the cities of [[Wikipedia:Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]; [[Wikipedia:New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]]; and [[Wikipedia:Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]], where Democratic machines have held power since the great immigration waves of the 1800s. The state's Republican-leaning areas are the rural [[Litchfield County, Connecticut|Litchfield County]] and adjoining towns in the west of [[Hartford County, Connecticut|Hartford County]], the industrial towns of the [[Wikipedia:Naugatuck River Valley|Naugatuck River Valley]], and some of the affluent [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]] towns near the [[New York|New York]] border. The suburban towns of [[Wikipedia:New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan]] and [[Wikipedia:Darien, Connecticut|Darien]] in Fairfield County are considered the most Republican areas in the state, the former being the hometown of conservative activist [[Wikipedia:Ann Coulter|Ann Coulter]]. [[Wikipedia:Westport, Connecticut|Westport]], a wealthy town a few miles to the east, is often considered one of the most loyally-Democratic, liberal towns in Fairfield County. [[Wikipedia:Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk]] and [[Wikipedia:Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], two larger, affluent communities in Fairfield County, have in many elections favored moderate Republicans including former Governor [[Wikipedia:John G. Rowland|John G. Rowland]] and Congressman [[Wikipedia:Chris Shays|Chris Shays]], however they have favored Democrats in recent US presidential candidates. [[Wikipedia:Waterbury, Connecticut|Waterbury]] has a Democratic registration edge, but usually favors conservative candidates in both parties. In [[Wikipedia:Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]] unaffiliated voters outnumber voters registered with either major party. Other smaller cities including [[Wikipedia:Meriden, Connecticut|Meriden]], [[Wikipedia:New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]], and [[Wikipedia:Middletown, Connecticut|Middletown]] favor Democratic candidates.
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Many Connecticut towns show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party. The state's Republican-leaning areas are the rural [[Litchfield County, Connecticut|Litchfield County]] and adjoining towns in the west of [[Hartford County, Connecticut|Hartford County]], the industrial towns of the [[Naugatuck River Valley]], and some of the affluent [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]] towns near the New York border.
   
  +
The suburban towns of [[New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan]] and [[Darien, Connecticut|Darien]] in Fairfield County are considered the most Republican areas in the state. [[Westport, Connecticut|Westport]], a wealthy town a few miles to the east, is often considered one of the most loyally-Democratic, liberal towns in Fairfield County. The historically Republican-leaning wealthy town of [[Wilton, Connecticut|Wilton]] voted in the majority for [[Barack Obama]] in the 2008 Presidential Election. [[Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk]] and [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], two larger, affluent communities in Fairfield County, have in many elections favored moderate Republicans including former Governor [[John G. Rowland]] and former Congressman [[Chris Shays]], however they have favored Democrats in recent US presidential election years, with Shays being defeated by Democrat [[Jim Himes]] in the 2008 election.
Democrats hold veto-proof majorities in both houses of the state legislature. In 2006, Republicans were reduced from three out of five to one out of five congressional seats. The remaining Republican, [[Wikipedia:Chris Shays|Chris Shays]], is the only Republican from New England in the House of Representatives in the [[Wikipedia:110th Congress|current Congress]] and is also one of the most liberal Republicans in the House. [[Wikipedia:Christopher Dodd|Christopher Dodd]] and [[Wikipedia:Joseph Lieberman|Joseph Lieberman]] are Connecticut's U.S. senators. The senior Dodd is a Democrat while the junior Lieberman serves as an [[Wikipedia:Independent Democrat|Independent Democrat]] caucusing with Senate Democrats after his victory on the [[Wikipedia:Connecticut for Lieberman|Connecticut for Lieberman]] ballot line in the 2006 general election. Lieberman's predecessor, [[Wikipedia:Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.|Lowell P. Weicker]], was the last Connecticut Republican to serve as Senator. Weicker was known as a liberal Republican. He broke with President [[Richard Nixon|Richard Nixon]] during [[Wikipedia:Watergate Scandal|Watergate]] and successfully ran for governor in 1990 as an independent, creating [[Wikipedia:A Connecticut Party|A Connecticut Party]] as his election vehicle. Before Weicker, the last [[Wikipedia:Republican Party (United States)|Republican]] to represent Connecticut in the Senate was [[Wikipedia:Prescott Bush|Prescott Bush]], the father of former President [[George H.W. Bush|George H.W. Bush]] and the grandfather of President [[George W. Bush|George W. Bush]]. He served from 1953–1963.
 
   
  +
[[Waterbury, Connecticut|Waterbury]] has a Democratic registration edge, but usually favors conservative candidates in both parties. In [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]] unaffiliated voters outnumber voters registered with either major party. Other smaller cities including [[Meriden, Connecticut|Meriden]], [[New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]], [[Norwich, Connecticut|Norwich]] and [[Middletown, Connecticut|Middletown]] favor Democratic candidates.
{{further|[[Wikipedia:U.S. presidential election, 2004, in Connecticut|U.S. presidential election]]}}
 
   
  +
In July, 2009 the Connecticut legislature overrode a veto by Governor [[M. Jodi Rell]] to pass [[SustiNet]], the first significant public-option health care reform legislation in the nation.<ref>[http://www.aarp.org/states/ct/advocacy/articles/in_historic_vote_legislature_overrides_sustinet_veto.html ]{{dead link|date=July 2010}}</ref>
===Political corruption===
 
Several mayors, state legislators, and government employees have been convicted and imprisoned for crimes ranging from bribery to racketeering. In 2004, Governor [[Wikipedia:John G. Rowland|John G. Rowland]], a Republican, was forced to resign when it was discovered he helped steer state contracts to firms that offered him gifts and free vacations.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/06/21/connecticut.governor/index.html | title=Connecticut governor announces resignation | publisher=[[Connecticut Post|]]</ref> In August 2007 Hartford Mayor [[Wikipedia:Eddie Perez|Eddie Perez]] announced he had been investigated for ties to a city contractor. [http://www.courant.com/news/custom/topnews/hc-perez0817.artaug17,0,3742776.story?coll=hc_tab01_layout]
 
   
  +
As of 2011, Democrats controlled all five federal congressional seats. The remaining Republican, [[Chris Shays]], lost his seat to Democrat Jim Himes in the Congressional Election in 2008. [[Joseph Lieberman]] and [[Richard Blumenthal]] are Connecticut's [[United States Senate|U.S. senators]]. The junior Blumenthal is a Democrat while the senior Lieberman serves as an [[Independent Democrat]] caucusing with Senate Democrats after his victory on the [[Connecticut for Lieberman]] ballot line in the 2006 general election.
Several state agencies, including the [[Wikipedia:Connecticut Department of Transportation|Department of Transportation (DOT)]], [[Wikipedia:Connecticut Department of Motor Vehicles|Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV)]], and [[Wikipedia:Connecticut Department of Children and Families|Department of Children and Families (DCF)]] have been rocked by scandals over the past decade.
 
   
  +
Lieberman's predecessor, [[Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.]], was the last Connecticut Republican to serve as Senator. Weicker was known as a liberal Republican. He broke with President [[Richard Nixon]] during [[Watergate Scandal|Watergate]] and successfully ran for governor in 1990 as an independent, creating [[A Connecticut Party]] as his election vehicle. Before Weicker, the last [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]] to represent Connecticut in the Senate was [[Prescott Bush]], the father of former President [[George H.W. Bush]] and the grandfather of former President [[George W. Bush]]. He served from 1953–1963.
A more recent scandal involved a botched construction project on [[Wikipedia:Interstate 84 (east)|Interstate 84]] near Waterbury. An independent audit of the project in late 2006 revealed that over 300 storm drains installed by the now-defunct L.G. DeFelice Construction Company, were either filled with sand, were improperly installed, or were connected with pipes that led to nowhere. In addition to the faulty storm drains, officials discovered light fixtures with defective mounting brackets when one of the fixtures fell off of its support pole and onto the highway. Inspectors also discovered the structural steel for an overpass was not properly installed, raising serious questions about the bridge's structural integrity. Following the uncovering of this scandal, Attorney-General [[Wikipedia:Richard Blumenthal|Richard Blumenthal]] filed suit against L.G. DeFelice, its bonding company [[Wikipedia:USF&G|USF&G]], and the consultants (the Maguire Group) hired by CONNDOT to oversee the project, resulting in a $17.5 million settlement to fix the problems. A federal [[Wikipedia:grand jury|grand jury]] and FBI investigation were also launched into the operations of L.G. DeFelice before the company ceased operations in 2004. Several CONNDOT employees were fired after being implicated in the scandal, and are also subjects of state and federal investigations for allegedly taking [[Wikipedia:bribery|bribes]] in exchange for covering up substandard work on the I-84 project. Finally, the scandal prompted the [[Wikipedia:Connecticut General Assembly|Connecticut General Assembly]] to consider contract reform legislation and Governor [[Wikipedia:M. Jodi Rell|M. Jodi Rell]] to order a complete reorganization of CONNDOT.
 
   
  +
{| class=wikitable
On June 1, 2007, Senate Minority Leader [[Wikipedia:Louis DeLuca|Louis DeLuca]] (R-Woodbury) was arrested on conspiracy charges after it was discovered he was dealing with a local Mafia boss who is currently facing federal charges stemming from his trash-hauling operations, <ref>[http://www.wtnh.com/Global/story.asp?S=6599228 State Sen. DeLuca arrested. WTNH Channel 8 New Haven, June 1, 2007]</ref> and allegations that he tried to use these same ties to intimidate the husband of his grandaughter, whom he claimed was abusing her.
 
  +
! colspan = 6 | Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 27, 2009<ref>{{cite web|title=Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of October 27, 2009 |publisher=Connecticut Secretary of State |format=PDF |accessdate=2010-07-07 |url=http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/lib/sots/electionservices/registration_and_enrollment_stats/2009_registration_and_enrollment_statistics.pdf |archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5uCmkIa9X |archivedate=2010-11-13 |deadurl=no}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
! colspan = 2 | Party
  +
! Active voters
  +
! Inactive voters
  +
! Total voters
  +
! Percentage
  +
{{American politics/party colors/Democratic/row}}
  +
| [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic]]
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 751,612
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 41,322
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 792,934
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 36.84%
  +
{{American politics/party colors/Republican/row}}
  +
| [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]]
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 412,746
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 20,311
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 433,057
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 20.12%
  +
{{American politics/party colors/Independent/row}}
  +
| Unaffiliated
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 853,607
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 61,286
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 914,893
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 42.51%
  +
{{American politics/party colors/Libertarian/row}}
  +
| Minor parties
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 10,709
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 727
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 11,436
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 0.53%
  +
|-
  +
! colspan = 2 | Total
  +
! style="text-align:center;"| 2,028,674
  +
! style="text-align:center;"| 123,646
  +
! style="text-align:center;"| 2,152,320
  +
! style="text-align:center;"| 100%
  +
|}
   
  +
==Education==
Following Rowland's resignation, the state legislature passed a campaign finance reform bill that bans contributions from lobbyists and state contractors in future campaigns.<ref>{{cite press release|title =Connecticut Legislature Passes Sweeping Campaign Finance Reform Bill | publisher = Brennan Center for Justice | date = [[1 December]] [[2005]] | url =http://www.brennancenter.org/press_detail.asp?key=100&subkey=10529&init_key=84 | accessdate =2007-01-20}}</ref>
 
  +
Connecticut is the home of [[Yale University]], established in 1701, one of the most academically renowned and selective universities in the United States.<ref>{{cite news | url = http://www.yaledailynews.com/articles/view/28392| title = Admit rate falls to record-low 7.5 percent| publisher = [[Yale Daily News]]| date = 31 March 2009| accessdate =2009-04-23}} {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref> Yale is one of the largest employers in the state, and its research activity has recently spun off dozens of growing biotechnology companies.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://yalemedicine.yale.edu/ym_fw0001/biotech/biotech1.html |title="New Haven's Biotech Boom," Yale Medicine, Fall 2000/Winter 2001 |publisher=Yalemedicine.yale.edu |date= |accessdate=2011-01-23}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Mckay |first=David |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/16/nyregion/nyregionspecial2/16yalect.html |title=Yale and New Haven Find Common Ground|location=New Haven (Conn) |publisher=Nytimes.com |date=2007-12-16 |accessdate=2011-06-05}}</ref>
   
  +
In addition, Connecticut hosts many other academic institutions, including [[Trinity College (Connecticut)|Trinity College]] (1823), [[Wesleyan University]] (1832), [[University of Hartford]] (1877), [[Post University]] (1890), [[Connecticut College]] (1911), [[United States Coast Guard Academy]] (1915) and [[Quinnipiac University]] (1929). The [[University of Connecticut]] (1881) has been the highest ranked public university in New England from 1998 to 2010, according to ''[[U.S. News and World Report]]''.<ref>[http://www.uconn.edu/rankings.php] (Note: US News and World Report is a subscription website.)</ref>
== Education ==
 
   
  +
Connecticut was home to the nation's first law school, [[Litchfield Law School]], which operated from 1773 to 1833 in [[Litchfield, Connecticut|Litchfield]]. [[Hartford Public High School]] (1638) is the third-oldest secondary school in the nation after the [[Collegiate School (New York)|Collegiate School]] (1628) in [[Manhattan]] and the [[Boston Latin School]] (1635). The state also has many noted private day schools, and its [[boarding school]]s draw students from around the world.
Connecticut is well-known as the home of [[Wikipedia:Yale University|Yale University]], which maintains a consistent ranking as one of the world's most renowned universities, and has the most selective undergraduate program of any university in the United States (an 8.6% acceptance rate in 2006).<ref>{{cite news | url = http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2006-11-02-collegerates_x.htm| title = College acceptance rates: How many get in?| publisher = [[Wikipedia:USA Today|]]}}| date = [[8 November]] [[2006]]</ref> Yale is one of the largest employers in the state, and its research activity has recently spun off dozens of growing biotechnology companies.
 
   
  +
{{See also|List of colleges and universities in Connecticut|List of school districts in Connecticut}}
Connecticut is also the host of many other academic institutions, including [[Wikipedia:Trinity College|Trinity College]], (1825), and [[Wikipedia:Wesleyan University|Wesleyan University]], (1832). The [[Wikipedia:University of Connecticut|University of Connecticut]] has been the highest ranked public university in New England for eight years running, according to ''[[Wikipedia:U.S. News and World Report|U.S. News and World Report]]''. The State's capital university,[[Wikipedia:University of Hartford|University of Hartford]], (1877), is a private, independent, and nonsectarian coeducational university located in West Hartford, Connecticut. It was chartered through the joining of the Hartford Art School, Hillyer College, and The Hartt School of Music in 1957.
 
   
  +
==Sports==
Additionally, the State has many noted [[Wikipedia:boarding school|boarding school]]s, such as [[Wikipedia:Miss Porter's School|Miss Porter's School]], [[Wikipedia:Choate Rosemary Hall|Choate Rosemary Hall]], [[Wikipedia:Hotchkiss|Hotchkiss]], [[Wikipedia:Pomfret School|Pomfret School]], [[Wikipedia:Avon Old Farms|Avon Old Farms]], [[Wikipedia:Loomis Chaffee|Loomis Chaffee]], [[Wikipedia:Salisbury School|Salisbury School]] and [[Wikipedia:The Taft School|The Taft School]] which draw students from all over the world. Also Connecticut has many noted private day schools such as [[Wikipedia:Kingswood-Oxford School|Kingswood-Oxford School]] located in [[Wikipedia:West Hartford|West Hartford]] and the [[Wikipedia:Hopkins School|Hopkins School]] based in [[Wikipedia:New Haven|New Haven]].
 
  +
[[File:MoheganSunArena.jpg|thumb|right|300px|[[Mohegan Sun Arena]], home of the [[Connecticut Sun]] of the [[WNBA]].]]
  +
{{See also|Professional ice hockey in Connecticut}}
  +
Connecticut has been the home to multiple teams in the [[Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada|big four sports leagues]], though currently hosts none. Connecticut's longest-tenured and only modern full-time "big four" franchise were the [[Hartford Whalers]] of the [[National Hockey League]], who played in Hartford from 1979 to 1997 at the [[Hartford Civic Center]]. Their departure to [[Raleigh, North Carolina]], over disputes with the state over the construction of a new arena, caused great controversy and resentment. The former Whalers are now known as the [[Carolina Hurricanes]].
   
  +
Connecticut has hosted teams from the other big four leagues at various times. The [[Hartford Dark Blues]] joined the [[National League]] for one season in 1876, becoming the state's first and only [[major league baseball]] franchise. In 1926, Hartford had a franchise in the [[National Football League]] known as the [[Hartford Blues]]. The NFL would return to Connecticut from 1973-1974 when New Haven hosted the [[New York Giants]] at [[Yale Bowl]] while [[Giants Stadium]] was under construction.<ref name="HistoryNYG">[http://www.sportsecyclopedia.com/nfl/nyg/nygiants.html History of the New York Giants], www.sportsecyclopedia.com. Retrieved September 12, 2006.</ref> From 1975 to 1995, the [[Boston Celtics]] of the [[National Basketball Association]] played a number of home games at the Hartford Civic Center.
{{see also|List of colleges and universities in Connecticut}} for a comprehensive listing. <!-- list of colleges is comprehensive in another article; improve that article/list instead of redundantly adding it here -->
 
  +
[[File:Yale-Harvard-Game.jpg|285px|right|thumb|Yale Bowl during "[[Harvard-Yale football games (The Game)|The Game]]" between Yale and [[Harvard]]. The Bowl was also the home of the [[NFL]]'s [[New York Giants]] from 1973-1974.]]
{{see also|List of school districts in Connecticut}}
 
   
  +
The [[Connecticut Sun]] of the [[WNBA]] currently play at the [[Mohegan Sun Arena]] in [[Uncasville]]. From 1996 to 1998, Connecticut was home to another professional woman's basketball team, [[American Basketball League (1996–1998)|American Basketball League]] franchise the [[New England Blizzard]], who played at the Hartford Civic Center
== Sports ==
 
  +
  +
The [[UConn Huskies]] play [[NCAA Division I]] sports and are popular in the state. Both the [[Connecticut Huskies men's basketball|men's basketball]] and [[Connecticut Huskies women's basketball|women's basketball teams]] have won multiple national championships, including in 2004, when UConn became the first school in NCAA Division I history to have its men's and women's basketball programs win the national title in the same year. The [[UConn Huskies football team]] has played in the [[Football Bowl Subdivision]] since 2002, and has played in four bowl games since. Other Connecticut universities which feature Division I sports teams include [[Yale Bulldogs|Yale University]], [[Quinnipiac Bobcats|Quinnipiac University]], [[Fairfield Stags|Fairfield University]], [[Central Connecticut State University]], [[Sacred Heart University]], and the [[Hartford Hawks|University of Hartford]]. Several [[United States Coast Guard Academy#Athletics|United States Coast Guard Academy]] teams compete in Division I as well.
  +
  +
New Haven biannually hosts "[[Harvard-Yale football games (The Game)|The Game]]" between Yale and [[Harvard]], the country's second-oldest college football rivalry. Yale alum [[Walter Camp]], deemed the "Father of American Football," helped develop modern football while living in New Haven.<ref>[http://www.collegefootball.org/famer_selected.php?id=88004 College Football Hall of Fame || Famer Search<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
  +
  +
Hartford has hosted two [[Arena Football League]] franchises, in the [[Connecticut Coyotes]] from 1995–1996 and the [[New England Sea Wolves]] from 1999–2000, both playing at the Civic Center. Hartford is currently home to the [[Hartford Colonials]] of the [[United Football League (2009)|United Football League]].
  +
  +
Connecticut is a battleground between fans of the [[New York Yankees]], [[Boston Red Sox]], and [[New York Mets]].<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/18/sports/baseball/18fans.html?ei=5088&en=6f3f651e40bd2179&ex=1313553600&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&pagewanted=print | work=The New York Times | title=Where Do Rivals Draw the Line? | first=John | last=Branch | date=2006-08-18 | accessdate=2010-04-30}}</ref> For the Mets and Red Sox, split allegiances among fans of both teams in the state during the [[1986 World Series]] led to an article in ''[[The Boston Globe]]'' to coin the phrase "Red Sox Nation."<ref>{{cite news|title=Baseball Border War; In Milford Conn., Geography Brings Sox and Mets Fans|date=October 20, 1986|first=Nathan|last=Cobb|newspaper=Boston Globe|page=8}}</ref>
  +
  +
The state hosts several major sporting events. Since 1952, a [[PGA Tour]] golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area. Originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open," the event is now known as the [[Travelers Championship]]. The [[Pilot Pen Tennis]] tournament is held annually in the [[Cullman-Heyman Tennis Center]] at Yale University in New Haven. [[Lime Rock Park]] is a motorsport track home of [[American Le Mans Series]], Grand-Am [[Rolex Sports Car Series]] and [[NASCAR Camping World East Series]] races.
  +
  +
The [[Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference (CIAC)]] is the state's sanctioning body for high school sports.
  +
  +
===Current professional sports teams===
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
  +
|-
 
!Club
 
!Club
 
!Sport
 
!Sport
 
!League
 
!League
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Wikipedia:Bridgeport Sound Tigers|Bridgeport Sound Tigers]]
+
|[[Bridgeport Sound Tigers]]
|[[Wikipedia:Ice hockey|Ice hockey]]
+
|[[Ice hockey]]
|[[Wikipedia:American Hockey League|American Hockey League]]
+
|[[American Hockey League]]
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Connecticut Whale]]
|[[Wikipedia:Danbury Trashers|Danbury Trashers]]
 
|Ice hockey
+
|[[Ice hockey]]
|[[Wikipedia:United Hockey League|United Hockey League]]
+
|[[American Hockey League]]
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[New Britain Rock Cats]]
|[[Wikipedia:Hartford Wolf Pack|Hartford Wolf Pack]]
 
  +
|Baseball
|Ice hockey
 
|American Hockey League
+
|[[Minor League Baseball]] (AA)
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Connecticut Tigers]]
|[[Wikipedia:New England Stars|New England Stars]]
 
  +
|[[Baseball]]
|Ice hockey
 
  +
|[[Minor League Baseball]] (A)
|[[Wikipedia:North Eastern Hockey League|North Eastern Hockey League]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Bridgeport Bluefish]]
|[[Wikipedia:Connecticut Defenders|Connecticut Defenders]]
 
|[[Wikipedia:Baseball|Baseball]]
+
|[[Baseball]]
|[[Wikipedia:Minor League Baseball|Minor League Baseball]] (AA)
+
|[[Atlantic League of Professional Baseball|Atlantic League]]
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Danbury Westerners]]
|[[Wikipedia:New Britain Rock Cats|New Britain Rock Cats]]
 
|Baseball
+
|[[Baseball]]
|Minor League Baseball (AA)
+
|[[New England Collegiate Baseball League]]
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Torrington Titans]]
|[[Wikipedia:Bridgeport Bluefish|Bridgeport Bluefish]]
 
|Baseball
+
|[[Baseball]]
|[[Wikipedia:Atlantic League|Atlantic League]]
+
|[[Atlantic Collegiate Baseball League]]
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Connecticut Sun]]
|[[Wikipedia:Manchester Silkworms|Manchester Silkworms]]
 
  +
|[[Basketball]]
|Baseball
 
  +
|[[Women's National Basketball Association]]
|[[Wikipedia:New England Collegiate Baseball League|New England Collegiate Baseball League]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Wikipedia:New Haven County Cutters|New Haven County Cutters]]
+
|[[New Haven Warriors]]
  +
|[[Rugby League]]
|Baseball
 
|[[Wikipedia:Canadian-American League|Canadian-American League]]
+
|[[American National Rugby League]]
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Connecticut Wildcats]]
|[[Wikipedia:Stamford Robins|Stamford Robins]]
 
  +
|[[Rugby League]]
|Baseball
 
  +
|[[American National Rugby League]]
|[[Wikipedia:Atlantic Collegiate Baseball League|Atlantic Collegiate Baseball League]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Hartford Wanderers]]
|[[Wikipedia:Torrington Twisters|Torrington Twisters]]
 
  +
|[[Rugby Union]]
|Baseball
 
|[[Wikipedia:New England Collegiate Baseball League|New England Collegiate Baseball League]]
+
|[[New England Rugby Football Union]]
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[New Haven Old Black RFC]]
|[[Wikipedia:Connecticut Sun|Connecticut Sun]]
 
  +
|[[Rugby Union]]
|[[Wikipedia:Basketball|Basketball]]
 
  +
|[[New England Rugby Football Union]]
|[[Wikipedia:Women's National Basketball Association|Women's National Basketball Association]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Hartford Colonials]]
|[http://www.ctrollerderby Connecticut Roller Girls]
 
  +
|[[American football|Football]]
|[[Wikipedia:Flat Track Roller Derby|Flat Track Roller Derby]]
 
  +
|[[United Football League (2009)|United Football League]]
|[[Wikipedia:Women's Flat Track Roller Derby Association|Women's Flat Track Roller Derby Association]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Connecticut Yankees RFC|Connecticut Yankees]]
  +
|[[Rugby Union]]
  +
|[[Metropolitan New York Rugby Union]]<br />[[New England Rugby Football Union]]
  +
|-
  +
|Nutmeg BMX
  +
|[[BMX Racing]]
  +
|[[National Bicycle League]]
  +
|-
  +
|CT RollerGirls
  +
|[[Roller derby]]
  +
|[[Women's Flat Track Derby Association]]
 
|}
 
|}
   
  +
==Names and symbols==
*From 1979 to 1997, the National Hockey League had a franchise in Hartford, the [[Wikipedia:Hartford Whalers|Hartford Whalers]]. Their departure to [[Wikipedia:Raleigh, North Carolina|Raleigh]], caused great controversy and resentment. The former Whalers are now known as the [[Wikipedia:Carolina Hurricanes|Carolina Hurricanes]].
 
  +
{{Infobox U.S. state symbols
  +
|Boxwidth = 25em
  +
|Flag = Flag of Connecticut.svg
  +
|Name = Connecticut
  +
|Bird = [[American Robin]]
  +
|Fish = [[American shad]]
  +
|Flower = [[Kalmia latifolia|Mountain Laurel]]
  +
|Insect = [[European Mantis]]
  +
|Mammal = [[Sperm whale]]
  +
|Tree = [[Charter oak|Charter]] [[White oak]]
  +
|Dance = [[Square dance]]
  +
|Fossil = [[Trace fossil|Dinosaur tracks]]
  +
|Mineral = [[Garnet]]
  +
|Shell = [[Eastern Oyster]]
  +
|Ships = ''[[USS Nautilus (SSN-571)]]'', ''[[Freedom Schooner Amistad]]''
  +
|Slogan = ''Full of Surprises''
  +
|Song = ''[[Yankee Doodle]]'',<br />''[[The Nutmeg]]''
  +
|Tartan = [http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=885&q=246526 Connecticut State Tartan]
  +
|Route Marker = Connecticut Highway 16.svg
  +
|Quarter = 1999 CT Proof.png
  +
|QuarterReleaseDate = 1999
  +
}}
  +
The name "Connecticut" originates from the [[Mohegan]] word ''quonehtacut'', meaning "place of long tidal river".<ref name="AboutCT">{{cite web | url = http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=246434 | title = CT.gov: About Connecticut | accessdate =2005-12-18}}</ref> Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–1639 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world.<ref name=SOTS>{{cite web|url=http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/cwp/view.asp?A=3188&QUESTION_ID=392608|title=SOTS: Sites, Seals & Symbols|accessdate=2008-06-12}}</ref> Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as ''"The [[Nutmeg]] State"''.<ref name=SOTS/> The origins of the nutmeg connection to Connecticut are unknown. It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice). It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers. It is also facetiously said to come from [[Yankee]] peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.roadescape.com/nutmeg.html | title=roadscape.com/nutmeg.html}}{{dead link|date=June 2011}}</ref> [[George Washington]] gave Connecticut the title of ''"The Provisions State"''<ref name=SOTS/> because of the material aid the state rendered to the [[American Revolutionary War]] effort. Connecticut is also known as ''"The Land of Steady Habits"''.<ref name=SOTS/>
  +
[[File:Charter Oak in Hartford CT.jpg|thumb|right|The Charter Oak.]]
  +
[[File:SS-571-Nautilus-trials.gif|thumb|right|The [[USS Nautilus (SSN-571)|USS ''Nautilus'' (SSN-571)]].]]
   
  +
According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter". There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "Connecticotian" – [[Cotton Mather]] in 1702. "Connecticutensian" – [[Samuel Peters]] in 1781. "[[Nutmegger]]" is sometimes used,<ref name=cslib>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/nicknamesCT.htm| title=Connecticut's Nicknames| publisher=Connecticut State Library}}</ref> as is "Yankee" (the official State Song is "[[Yankee Doodle]]"), though this usually refers someone from the wider [[New England]] region (and in the [[Southern United States]], to anyone who lives north of the [[Mason-Dixon Line]]).<ref>See [[Yankee]] main article.</ref> Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn."; the official [[United States postal abbreviations|postal abbreviation]] is CT.
* Connecticut is a battleground between fans of the [[Wikipedia:New York Yankees|New York Yankees]], [[Wikipedia:Boston Red Sox|Boston Red Sox]], and [[Wikipedia:New York Mets|New York Mets]][http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/18/sports/baseball/18fans.html?ei=5088&en=6f3f651e40bd2179&ex=1313553600&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&pagewanted=print]
 
   
  +
[[Commemorative stamp]]s issued by the [[United States Postal Service]] with Connecticut themes include [[Nathan Hale]], [[Eugene O'Neill]], [[Josiah Willard Gibbs]], [[Noah Webster]], [[Eli Whitney]], the [[whaling]] [[ship]] the [[Charles W. Morgan (ship)|Charles W. Morgan]] which is docked in [[Mystic Seaport]], and a [[decoy]] of a broadbill [[duck]].
*In 1876, Hartford had a franchise in baseball's [[Wikipedia:National League|National League]] known as the [[Wikipedia:Hartford Dark Blues|Hartford Dark Blues]].
 
   
  +
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto"
*In 1926, Hartford had a franchise in the [[Wikipedia:National Football League|National Football League]] known as the [[Wikipedia:Hartford Blues|Hartford Blues]].
 
  +
|+ Connecticut state insignia and historical figures<ref name=SOTS/><sup> except where noted</sup>
  +
|-
  +
|State hero || [[Nathan Hale]]
  +
|-
  +
|State heroine || [[Prudence Crandall]]
  +
|-
  +
|State composer || [[Charles Edward Ives]]
  +
|-
  +
|State statues in [[National Statuary Hall Collection|Statuary Hall]] || [[Roger Sherman]] and [[Jonathan Trumbull]]<ref>See [[National Statuary Hall Collection#Collection|National Statuary Hall Collection]]</ref>
  +
|-
  +
<!-- STATE PEOPLE, HONORARY POSTS-->
  +
|[[State poet laureate]] || [[John Hollander]]
  +
|-
  +
|[[Connecticut State Troubadour]] || Lara Herscovitch<ref>[http://www.ct.gov/cct/cwp/view.asp?a=2162&q=293748&cctNav=%7C43587%7C Connecticut State Troubadour]; CT Commission on Culture & Tourism Arts Division website. Retrieved January 4, 2007.</ref>
  +
|-
  +
|State composer laureate || [[Jacob Druckman]]
  +
|}
   
  +
==Famous residents==
*From 1975 to 1995, the [[Wikipedia:Boston Celtics|Boston Celtics]] of the [[Wikipedia:National Basketball Association|National Basketball Association]] played a number of home games at the [[Wikipedia:Hartford Civic Center|Hartford Civic Center]].
 
  +
{{Main|List of people from Connecticut}}
   
  +
* [[George Walker Bush]], the forty-third [[President of the United States]], was born in Connecticut. He is a member of the [[Bush political family]], with roots in the state extending three generations.
*Since 1952, a [[Wikipedia:PGA Tour|PGA Tour]] golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area. Originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open," the event is now know as the [[Wikipedia:Travelers Championship|Travelers Championship]].
 
   
  +
* American author [[Mark Twain]] resided in his innovative [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] home from 1871 until 1891, during which time he published ''The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'' and '' The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn''. He lived in [[Redding, Connecticut|Redding]] from 1908 until his death in 1910.<ref>[http://www.marktwainhouse.org/theman/timeline.shtml]{{dead link|date=June 2011}}.</ref>
The Pilot Pen Tennis Tournament is held annually at the Connecticut Tennis Center at Yale University. It is one of the few dual-sex tournaments in professional tennis and is the warm-up tournament to the US Open, played the following week in Queens, New York. The court speed and weather conditions are identical to those at the US Open.{{Fact|date=May 2007}}
 
   
  +
* [[Noah Webster]] was born in Hartford in an area that is now part of [[West Hartford]] and was the author of the "Blue Backed Speller," now known as Webster's Dictionary. The Speller was used to teach spelling to five generations of Americans.
The [[Wikipedia:Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference (CIAC)|Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference]] is the state's sanctioning body for high school sports. [[Wikipedia:Xavier High School (Middletown, CT)|Xavier High School]] claimed the 2005 Class LL football championship. Other state champions in football include Staples (in Westport), Greenwich High School (Greenwich, CT) 2006 state LL champions, Branford, Daniel Hand (in Madison), Woodland Regional (in Beacon Falls), East Lyme High School (in East Lyme), Hyde Leadership (in Hamden), Southington High School (in Southington).
 
   
  +
* Many music stars, radio and television personalities, and athletes have made temporary homes in the wealthy suburbs of [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]]. Singer [[Gene Pitney]] was born in Hartford and grew up in [[Rockville, Connecticut|Rockville]]. Actor [[Dylan McDermott]] was born and raised in Waterbury. [[Meg Ryan]] lived in [[Bethel, Connecticut|Bethel]] while growing up. Animator and creator of [[Family Guy]],[[Seth MacFarlane]] was born in [[Kent, Connecticut]]
==Famous residents==
 
{{main|List of famous residents of Connecticut}}
 
   
  +
* Other notable figures from the state span American political and cultural history, including [[Roger Sherman]], [[Benedict Arnold]], [[Nathan Hale]], [[Eli Whitney, Jr.|Eli Whitney]], [[John Brown (abolitionist)|John Brown]], [[Prudence Crandall]], [[P. T. Barnum]], [[Harriet Beecher Stowe]], [[Florence Griswold]], [[Charles Ives]], [[Wallace Stevens]], [[Eugene O'Neill]], [[Katharine Hepburn]], [[Andy Rooney]], [[Joanne Woodward]], [[Mo Vaughn]], [[Ralph Nader]], [[Jacques Pépin]], [[Christopher Walken]], [[Phil Donahue]], [[Marlo Thomas]], [[Mia Farrow]], [[Jane Curtin]], [[Igor Sikorsky]], [[Charles Smith (basketball, born 1965)|Charles Smith]], [[Patti LuPone]], [[Meryl Streep]], [[Michael Bolton]], [[50 Cent]], [[William F. Buckley, Jr.]], [[James Blake]], [[John Mayer]] and [[Glenn Beck]].
[[Wikipedia:George Walker Bush|George Walker Bush]], the current President of the United States, was born in Connecticut. He is a member of the [[Wikipedia:Bush political family|Bush political family]], with roots in the state extending three generations. Other notable figures from the state span American political and cultural history, including [[Wikipedia:Ralph Nader|Ralph Nader]], [[Wikipedia:Eli Whitney|Eli Whitney]], [[Wikipedia:Benedict Arnold|Benedict Arnold]], [[Wikipedia:Nathan Hale|Nathan Hale]], [[Wikipedia:Harriet Beecher Stowe|Harriet Beecher Stowe]], [[Wikipedia:Mark Twain|Mark Twain]], [[Wikipedia:John Brown (abolitionist)|John Brown]], [[Wikipedia:Eugene O'Neill|Eugene O'Neill]], [[Wikipedia:Charles Ives|Charles Ives]] and [[Wikipedia:Katharine Hepburn|Katharine Hepburn]], and [[Wikipedia:Roger Sherman|Roger Sherman]]. The state is home to many actors, entertainers and businesspeople.
 
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
  +
{{Portal box|North America|United States|Connecticut}}
*[[Wikipedia:Connecticut census statistical areas|Connecticut census statistical areas]]
 
  +
{{Main|Outline of Connecticut|Index of Connecticut-related articles}}
*[[Wikipedia:Connecticut State Police|Connecticut State Police]]
 
  +
{{Clear}}
*[[Wikipedia:Connecticut State Troubadour|Connecticut State Troubadour]]
 
*[[Wikipedia:List of television shows set in Connecticut|List of television shows set in Connecticut]]
 
*[[Wikipedia:Scouting in Connecticut|Scouting in Connecticut]]
 
   
==References ==
+
==References==
  +
{{Reflist|colwidth=30em}}
{{reflist|2}}
 
  +
  +
==External links==
  +
{{Sister project links|Connecticut}}
  +
{{osmrelation|165794}}
  +
;Government
  +
* [http://www.ct.gov/ State of Connecticut] – Official state website
  +
* [http://wikis.ala.org/godort/index.php/Connecticut Connecticut State Databases] – Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Connecticut state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association.
  +
* [http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/cwp/view.asp?a=3188&q=392636&SOTSNav_GID=1849 Connecticut State Register & Manual] – updated annually
  +
* [http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=257266 Directory of Web sites of Connecticut towns and cities]
  +
* [http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=CT Energy Data & Statistics for Connecticut- From the U.S. Department of Energy]
  +
* [http://www2.census.gov/census_2000/datasets/demographic_profile/Connecticut/2kh09.pdf 2000 Census of Population and Housing for Connecticut], [[U.S. Census Bureau]]
  +
  +
;General
  +
*{{Ballotpedia|Connecticut|Connecticut}}
  +
*{{Judgepedia|Connecticut|Connecticut}}
  +
*{{Sunshine|Connecticut|Connecticut}}
  +
*{{dmoz|Regional/North_America/United_States/Connecticut}}
  +
  +
;Tourism
  +
* {{Wikitravel}}
  +
* [http://www.ctvisit.com/ CTVisit.com] – Official state tourism website
  +
  +
;History
  +
* [http://www.chs.org/ Connecticut Historical Society]
  +
* [http://www.ctgenealogy.com/ Connecticut Society of Genealogists (Est. 1968)]
  +
* [http://www.ers.usda.gov/StateFacts/CT.htm Connecticut State Facts]
  +
* [http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/09000.html U.S. Census Bureau]
  +
* [http://www.usgs.gov/state/state.asp?State=CT USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Connecticut]
  +
* [http://www.hartfordradiohistory.com/ Connecticut Broadcasting History]
  +
* [http://www.ctradiohistory.org/ Connecticut Radio History]
  +
  +
;Civic and business organizations
  +
* [http://www.cbia.com/ Connecticut Business & Industry Association]
  +
* [http://www.ctjaycees.org/ Connecticut Junior Chamber (Jaycees)]
  +
* [http://www.usnewspapers.org/state/connecticut Connecticut Newspapers]
  +
* [http://www.ctbhof.com/ The Connecticut Business Hall Of Fame]
  +
* [http://www.smallbusinessesforhealthcarereform.org/ Small Businesses for Health Care Reform]
  +
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==Related information==<!--per [[wp:NAVHEAD]]-->
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{{Geographic location
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| Northwest =
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| North = {{flag|Vermont}}<br>{{flag|Massachusetts}}
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| Northeast = {{flag|New Hampshire}}
  +
| West = {{flag|New York}}
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| Centre = '' Connecticut'': [[Outline of Connecticut|Outline]] • [[Index of Connecticut-related articles|Index]]
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| East = {{flag|Rhode Island}}
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| Southwest = {{flag|New York City}}<br>{{flag|New Jersey}}
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| South = [[Long Island Sound]]<br>[[Long Island]]
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| Southeast = [[Atlantic Ocean]]
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}}
   
== External links ==
 
{{sisterlinks|Connecticut}}
 
===Government===
 
*[http://www.ct.gov/ State of Connecticut] - Official state website
 
*[http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/regman.htm Connecticut State Register & Manual] - updated annually
 
*[http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=257266 Directory of Web sites of Connecticut towns and cities]
 
===Tourism===
 
*[http://www.ctvisit.com/ CTVisit.com] - Official state tourism website
 
*{{wikitravel}}
 
===History===
 
*[http://www.ctgenealogy.com/ www.ctgenealogy.com] Connecticut Society of Genealogists (Est. 1968)
 
*[http://www.chs.org/ Connecticut Historical Society]
 
*[http://www.usgs.gov/state/state.asp?State=CT USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Connecticut]
 
*[http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/09000.html U.S. Census Bureau]
 
*[http://www.ers.usda.gov/StateFacts/CT.htm Connecticut State Facts]
 
===Civic and business organizations===
 
*[http://www.ctjaycees.org Connecticut Junior Chamber (Jaycees)]
 
*[http://www.usnewspapers.org/state/connecticut Connecticut Newspapers]
 
*[http://www.cbia.com/ Connecticut Business & Industry Association]
 
*[http://www.ctbhof.com/ The Connecticut Business Hall Of Fame]
 
<br clear=all/>
 
 
{{Connecticut|expanded}}
 
{{Connecticut|expanded}}
{{United States}}
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{{New England}}
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{{USPoliticalDivisions}}
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{{13colonies}}
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{{Colonial Colleges}}
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{{succession
 
{{succession
| preceded = [[Wikipedia:Georgia, U.S.|Georgia]]
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| preceded = [[Georgia, U.S.|Georgia]]
| office = [[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by date of statehood|List of U.S. states by date of statehood]]
+
| office = [[List of U.S. states by date of statehood]]
| years = Ratified [[Wikipedia:Constitution of the United States of America|Constitution]] on [[January 9]], [[1788]] (5th)
+
| years = Ratified [[Constitution of the United States of America|Constitution]] on January 9, 1788 (5th)
| succeeded = [[Wikipedia:Massachusetts|Massachusetts]]
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| succeeded = [[Massachusetts]]
 
}}
 
}}
   
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{{United States topics}}
   
[[Category:Connecticut|*]]
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[[Category:Connecticut]]
 
[[Category:States of the United States]]
 
[[Category:States of the United States]]
 
[[Category:New England]]
 
[[Category:New England]]
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[[Category:Northeastern United States]]
 
[[Category:Former British colonies]]
 
[[Category:Former British colonies]]
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<noinclude><small>{{usedwp|Connecticut}}</small></noinclude>
 
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Revision as of 00:18, 21 June 2011

State of Connecticut
Flag of Connecticut State seal of Connecticut
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Constitution State
The Nutmeg State
The Provisions State
The Land of Steady Habits[1][2]
Motto(s): Qui transtulit sustinet.[1] (Latin)
Map of the United States with Connecticut highlighted
Official language(s) None
Demonym Connecticuter,[3] Nutmegger[4]
Capital Hartford
Largest city Bridgeport[5]
Largest metro area Greater Hartford[6]
Area  Ranked 48th in the U.S.
 - Total 5,543 sq mi
(14,357 km2)
 - Width 70 miles (113 km)
 - Length 110 miles (177 km)
 - % water 12.6
 - Latitude 40°58′ N to 42°03′ N
 - Longitude 71°47′ W to 73°44′ W
Population  Ranked 29th in the U.S.
 - Total (2010) 3,574,097[7]
 - Density 702.9/sq mi  (271.40/km2)
Ranked 4th in the U.S.
 - Median household income  $68,595 (3rd)
Elevation  
 - Highest point South slope of Mount Frissell[8]
Note: The summit of Mount Frissell
is in Massachusetts

2,380 ft (726 m)
 - Mean 500 ft  (152 m)
 - Lowest point Long Island Sound[8]
sea level
Admission to Union  January 9, 1788 (5th)
Governor Dannel Malloy (D)
Lieutenant Governor Nancy Wyman (D)
Legislature General Assembly
 - Upper house Senate
 - Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Joe Lieberman (ID)
Richard Blumenthal (D)
U.S. House delegation 5 Democrats (list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations CT Conn. US-CT
Website ct.gov

Connecticut (Listeni /kəˈnɛtɪkət/)[9] is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, the state of New York to the west, and by the Long Island Sound to the south.

Named for the Connecticut River, the major U.S. river that approximately bisects the state, Connecticut's capital city is Hartford. The Knowledge Corridor surrounding Hartford and Springfield, Massachusetts, the latter of which lies only 5 miles north of the Connecticut state line, constitute New England's second most populous metropolitan region (with approximately 1.8 million residents and 110,000 university students.) [10] Southwestern Connecticut is considered part of the New York metropolitan area; three of Connecticut's eight counties are in the New York City combined statistical area, commonly called the Tri-State area. Connecticut's center of population is in Cheshire, New Haven County.[11]

Connecticut is the 29th most populous state, with 3.5 million residents, and is ranked 48th in size by area, making it the 4th most densely populated state. Called the Constitution State, Nutmeg State, and "The Land of Steady Habits",[1] Connecticut was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States.

Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutch and established a small, short-lived settlement in present-day Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut rivers, called Huys de Goede Hoop. Initially, half of Connecticut was a part of the Dutch colony, New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware rivers.

The first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English. Thomas Hooker led a band of followers overland from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded what would become the Connecticut Colony; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the Saybrook Colony and the New Haven Colony. Both the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in North America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter, making Connecticut a crown colony. This colony was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution.

The Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along the Long Island Sound have given the state a strong maritime tradition, which continues today. Connecticut's other traditional industry is financial services; for example, insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield county. As of the 2010 Census, Connecticut features the highest per capita income, Human Development Index (0.962), and median household income in the United States.[12][13][14] Although Connecticut is a wealthy state by most measures, the income gap between its urban and suburban areas is striking, with several of Connecticut's cities ranking among the nation's poorest and most dangerous.[15][16]

Geography

New Haven

New London

Hartford

Stamford

Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York State, on the north by Massachusetts, and on the east by Rhode Island. The state capital is Hartford, and other major cities (by population) include Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford, Waterbury, Norwalk, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut.

Bear Mountain, highest peak in Connecticut.

The highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts.[17]

The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound. The state's most populous metropolitan region, the Knowledge Corridor, lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's relatively small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape; for example, in the northwestern Litchfield Hills, it features rolling mountains and horse farms, whereas in the southeastern New London County, it features beaches and maritime activities.

Although Connecticut has a long maritime history, and a reputation based on that history, Connecticut has no direct access to the sea. The jurisdiction of New York actually extends east at Fishers Island, where New York shares a sea border with Rhode Island dividing Narragansett Bay. Although Connecticut has easy access to the Atlantic, between Long Island Sound and Block Island Sound, Connecticut has no direct ocean coast.

Highest point in Connecticut on slope of Mount Frissell, as seen from Bear Mountain.

Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London, then northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns center around a "green", such as the Litchfield Green, Simsbury Green, Lebanon Green (the largest in the state), and Wethersfield Green (the oldest in the state). Near the green typically stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or "inne", several colonial houses, and so on, establishing a scenic historic appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism.

Connecticut consists of temperate broadleaf and mixed forests. Northeastern coastal forests of oaks, hickories, and maple cover much of the state.[18] In the northwest, these give way to New England-Acadian forests of the Taconic Mountains.[18]

The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the distinctive Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5 mile (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut. The actual origin of this anomaly is clearly established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which was finally concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick, (whose residents sought to leave Massachusetts), was split in half.[19][20]

The southwestern border of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State, is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, Stamford, New Canaan, Darien and part of Norwalk. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating with New York giving up its claim to the area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield to the Massachusetts border as well as undisputed claim to Rye, New York.[21]

Areas maintained by the National Park Service include: Appalachian National Scenic Trail; Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor; and Weir Farm National Historic Site.[22]

The Scoville Memorial Libraries collection began in 1771, when Richard Smith, owner of a local blast furnace, used community contributions to buy 200 books in London. Patrons could borrow and return books on the third Monday of every third month. Fees were collected for damages, the most common being "greasing" by wax dripped from the candles by which the patrons read.

Climate

Interior portions of Connecticut have a humid continental climate, while other parts, especially the Connecticut shoreline (southern four counties), have a humid subtropical climate with seasonal extremes tempered by proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. The city of Bridgeport (on Long Island Sound), like most other areas in metropolitan New York, has a humid subtropical climate under the Koppen Climate Classification system. Hartford (35 miles inland) has a humid continental climate. Consistent with its coastal reputation, Connecticut is a moderately sunny state, averaging between 2,400 and 2,800 hours of sunshine annually.[23]

Winters are generally considered to be cold, with average temperatures ranging from 31 °F (−1 °C) in the maritime influenced southeast to 23 °F (−5 °C) in the northwest in January. The average yearly snowfall is about 25–100" (64–254 cm) across the state, with higher totals in the northwest. Spring has variable temperatures with frequent rainfall. Summer is hot and humid throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81 °F (27 °C) and 87 °F (31 °C) in Windsor Locks. Fall months are mild and bring colorful foliage across the state in October and November. During hurricane season, tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the summer, occurring on average 30 times annually. These storms can be severe, and the state usually averages one tornado per year.[24] Connecticut's warmest temperature is 106 °F (41 °C) which occurred in Danbury on July 15, 1995; the coldest temperature is −32 °F (−35.6 °C) which occurred in Falls Village on February 16, 1943 and Coventry on January 22, 1961.[25]

Monthly Normal High and Median Temperatures for Various Connecticut Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Bridgeport 37/23 39/25 47/32 57/41 67/51 76/60 82/66 81/65 74/58 63/46 53/38 42/28
Hartford 34/17 38/20 48/28 60/38 72/48 80/57 85/62 82/61 74/52 63/41 51/33 39/23
[26]

History

A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies.

The name of the state is an Anglicized version of the Algonquian word "quinatucquet", meaning "upon the long river".[27] The Connecticut region was inhabited by the Mohegan tribe prior to European colonization. The first European explorer in Connecticut was the Dutch explorer Adriaen Block. After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (then known by the Dutch as Versche Rivier—" Fresh River") and built a fort at Dutch Point in what is present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" (Dutch: Huis van Hoop).

John Winthrop, then of Massachusetts, received permission to create a new colony at Old Saybrook at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635. This was the first of three distinct colonies that later would be combined to make up Connecticut. Saybrook Colony was a direct challenge to Dutch claims. The colony was not more than a small outpost and never matured. In 1644, the Saybrook Colony merged itself into the Connecticut Colony.

The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled at Windsor, and then at Wethersfield the following year.[28] However, the main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. The settlers were Puritans from Massachusetts, led by Thomas Hooker. Hooker had been prominent in England and was a professor of theology at Cambridge. He was also an important political writer and made a significant contribution to Constitutional theory. He broke with the political leadership in Massachusetts, and, just as Roger Williams created a new polity in Rhode Island, Hooker and his cohort did the same and established the Connecticut Colony at Hartford in 1636. This was the second of the three colonies.

The third colony was founded in March 1638. New Haven Colony (originally known as the Quinnipiack Colony) was established by John Davenport, Theophilus Eaton, and others at New Haven. The New Haven Colony had its own constitution, "The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony", which was signed on June 4, 1639.

Because the Dutch were outnumbered by the flood of English settlers from Massachusetts, they left their fort in 1654.

Neither the establishment of the Connecticut Colony or the Quinnipiack Colony was carried out with the sanction of the English Crown, and they were independent political entities. They naturally were presumptively English, but in a legal sense, they were only secessionist outposts of Massachusetts Bay. In 1662, Winthrop took advantage of this void in political affairs and obtained in England the charter by which the colonies of Connecticut and Quinnipiack were united. Although Winthrop's charter favored the Connecticut colony, New Haven remained a seat of government with Hartford until after the American Revolution.

Winthrop was very politically astute and secured the charter from the newly restored Charles II, who granted the most liberal political terms.

Historically important colonial settlements included:

Windsor (1633)
Wethersfield (1634)
Saybrook (1635)
Hartford (1636)
New Haven (1638)
Fairfield (1639)
Guilford (1639)
Milford (1639)
Stratford (1639)
Farmington (1640)
Stamford (1641)
New London (1646)

Its first constitution, the "Fundamental Orders", was adopted on January 14, 1639, while its current constitution, the third for Connecticut, was adopted in 1965. Connecticut is the fifth of the original 13 states. The original constitutions influenced the US Constitution as one of the leading authors was Roger Sherman of New Haven.

The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. According to the Hartford Treaty with the Dutch, signed on September 19, 1650, but never ratified by the British, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from Greenwich Bay for a distance of 20 miles[29][30] "provided the said line come not within 10 miles (16 km) [16 km] of Hudson River. This agreement was observed by both sides until war erupted between England and The Netherlands in 1652. No other limits were found. Conflict over uncertain colonial limits continued until the Duke of York captured New Netherland in 1664."[29][30] On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea", i.e. the Pacific Ocean.[31][32] Most colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut took its grant seriously, and established a ninth county between the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers, named Westmoreland County. This resulted in the brief Pennamite Wars with Pennsylvania.

Connecticut's lands also extended across northern Ohio, called the Western Reserve lands. The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio. Agreements with Pennsylvania and New York extinguished the land claims by Connecticut within its neighbors, creating the Connecticut Panhandle. The Western Reserve lands were relinquished to the federal government, which brought the state to its present boundaries other than minor adjustments with Massachusetts.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1790 237,946
1800 251,002 5.5%
1810 261,942 4.4%
1820 275,248 5.1%
1830 297,675 8.1%
1840 309,978 4.1%
1850 370,792 19.6%
1860 460,147 24.1%
1870 537,454 16.8%
1880 622,700 15.9%
1890 746,258 19.8%
1900 908,420 21.7%
1910 1,114,756 22.7%
1920 1,380,631 23.9%
1930 1,606,903 16.4%
1940 1,709,242 6.4%
1950 2,007,280 17.4%
1960 2,535,234 26.3%
1970 3,031,709 19.6%
1980 3,107,576 2.5%
1990 3,287,116 5.8%
2000 3,405,565 3.6%
2010 3,574,097 4.9%
Sources:[33][34][35]

Connecticut Population Density Map.

As of 2005, Connecticut has an estimated population of 3,510,297,[36] which is an increase of 11,331, or 0.3%, from the prior year and an increase of 104,695, or 3.1%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moves from the 29th most populous state to 30th.[36]

6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.

In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut was classified as "rural". The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, it was only 12.3%. Most of western and southern Connecticut (particularly the Gold Coast) is strongly associated with New York City; this area is the most affluent and populous region of the state. Eastern Connecticut is more culturally influenced by the greater New England area, including the cities of Boston and Providence.

The center of population of Connecticut is located in the town of Cheshire.[37]

Most populated cities

Race, ancestry, and language

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Connecticut had a population of 3,574,097. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 77.6% White (71.2% Non-Hispanic White Alone), 10.1% Black or African American, 0.3% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.8% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 5.6% from Some Other Race, and 2.6% from Two or More Races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 13.4% of the population. [38]

As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born, and 10% of the foreign-born in the state were illegal aliens (about 1.1% of the population). In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.

As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke English at home and 8.42% spoke Spanish, followed by Italian at 1.59%, French at 1.31% and Polish at 1.20%.[39]

The largest ancestry groups are:[40]

Connecticut has large Italian American, Irish American and English American populations, as well as German American and Portuguese American populations, second highest percentage of any state, behind Rhode Island (19.3%). Italian is the largest ancestry group in five of the state's counties, while the Irish are the largest group in Tolland county, French Canadians the largest group in Windham county. African Americans and Hispanics (mostly Puerto Ricans) are numerous in the urban areas of the state. Like Ohio and New York, Connecticut is also known for its relatively large Hungarian American population, the majority of which live in and around Fairfield, Stamford, Naugatuck and Bridgeport. Connecticut also has a sizable Polish American population, with New Britain containing the largest Polish American population in the state.

More recent immigrant populations include those from India, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Mexico, Brazil, Guatemala, Panama, Jamaica, Haiti, Cape Verde and former Soviet countries.

Religion

A 2001 survey of Connecticut residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations:[41]

Jewish congregations had 108,280 (3.2%) members in 2000;[42] The Jewish population is concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between Greenwich and New Haven, in Greater New Haven and in Greater Hartford, especially the suburb of West Hartford. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the largest Christian denominations, by number of adherents, in 2000 were: the Catholic Church, with 1,372,562; the United Church of Christ, with 124,770; and the Episcopal Church, with 73,550.[42]

Recent immigration has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low.

Connecticut is also home to New England's largest Protestant Church: The First Cathedral in Bloomfield, Connecticut located in Hartford County.

Hartford is seat to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hartford, which is sovereign over the Diocese of Bridgeport and the Diocese of Norwich.}

Economy

Connecticut welcome sign being updated as Rell takes office on July 1, 2004.

File:Welcome Connecticut.jpg

Connecticut state welcome sign. Entering Enfield, CT.

File:Merritt Parkway.jpg

Entering the Merritt Parkway from New York. Entering Greenwich, CT.

Connecticut quarter, reverse side, 1999.jpg

The total gross state product for 2006 was $204 billion. The per capita income for 2007 was $54,117, ranking first among the states.[43] There is, however, a great disparity in incomes throughout the state; although New Canaan has one of the highest per capita incomes in America, Hartford is one of the ten cities with the lowest per capita incomes in America. As with Bridgeport, New Haven and other cities in the state, Hartford is surrounded by wealthier suburbs.

New Canaan is the wealthiest town in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $85,459. Darien, Greenwich, Weston, Westport and Wilton also have per capita incomes over $65,000. Hartford is the poorest municipality in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 in 2000.[44] There are other lower-income and blue-collar towns, mostly parts of towns, in the eastern part of the State.

Taxation

Prior to 1991, Connecticut had an investment-only income tax system. Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at 13%, the highest rate in the U.S., with no deductions allowed for costs of producing the investment income, such as interest on borrowing.

In 1991, under Governor Lowell P. Weicker, Jr., an Independent, the system was changed to one in which the taxes on employment income and investment income were equalized at a maximum rate of 4%. Since then, Greenwich, Connecticut, has become the headquarters for a large number of America's largest hedge funds. As of 2009, the income tax rates on Connecticut individuals are divided into three tax brackets of 3%, 5% and 6.5%.[45] All wages of Connecticut residents are subject to the state's income tax, even if earned outside the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Since New York and Massachusetts have higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents that work in those states have no Connecticut income tax withheld. Connecticut permits a credit for taxes paid to other jurisdictions, but since residents who work in other states are still subject to Connecticut income taxation, they may owe taxes if the jurisdictional credit does not fully offset the Connecticut tax amount.

Connecticut levies a 6% state sales tax on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods. Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by statute. Specifically, clothing under $50 is excluded from sales tax. There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. During the summer, there is one week during which sales tax on certain items and quantities of clothing is not imposed in order to assist those with children returning to school.

All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of fair market value. Another 20% of the value may be taxed by the local government though. The maximum property tax credit is $500 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward.[45] Connecticut does not levy an intangible personal property tax. According to the Tax Foundation, the 2010 Census data shows Connecticut residents paying the 2nd highest average property taxes in the nation with only New Jersey ahead of them.[46]

Real estate

Homes in Connecticut vary widely with a median price of approximately $226,000. By contrast, the median value for a home in Fairfield County, for example, is about $370,000.[47][48] Connecticut has the most multi-million dollar homes in the Northeast, and the second most in the nation after California, with 3.3% of homes in Connecticut priced over $1 million in 2003.[49]

Industries

The agricultural produce of the state includes nursery stock; eggs; clams and lobster (shellfish); dairy products; cattle; and tobacco. Its industrial output includes transportation equipment, especially helicopters, aircraft parts, and nuclear submarines; heavy industrial machinery and electrical equipment; military weaponry; fabricated metal products; chemical and pharmaceutical products; and scientific instruments.

Due to the prominence of the aircraft industry in the state, Connecticut has an official state aircraft, the F4U Corsair, and an official Connecticut Aviation Pioneer, Igor Sikorsky. The state officially recognizes aircraft designer Gustav Whitehead as "Father of Connecticut Aviation" for his research into powered flight in Bridgeport, Connecticut in 1901, two years before the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.[50] Governor John Dempsey also declared August 15 to be "Gustave Whitehead Day".[51]

A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006, demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides $9 billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7 billion in state and local revenue.[52]

As of November 2010, the state's unemployment rate is 9%.[53]

Transportation

Map of Connecticut showing major highways.

Roads

The Interstate highways in the state are I-95 (the Connecticut Turnpike) running southwest to northeast along the coast, I-84 running southwest to northeast in the center of the state, I-91 running north to south in the center of the state, and I-395 running north to south near the eastern border of the state. The other major highways in Connecticut are the Merritt Parkway and Wilbur Cross Parkway, which together form State Route 15, running from the Hutchinson River Parkway in New York State parallel to I-95 before turning north of New Haven and running parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in Berlin, Connecticut. Route 15 and I-95 were originally toll roads; they relied on a system of toll plazas at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988.[54] Other major arteries in the state include U.S. Route 7 in the west running parallel to the NY border, State Route 8 farther east near the industrial city of Waterbury and running north-south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with U.S. 7, and State Route 9 in the east. See List of State Routes in Connecticut for an overview of the state's highway system.

Between New Haven and the New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Many people now drive longer distances to work in the New York City area. This strains the three lanes of traffic capacity, resulting in lengthy rush hour delays. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway. The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and ride-sharing.[55]

Connecticut also has a very active bicycling community, with one of the highest rates of bicycling ownership and use in the United States. New Haven's cycling community, organized in a local advocacy group called ElmCityCycling, is particularly active. According to the U.S. Census 2006 American Community Survey, New Haven has the highest percentage of commuters who bicycle to work of any major metropolitan center on the East Coast.

Public transportation

A Metro-North Railroad New Haven Line train at Stamford.

Rail

Southwestern Connecticut is served by MTA's Metro-North Railroad New Haven Line, providing commuter service to New York City and New Haven, with branches servicing New Canaan, Danbury, and Waterbury. Connecticut lies along Amtrak's Northeast Corridor which features frequent Northeast Regional and Acela Express service. Towns between New Haven and New London are also served by the Shore Line East commuter line. Operation of commuter trains from New Haven to Springfield on Amtrak's New Haven-Springfield Line is under consideration.[56][57] Amtrak also operates a shuttle service between New Haven and Springfield, Massachusetts, servicing Hartford and other towns on the corridor.

Bus

Statewide bus service is supplied by Connecticut Transit, owned by the Connecticut Department of Transportation, with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. A three-year construction project to build a BRT busway from New Britain to Hartford began in August 2009.[58][59]

Air

Bradley International Airport is located in Windsor Locks, 15 miles (24 km) north of Hartford. Regional air service is provided at Tweed New Haven Regional Airport. Larger civil airports include Danbury Municipal Airport and Waterbury-Oxford Airport in western Connecticut. Sikorsky Memorial Airport is located in Stratford and mostly services cargo, helicopter and private aviation. The Westchester County Airport in Harrison, New York serves much of southwestern Connecticut.

Law and government

The Connecticut State Capitol in downtown Hartford.

Hartford has been the sole capital of Connecticut since 1875. Before then, New Haven and Hartford alternated as capitals.[60]

Constitutional history

Connecticut is known as the "Constitution State". While the origin on this title is uncertain, the nickname is assumed to refer to the Fundamental Orders of 1638–39. These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal government written by a representative body in Connecticut. The government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of Connecticut Constitutional History. After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut was granted governmental authority by King Charles II of England through the Connecticut Charter of 1662.

Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority. A constitution similar to the modern U.S. Constitution was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965. The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications. Another possible source of the nickname "constitution state" comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, during which Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth helped to orchestrate what became known as the Connecticut Compromise, or the Great Compromise. This plan combined the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan to form a bicameral legislature, a form copied by almost every state constitution since the adoption of the federal constitution.

Executive

The governor heads the executive branch. Dan Malloy is the current Governor and Nancy Wyman it is the Lieutenant Governor, both are Democrats. Malloy, the former mayor of Stamford, won the 2010 general election for Governor, and was sworn in on January 5, 2011. From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. Connecticut was the first state in the United States to elect a woman as governor without electing her husband first, Ella Grasso in 1974.

There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, Developmental Services, Education, Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Information Technology, Insurance, Labor, Mental Health and Addiction Services, Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Safety, Public Utility Control, Public Works, Revenue Services, Social Services, Transportation, and Veterans Affairs. In addition to these departments, there are other independent bureaus, offices and commissions.[61]

In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, there are four other executive officers named in the state constitution that are elected directly by voters: Secretary of the State, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General. All executive officers are elected to four year terms.[60]

Legislative

The legislature is the General Assembly. The General Assembly is a bicameral body consisting of an upper body, the State Senate (36 senators); and a lower body, the House of Representatives (151 representatives).[60] Bills must pass each house in order to become law. The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Senators and representatives, all of whom must be at least 18 years of age, are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the President pro tempore presides. The Speaker of the House presides over the House; Chris Donovan is the current Speaker of the House of Connecticut.

Connecticut's U.S. senators are Richard Blumenthal (Democrat) and Joseph I. Lieberman (Connecticut for Lieberman, Independent Democrat) who is part of the Democratic Caucus. Connecticut currently has five representatives in the U.S. House, all of whom are Democrats. Connecticut and Vermont remain the only two states with Independent Senators.

Judicial

The highest court of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Connecticut Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. The current Chief Justice is Chase T. Rogers.

In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches.[62] The Appellate Court is a lesser state-wide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states.

Local government

and several lists: List of municipalities of Connecticut by population, List of towns in Connecticut, List of cities in Connecticut, Borough (Connecticut), List of counties in Connecticut

Connecticut has 169 towns, which serve as the fundamental local political subdivision of the state; the entire state is divided into towns.[60] Connecticut shares a local form of government with the rest of New England called the New England town. There are also 21 cities,[60] most of which are coterminous with their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. There are two exceptions: City of Groton, which is a subsection of the Town of Groton and the City of Winsted in the Town of Winchester. There are also nine incorporated boroughs which may provide additional services to a section of town.[60][63] One, Naugatuck, is a consolidated town and borough.

Unlike most other states, Connecticut does not have county government. Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of sheriffs elected in each county.[64] In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the state marshal system, which has districts that follow the old county territories. The judicial system is divided, at the trial court level, into judicial districts which largely follow the old county lines.[65] The eight counties are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as weather reports, and census reporting.

The state is divided into 15 planning regions defined by the state Office of Planning and Management.[66] The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations."[66]

Same-sex marriage

On November 12, 2008, Connecticut became the second state (after Massachusetts) to allow marriages of same-sex couples. Connecticut was the third state to do so, but only the second where the decision was not repealed.

Politics

Presidential elections results[67]
Year Republican Democratic
2008 38.77% 620,210 61.23% 979,316
2004 43.95% 693,826 54.31% 857,488
2000 38.44% 561,094 55.91% 816,015
1996 34.69% 483,109 52.83% 735,740
1992 35.78% 578,313 42.21% 682,318
1988 51.98% 750,241 46.87% 676,584
1984 60.73% 890,877 38.83% 569,597
1980 48.16% 677,210 38.52% 541,732
1976 52.06% 719,261 46.90% 647,895
1972 58.57% 810,763 40.13% 555,498
1968 44.32% 556,721 49.48% 621,561
1964 32.09% 390,996 67.81% 826,269
1960 46.27% 565,813 53.73% 657,055

Currently, Connecticut leans strongly towards the Democratic Party. However, Connecticut has a high percentage of voters who are not registered with a major party. As of 2004, 33.7% of registered voters were registered Democratic, 22.0% were registered Republican, and 44.0% were unaffiliated with any party, with 0.2% registered with a minor party.[68]

Many Connecticut towns show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party. The state's Republican-leaning areas are the rural Litchfield County and adjoining towns in the west of Hartford County, the industrial towns of the Naugatuck River Valley, and some of the affluent Fairfield County towns near the New York border.

The suburban towns of New Canaan and Darien in Fairfield County are considered the most Republican areas in the state. Westport, a wealthy town a few miles to the east, is often considered one of the most loyally-Democratic, liberal towns in Fairfield County. The historically Republican-leaning wealthy town of Wilton voted in the majority for Barack Obama in the 2008 Presidential Election. Norwalk and Stamford, two larger, affluent communities in Fairfield County, have in many elections favored moderate Republicans including former Governor John G. Rowland and former Congressman Chris Shays, however they have favored Democrats in recent US presidential election years, with Shays being defeated by Democrat Jim Himes in the 2008 election.

Waterbury has a Democratic registration edge, but usually favors conservative candidates in both parties. In Danbury unaffiliated voters outnumber voters registered with either major party. Other smaller cities including Meriden, New Britain, Norwich and Middletown favor Democratic candidates.

In July, 2009 the Connecticut legislature overrode a veto by Governor M. Jodi Rell to pass SustiNet, the first significant public-option health care reform legislation in the nation.[69]

As of 2011, Democrats controlled all five federal congressional seats. The remaining Republican, Chris Shays, lost his seat to Democrat Jim Himes in the Congressional Election in 2008. Joseph Lieberman and Richard Blumenthal are Connecticut's U.S. senators. The junior Blumenthal is a Democrat while the senior Lieberman serves as an Independent Democrat caucusing with Senate Democrats after his victory on the Connecticut for Lieberman ballot line in the 2006 general election.

Lieberman's predecessor, Lowell P. Weicker, Jr., was the last Connecticut Republican to serve as Senator. Weicker was known as a liberal Republican. He broke with President Richard Nixon during Watergate and successfully ran for governor in 1990 as an independent, creating A Connecticut Party as his election vehicle. Before Weicker, the last Republican to represent Connecticut in the Senate was Prescott Bush, the father of former President George H.W. Bush and the grandfather of former President George W. Bush. He served from 1953–1963.

Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 27, 2009[70]
Party Active voters Inactive voters Total voters Percentage
  Democratic 751,612 41,322 792,934 36.84%
  Republican 412,746 20,311 433,057 20.12%
  Unaffiliated 853,607 61,286 914,893 42.51%
  Minor parties 10,709 727 11,436 0.53%
Total 2,028,674 123,646 2,152,320 100%

Education

Connecticut is the home of Yale University, established in 1701, one of the most academically renowned and selective universities in the United States.[71] Yale is one of the largest employers in the state, and its research activity has recently spun off dozens of growing biotechnology companies.[72][73]

In addition, Connecticut hosts many other academic institutions, including Trinity College (1823), Wesleyan University (1832), University of Hartford (1877), Post University (1890), Connecticut College (1911), United States Coast Guard Academy (1915) and Quinnipiac University (1929). The University of Connecticut (1881) has been the highest ranked public university in New England from 1998 to 2010, according to U.S. News and World Report.[74]

Connecticut was home to the nation's first law school, Litchfield Law School, which operated from 1773 to 1833 in Litchfield. Hartford Public High School (1638) is the third-oldest secondary school in the nation after the Collegiate School (1628) in Manhattan and the Boston Latin School (1635). The state also has many noted private day schools, and its boarding schools draw students from around the world.

Sports

File:MoheganSunArena.jpg

Mohegan Sun Arena, home of the Connecticut Sun of the WNBA.

Connecticut has been the home to multiple teams in the big four sports leagues, though currently hosts none. Connecticut's longest-tenured and only modern full-time "big four" franchise were the Hartford Whalers of the National Hockey League, who played in Hartford from 1979 to 1997 at the Hartford Civic Center. Their departure to Raleigh, North Carolina, over disputes with the state over the construction of a new arena, caused great controversy and resentment. The former Whalers are now known as the Carolina Hurricanes.

Connecticut has hosted teams from the other big four leagues at various times. The Hartford Dark Blues joined the National League for one season in 1876, becoming the state's first and only major league baseball franchise. In 1926, Hartford had a franchise in the National Football League known as the Hartford Blues. The NFL would return to Connecticut from 1973-1974 when New Haven hosted the New York Giants at Yale Bowl while Giants Stadium was under construction.[75] From 1975 to 1995, the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association played a number of home games at the Hartford Civic Center.

Yale Bowl during "The Game" between Yale and Harvard. The Bowl was also the home of the NFL's New York Giants from 1973-1974.

The Connecticut Sun of the WNBA currently play at the Mohegan Sun Arena in Uncasville. From 1996 to 1998, Connecticut was home to another professional woman's basketball team, American Basketball League franchise the New England Blizzard, who played at the Hartford Civic Center

The UConn Huskies play NCAA Division I sports and are popular in the state. Both the men's basketball and women's basketball teams have won multiple national championships, including in 2004, when UConn became the first school in NCAA Division I history to have its men's and women's basketball programs win the national title in the same year. The UConn Huskies football team has played in the Football Bowl Subdivision since 2002, and has played in four bowl games since. Other Connecticut universities which feature Division I sports teams include Yale University, Quinnipiac University, Fairfield University, Central Connecticut State University, Sacred Heart University, and the University of Hartford. Several United States Coast Guard Academy teams compete in Division I as well.

New Haven biannually hosts "The Game" between Yale and Harvard, the country's second-oldest college football rivalry. Yale alum Walter Camp, deemed the "Father of American Football," helped develop modern football while living in New Haven.[76]

Hartford has hosted two Arena Football League franchises, in the Connecticut Coyotes from 1995–1996 and the New England Sea Wolves from 1999–2000, both playing at the Civic Center. Hartford is currently home to the Hartford Colonials of the United Football League.

Connecticut is a battleground between fans of the New York Yankees, Boston Red Sox, and New York Mets.[77] For the Mets and Red Sox, split allegiances among fans of both teams in the state during the 1986 World Series led to an article in The Boston Globe to coin the phrase "Red Sox Nation."[78]

The state hosts several major sporting events. Since 1952, a PGA Tour golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area. Originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open," the event is now known as the Travelers Championship. The Pilot Pen Tennis tournament is held annually in the Cullman-Heyman Tennis Center at Yale University in New Haven. Lime Rock Park is a motorsport track home of American Le Mans Series, Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series and NASCAR Camping World East Series races.

The Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference (CIAC) is the state's sanctioning body for high school sports.

Current professional sports teams

Club Sport League
Bridgeport Sound Tigers Ice hockey American Hockey League
Connecticut Whale Ice hockey American Hockey League
New Britain Rock Cats Baseball Minor League Baseball (AA)
Connecticut Tigers Baseball Minor League Baseball (A)
Bridgeport Bluefish Baseball Atlantic League
Danbury Westerners Baseball New England Collegiate Baseball League
Torrington Titans Baseball Atlantic Collegiate Baseball League
Connecticut Sun Basketball Women's National Basketball Association
New Haven Warriors Rugby League American National Rugby League
Connecticut Wildcats Rugby League American National Rugby League
Hartford Wanderers Rugby Union New England Rugby Football Union
New Haven Old Black RFC Rugby Union New England Rugby Football Union
Hartford Colonials Football United Football League
Connecticut Yankees Rugby Union Metropolitan New York Rugby Union
New England Rugby Football Union
Nutmeg BMX BMX Racing National Bicycle League
CT RollerGirls Roller derby Women's Flat Track Derby Association

Names and symbols

Connecticut State Symbols
Flag of Connecticut.svg
The Flag of Connecticut.

Animate insignia
Bird(s) American Robin
Fish American shad
Flower(s) Mountain Laurel
Insect European Mantis
Mammal(s) Sperm whale
Tree Charter White oak

Inanimate insignia
Dance Square dance
Fossil Dinosaur tracks
Mineral Garnet
Shell Eastern Oyster
Ship(s) USS Nautilus (SSN-571), Freedom Schooner Amistad
Slogan(s) Full of Surprises
Song(s) Yankee Doodle,
The Nutmeg
Tartan Connecticut State Tartan

Route marker(s)
Connecticut Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of Connecticut
Released in 1999

Lists of United States state insignia

The name "Connecticut" originates from the Mohegan word quonehtacut, meaning "place of long tidal river".[60] Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–1639 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world.[1] Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as "The Nutmeg State".[1] The origins of the nutmeg connection to Connecticut are unknown. It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice). It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers. It is also facetiously said to come from Yankee peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers.[79] George Washington gave Connecticut the title of "The Provisions State"[1] because of the material aid the state rendered to the American Revolutionary War effort. Connecticut is also known as "The Land of Steady Habits".[1]

The Charter Oak.

The USS Nautilus (SSN-571).

According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter". There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "Connecticotian" – Cotton Mather in 1702. "Connecticutensian" – Samuel Peters in 1781. "Nutmegger" is sometimes used,[2] as is "Yankee" (the official State Song is "Yankee Doodle"), though this usually refers someone from the wider New England region (and in the Southern United States, to anyone who lives north of the Mason-Dixon Line).[80] Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn."; the official postal abbreviation is CT.

Commemorative stamps issued by the United States Postal Service with Connecticut themes include Nathan Hale, Eugene O'Neill, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Noah Webster, Eli Whitney, the whaling ship the Charles W. Morgan which is docked in Mystic Seaport, and a decoy of a broadbill duck.

Connecticut state insignia and historical figures[1] except where noted
State hero Nathan Hale
State heroine Prudence Crandall
State composer Charles Edward Ives
State statues in Statuary Hall Roger Sherman and Jonathan Trumbull[81]
State poet laureate John Hollander
Connecticut State Troubadour Lara Herscovitch[82]
State composer laureate Jacob Druckman

Famous residents

  • American author Mark Twain resided in his innovative Hartford home from 1871 until 1891, during which time he published The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. He lived in Redding from 1908 until his death in 1910.[83]
  • Noah Webster was born in Hartford in an area that is now part of West Hartford and was the author of the "Blue Backed Speller," now known as Webster's Dictionary. The Speller was used to teach spelling to five generations of Americans.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "SOTS: Sites, Seals & Symbols". http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/cwp/view.asp?A=3188&QUESTION_ID=392608. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 
  2. ^ a b "Connecticut's Nicknames". Connecticut State Library. http://www.cslib.org/nicknamesCT.htm. 
  3. ^ United States Government Printing Office Style Manual (2000), §5.23, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/stylemanual/index.html
  4. ^ SHG Resources, http://www.shgresources.com/resources/symbols/names/residentnames/
  5. ^ Population Estimates for All Places: 2000 to 2006: Connecticut SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2007-10-16.
  6. ^ State Data from the State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2007-10-16.
  7. ^ "Connecticut QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". United States Census Bureau. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/09000.html. Retrieved June 15, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. 29 April 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved 2006-11-03. 
  9. ^ "Connecticut - Definitions from Dictionary.com". Archived from the original on 2010-11-18. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/connecticut. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 
  10. ^ "Western Mass EDC Knowledge Corridor®". Westernmassedc.com. http://www.westernmassedc.com/Data__Demographics/knowledgecorridor/. Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  11. ^ "State of Connecticut Center of Population - From ngs.noaa.gov". Archived from the original on 2010-11-18. http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/INFO/COP/ct_links.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  12. ^ Ohlemacher, Stephen (29 November 2005). "Highest wages in East, lowest in South". USA Today. Archived from the original on 2010-11-18. http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkvtVNF. Retrieved 2010-04-30. 
  13. ^ "Census 2000". United States Census Bureau. 18 March 2000. Archived from the original on 2010-11-18. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-_box_head_nbr=GCT-P14&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-format=US-9. 
  14. ^ "US slips down development index". BBC. 17 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2010-11-18. http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkxLjnC. 
  15. ^ "Income Gap in Connecticut Is Growing Fastest, Study Finds". The New York Times. 2008-04-09. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/09/nyregion/09income.html. 
  16. ^ http://os.cqpress.com/citycrime/2010/City_crime_rate_2010-2011_hightolow.pdf
  17. ^ "Mount Frissell-South Slope, Connecticut/Massachusetts". Peakbagger.com. http://www.peakbagger.com/peak.aspx?pid=7083. 
  18. ^ a b Olson, D. M, E. Dinerstein, et al (2001). "Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth". BioScience 51 (11): 933–938. DOI:[0933:TEOTWA2.0.CO;2 10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0933:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2]. 
  19. ^ "The Southwick Jog" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2010-04-16. http://www.southwickma.org/Public_Documents/F000102F9/S00476B50-00476B5B.0/The%20Southwick%20Jog.pdf. 
  20. ^ "Connecticut's Southwick Jog". Connecticut State Library. Archived from the original on 2010-11-18. http://www.cslib.org/jog.htm. 
  21. ^ "Connecticut's "Panhandle"". Connecticut State Library. Archived from the original on 2010-11-18. http://www.cslib.org/panhandle.htm. 
  22. ^ "Connecticut". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/state/ct/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  23. ^ "united states annual sunshine map". HowStuffWorks, Inc. http://maps.howstuffworks.com/united-states-annual-sunshine-map.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
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Preceded by
Georgia
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on January 9, 1788 (5th)
Succeeded by
Massachusetts

Coordinates: 41°36′N 72°42′W / 41.6, -72.7


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