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{{US state |
 
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{{Infobox U.S. state
Name = Connecticut |
 
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|Name = Connecticut
Fullname = State of Connecticut |
 
Flag = Flag of Connecticut.svg |
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|Fullname = State of Connecticut
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|Flag = Flag of Connecticut.svg
Seal = Connecticut state seal.png |
 
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|Seal = Seal of Connecticut.svg
Flower = Mountain Laurel<ref name=SOTS>[http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/SectionX/SITESEALSYMB.htm STATE OF CONNECTICUT, Sites ° Seals ° Symbols]; ''Connecticut State Register & Manual''; retrieved on {{wp|December 15}}, {{wp|2006}}</ref>|
 
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|Flaglink = [[Flag of Connecticut|Flag]]
Tree = White Oak<ref name=SOTS/>|
 
Flaglink = {{wp|Flag of Connecticut}} |
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|Map = Connecticut in United States.svg
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|Nickname = The Constitution State (official)<br />The Nutmeg State<br />The Provisions State<br />The Land of Steady Habits<ref name=SOTS/><ref name=cslib/><br /> Corrupticut <ref>http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/28/nyregion/the-nutmeg-state-battles-the-stigma-of-corrupticut.html</ref>
Seallink={{wp|Seal of Connecticut}}|
 
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|Motto = [[Qui transtulit sustinet]].<ref name=SOTS/> ([[Latin]])<br />He who transplanted sustains.
Map = Map_of_USA_CT.svg |
 
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|StateAnthem = [[Yankee Doodle]]
Nickname = The Constitution State, The Nutmeg State<ref name=SOTS/> |
 
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|Former = Connecticut Colony
 
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|Capital = [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]
Motto = {{wp|Qui transtulit sustinet}}<ref name=SOTS/><br /> Latin meaning "He who is transplanted still sustains" |
 
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|LargestMetro = [[Greater Hartford]]<ref name=metrocompare>[http://www.census.gov/compendia/smadb/SMADBmetro.html State Data from the State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006]. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 16, 2007.</ref> |
Capital = {{wp|Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford}} |
 
LargestMetro = {{wp|Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford Metro Area}}<ref name=metrocompare>[http://www.census.gov/compendia/smadb/SMADBmetro.html State Data from the State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006]. United States Census Bureau. Last accessed {{wp|2007-10-16}}.</ref> |
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|LargestCity = [[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]]<ref name = popcompare>[http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls Population Estimates for All Places: 2000 to 2006: Connecticut SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls]. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 16, 2007.</ref>
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|Demonym = Connecticuter,<ref>{{Cite journal | publisher = U.S. Government Printing Office | title = Style Manual | year = 2000 | at = §5.23 | url = http://www.gpoaccess.gov/stylemanual/}}</ref> Connecticutian,<ref>{{cite web|title= connect | work = Merriam-Webster Online|url=http://nws.merriam-webster.com/opendictionary/newword_search.php?word=Connecticutian}}</ref><br />[[Nutmegger]]<ref>{{Cite journal | publisher = SHG Resources | title = Resources | url = http://www.shgresources.com/resources/symbols/names/residentnames/ | contribution = Resident names}}</ref>
LargestCity = {{wp|Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport}}<ref name=popcompare>[http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls Population Estimates for All Places: 2000 to 2006: Connecticut SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls]. United States Census Bureau. Last accessed {{wp|2007-10-16}}.</ref> |
 
Governor = {{wp|M. Jodi Rell}} ({{wp|Republican Party (United States)|R}})|
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|Governor = [[Dannel P. Malloy]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])
Senators = {{wp|Christopher Dodd}} ({{wp|Democratic Party (United States)|D}})<br />{{wp|Joe Lieberman}} ({{wp|Independent Democrat|ID}}) |
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|Lieutenant Governor = [[Nancy Wyman]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])
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|Legislature = [[Connecticut General Assembly|General Assembly]]
PostalAbbreviation = CT. |
 
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|Upperhouse = [[Connecticut Senate|Senate]]
OfficialLang = {{wp|English language|English}} |
 
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|Lowerhouse = [[Connecticut House of Representatives|House of Representatives]]
AreaRank = 48<sup>th</sup> |
 
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|Senators = [[Richard Blumenthal]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])
TotalArea = 14,356|
 
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[[Chris Murphy (politician)|Christopher S. Murphy]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])
TotalAreaUS = 5,543<ref name=pop/>|
 
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|Representative=5 Democrats
LandArea = 12,559 |
 
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|PostalAbbreviation = CT
LandAreaUS = 4,849 |
 
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|OfficialLang = None
WaterArea = 1,809 |
 
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|AreaRank = 48th
WaterAreaUS = 698 |
 
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|TotalArea = 14,357
PCWater = 12.6 |
 
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|TotalAreaUS = 5,543
PopRank = 29<sup>th</sup> |
 
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|LandArea = 12,559
2004Pop = 3,503,604<ref name=pop>[http://factfinder.census.gov/bf/_lang=en_vt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTPH1R_US9S_geo_id=01000US.html GCT-PH1-R. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (geographies ranked by total population): 2000]. United States Census Bureau. Last accessed {{wp|2007-02-20}}.</ref>|
 
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|LandAreaUS = 4,849
DensityRank = 4<sup>th</sup> |
 
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|WaterArea = 1,809
2000Density = 271.40 |
 
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|WaterAreaUS = 698
2000DensityUS = 702.9 |
 
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|PCWater = 12.6
MedianHouseholdIncome = $55,970 |
 
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|PopRank = 29th
IncomeRank = 4<sup>th</sup> |
 
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|2010Pop = 3,596,677 (2014 est)<ref name=PopEstUS />
AdmittanceOrder = 5<sup>th</sup> |
 
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|DensityRank = 4th
AdmittanceDate = {{wp|January 9}}, {{wp|1788}} |
 
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|2000Density = 285
TimeZone = {{wp|Eastern Standard Time (North America)|Eastern}}: {{wp|Coordinated Universal Time|UTC}}-5/{{wp|Daylight saving time|-4}} |
 
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|2000DensityUS = 739
Longitude = 71°47′ W to 73°44′ W |
 
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|MedianHouseholdIncome = $68,595
Latitude = 40°58′ N to 42°03′ N |
 
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|IncomeRank = 3rd
Width = 113 |
 
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|AdmittanceOrder = 5th
WidthUS = 70 |
 
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|AdmittanceDate = January 9, 1788
Length = 177 |
 
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|TimeZone = [[Eastern Time Zone (North America)|Eastern]]: [[Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]] [[Eastern Time Zone|−5]]/[[Eastern Daylight Time|−4]]
LengthUS = 110 |
 
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|Longitude = 71°47′ W to 73°44′ W
HighestPoint = {{wp|Mount Frissell|South slope of Mount Frissel}}<ref name=usgs>
 
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|Latitude = 40°58′ N to 42°03′ N
{{cite web| date ={{wp|29 April}} {{wp|2005}} |
 
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|Width = 113
url =http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest|
 
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|WidthUS = 70
title =Elevations and Distances in the United States|
 
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|Length = 177
publisher =U.S Geological Survey|
 
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|LengthUS = 110
accessdate =2006-11-03}}</ref><br>Note: The peak of Mount Frissel<br>is in Massachusetts | The highest peak in Connecticut lays forty miles south in the town of New Milford as part of a ridge.
 
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|HighestPoint = [[Massachusetts]] border on south slope of [[Mount Frissell]]<ref name=USGS>{{cite web|url = http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html |title=Elevations and Distances in the United States | publisher =[[United States Geological Survey]]|year=2001|accessdate=October 21, 2011}}</ref><ref name= NAVD88>Elevation adjusted to [[North American Vertical Datum of 1988]].</ref>
HighestElev = 726 |
 
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|HighestElev = 725
HighestElevUS = 2,380 |
 
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|HighestElevUS = 2,379
MeanElev = 152 |
 
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|MeanElev = 150
MeanElevUS = 500 |
 
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|MeanElevUS = 500
LowestPoint = {{wp|Long Island Sound}}<ref name=usgs/> |
 
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|LowestPoint = [[Long Island Sound]]<ref name=USGS/><ref name=NAVD88 />
LowestElev = 0 |
 
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|LowestElev = 0
LowestElevUS = 0 |
 
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|LowestElevUS = 0
ISOCode = US-CT |
 
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|ISOCode = US-CT
TradAbbreviation = Conn.|
 
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|TradAbbreviation = Conn.
Website = www.ct.gov
 
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|Website = www.ct.gov
 
}}
 
}}
'''Connecticut''' ({{IPAEng|kəˈnɛtɪkət}})<ref>{{cite web |url= http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/connecticut|title= Connecticut - Definitions from Dictionary.com |accessdate=2007-09-17 }}</ref> is a {{wp|U.S. state|state}} located in the {{wp|New England}} region of the {{wp|Northeastern United States|northeastern}} {{wp|United States of America}}. Southwestern Connecticut is also considered part of the {{wp|New York metropolitan area}}. Connecticut is the {{wp|List of U.S. states by population|29th}} most populous state with 3.4 million residents and ranked {{wp|List of U.S. states by area|48th}} in size by area, making it the {{wp|List of U.S. states by population density|4th}} most densely populated state.<ref name=pop/>. Called the "Constitution State," Connecticut has a long history dating from the early colonial times, and was influential in the development of early American government.
 
   
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'''Connecticut''' ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Connecticut.ogg|k|ə|ˈ|n|ɛ|ɹ|ɨ|k|ə|t}}, {{Respell|kə|NET|i-kət}})<ref>{{cite web |url= http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/connecticut |title= Connecticut - Definitions from Dictionary.com |accessdate=September 17, 2007 |archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkvMGho |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref> is the southernmost state in the region of the [[United States]] known as [[New England]]. Connecticut is also often grouped into the area known as the Tri-State area (New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut). It is bordered by [[Rhode Island]] to the east, [[Massachusetts]] to the north, [[New York]] to the west, and [[Long Island Sound]] to the south. Its capital city is [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]], and its most populous city is [[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]]. The state is named after the [[Connecticut River]], a major U.S. river that approximately bisects the state. The word is derived from various anglicized spellings of an [[Algonquian languages|Algonquian]] word for "long tidal river."<ref>{{cite book|last=Trumbull|first=James Hammond|title=Indian Names of Places, Etc., in and on the Borders of Connecticut: With Interpretations of Some of Them|year=1881|publisher=Press of the Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company|page=60}}</ref>
While Connecticut's first European settlers were {{wp|Dutch people|Dutch}}, the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English. {{wp|Thomas Hooker}} led a band of followers overland from the {{wp|Massachusetts Bay colony}} and founded what would become the {{wp|Connecticut Colony}}; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the {{wp|Saybrook Colony}} and the {{wp|New Haven Colony}}. Both the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of {{wp|Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders}}, considered the first {{wp|constitution}}s in North America. In 1662, the disparate colonies merged under a royal charter, making Connecticut a {{wp|crown colony}}. This colony was one of the {{wp|Thirteen Colonies}} that revolted against {{wp|United Kingdom|British}} rule in the {{wp|American Revolution}}.
 
   
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Connecticut is the [[List of U.S. states and territories by area|third smallest]] state by area,<ref name="census.gov">http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/cph-2-1.pdf "Table 18.
Connecticut enjoys a {{wp|temperate}} climate thanks to its long coastline on the {{wp|Long Island Sound}}. This has given the state a strong {{wp|maritime}} tradition. Modern Connecticut is also known for its wealth. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Connecticut had ready access to raw materials which helped to develop a strong {{wp|History of Connecticut industry|manufacturing industry}}. In the 19th and 20th centuries, financial organizations flourished: first {{wp|insurance}} companies in Hartford, then {{wp|hedge funds}} along the {{wp|Gold Coast, Connecticut|Gold Coast}}. This prosperity has helped give Connecticut the highest {{wp|per capita}} income and {{wp|Household income in the United States|median household income}} in the country.<ref>{{cite web| date={{wp|29 November}} {{wp|2005}}| title=Highest wages in East, lowest in South| publisher=USA Today| url=http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2005-11-29-wage_x.htm}}</ref><ref>{{cite web| date={{wp|18 March}}{{wp|2000}}| title=Census 2000| publisher= United States Census Bureau| url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-_box_head_nbr=GCT-P14&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-format=US-9}}</ref>
 
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Area Measurements: 2010; and Population and Housing Unit Density: 1990 to 2010," U.S. Census Bureau, September 2012, United States Summary 41. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> the [[List of U.S. states and territories by population|29th most populous]],<ref>http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/cph-2-1.pdf "Table 19.
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Population by Urban and Rural and Type of Urban Area: 2010," U.S. Census Bureau, September 2012, United States Summary 42. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> and the [[List of U.S. states by population density|fourth most densely populated]]<ref name="census.gov"/> of the [[50 United States]]. Called the ''[[Connecticut#Constitutional history|Constitution State]]'', the ''[[Nutmeg]] State'', the ''Provisions State'', and the ''Land of Steady Habits''.<ref name=SOTS/> It was influential in the development of the [[federal government of the United States]]. Much of southern and western Connecticut (along with the majority of the state's population) is part of the [[New York metropolitan area]]: three of Connecticut's eight counties are statistically included in the [[New York metropolitan area#Components of the metropolitan area|New York City combined statistical area]], which is widely referred to as the [[Tri-State area (NY-NJ-CT)|Tri-State area]]. Connecticut's center of population is in [[Cheshire, Connecticut|Cheshire]], [[New Haven County, Connecticut|New Haven County]],<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/INFO/COP/ct_links.htm|title= State of Connecticut Center of Population - From ngs.noaa.gov|accessdate=January 30, 2009 |archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkvhYPB |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref> which is also located within the Tri-State area.
   
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Connecticut's first European settlers were [[Dutch (ethnic group)|Dutch]]. They established a small, short-lived settlement in present-day Hartford at the confluence of the [[Park River (Connecticut)|Park]] and [[Connecticut River|Connecticut]] rivers, called ''[[Fort Hoop|Huys de Goede Hoop]]''. Initially, half of Connecticut was a part of the Dutch colony, [[New Netherland]], which included much of the land between the Connecticut and [[Delaware River|Delaware]] rivers. The first major settlements were established in the 1630s by England. [[Thomas Hooker]] led a band of followers overland from the [[Massachusetts Bay Colony]] and founded what would become the [[Connecticut Colony]]; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the [[Saybrook Colony]] and the [[New Haven Colony]]. The Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of [[Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders]], considered the first constitutions in North America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a [[royal charter]], making Connecticut a [[crown colony]]. This colony was one of the [[Thirteen Colonies]] that revolted against British rule in the [[American Revolution]].
== Geography ==
 
{{further|{{wp|Geology of Connecticut}}}}
 
Connecticut is bordered on the south by {{wp|Long Island Sound}}, on the west by {{wp|New York State}}, on the north by {{wp|Massachusetts}}, and on the east by {{wp|Rhode Island}}. The state capital is {{wp|Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford}}, and the other major cities include {{wp|New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven}}, {{wp|New London, Connecticut|New London}}, {{wp|New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain}}, {{wp|Norwich, Connecticut|Norwich}}, {{wp|Milford, Connecticut|Milford}}, {{wp|Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk}}, {{wp|Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford}}, {{wp|Waterbury, Connecticut|Waterbury}}, {{wp|Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury}} and {{wp|Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport}}. There are 169 {{wp|incorporated town}}s in Connecticut. There is an ongoing civic pride and economic competition between Hartford and New Haven,{{Fact|date=December 2006}} which stems back to the days when the two cities shared the state's capital, and even back to the rivalry between {{wp|New Haven Colony}} and {{wp|Connecticut Colony}}.
 
[[Image:Approaching Summit Again.JPG|left|thumb|155px|Bear Mountain, highest peak in Connecticut]]
 
The highest peak in Connecticut is {{wp|Bear Mountain (Connecticut)|Bear Mountain}} in {{wp|Salisbury, Connecticut|Salisbury}} in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, {{wp|Massachusetts}}, and {{wp|New York}} meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of {{wp|Mount Frissell}}, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://peakbagger.com/peak.aspx?pid=7083| title=Mount Frissell-South Slope| publisher=peakbagger.com}}</ref>
 
   
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The Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong [[wikt:Maritime|maritime]] tradition, which continues today. The state also has a long history of hosting the financial-services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and [[hedge fund]]s in [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]]. As of the 2010 Census, Connecticut features the highest per-capita income, [[Human Development Index]] (0.962), and [[Household income in the United States|median household income]] in the United States.<ref>{{cite news| date=November 29, 2005| title=Highest wages in East, lowest in South|work=USA Today| url=http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2005-11-29-wage_x.htm | first1=Stephen | last1=Ohlemacher | accessdate=April 30, 2010|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkvtVNF |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web| date=March 18, 2000| title=Census 2000| publisher=United States Census Bureau| url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-_box_head_nbr=GCT-P14&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-format=US-9|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkweQ74 |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite news| date=July 17, 2008| title=US slips down development index|publisher=BBC | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7511426.stm|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkxLjnC |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref>
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound, Connecticut's outlet to the {{wp|Atlantic Ocean}}.
 
{{further|{{wp|List of Connecticut rivers}}}}
 
Despite its size, the state has regional variations in its landscape and culture from the wealthy estates of Fairfield County's "{{wp|Gold Coast, Connecticut|Gold Coast}}" to the rolling mountains and horse-farms of the {{wp|Litchfield Hills}} of northwestern Connecticut. Connecticut's rural areas and [[Image:Highest Point here.JPG|right|thumb|155px|Highest point in Connecticut on slope of Mount Frissell, as seen from Bear Mountain]]small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New Haven, then northwards to Hartford, as well as further up the coast near New London. Many towns center around a small park, known as a "green," (such as the {{wp|New Haven Green}}), Litchfield Green, Simsbury Green, and New Milford Green(the largest in the state). Near the green may stand a small white church, a town meeting hall, a tavern and several colonial houses. Forests, rivers, lakes, waterfalls and a sandy shore add to the state's beauty.
 
{{further|{{wp|List of Connecticut state forests}}}}
 
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the distinctive {{wp|Southwick Jog}}/{{wp|Granby Notch}}, an approximately 2.5 mile (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut slightly west of the center of the border. Somewhat surprisingly, the actual origin of this anomaly is not absolutely certain, with stories ranging from surveyors who were drunk, attempting to avoid hostile Native Americans, or taking a shortcut up the Connecticut River; Massachusetts residents attempting to avoid Massachusetts' high taxes for the low taxes of Connecticut; Massachusetts' interest in the resources represented by the {{wp|Congamond Lakes}} which lie on the border of the jog; and the need to compensate Massachusetts for an amount of land given to Connecticut due to inaccurate survey work.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.southwickma.org/Public_Documents/F000102F9/S00476B50-00476B5B.0/The%20Southwick%20Jog.pdf | title=The Southwick Jog}} </ref><ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/jog.htm|title=Connecticut's Southwick Jog| publisher=Connecticut State Library}}</ref> The dispute over the border slowed development in the region, since neither state would invest in public services for the area until the dispute had been settled. {{Fact|date=December 2006}}
 
   
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Although it is one of the [[List of U.S. states by income|wealthiest states in the US]] by most economic measures, the income gap between its urban and suburban areas is unusually wide.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/09/nyregion/09income.html | work=The New York Times | title=Income Gap in Connecticut Is Growing Fastest, Study Finds | date=April 9, 2008}}</ref>
The southwestern border of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State, is marked by a {{wp|panhandle}} in {{wp|Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County}}, containing the towns of {{wp|Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich}}, {{wp|Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford}}, {{wp|New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan}} and {{wp|Darien, Connecticut|Darien}}. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of {{wp|History of Connecticut#Territorial disputes|territorial disputes}} in the late 1600s, culminating with New York giving up its claim to this area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from {{wp|Ridgefield, Connecticut}} to the Massachusetts border as well as undisputed claim to {{wp|Rye, New York}}.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/panhandle.htm| title=Connecticut's "Panhandle"| publisher=Connecticut State Library}}</ref>
 
{{further|{{wp|Connecticut Panhandle}}}}
 
   
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==Geography==
Areas maintained by the {{wp|National Park Service}} include: {{wp|Appalachian National Scenic Trail}}; {{wp|Quinebaug & Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor}}; and {{wp|Weir Farm National Historic Site}}.
 
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{{further2|[[Geology of Connecticut]]|[[Geology of New England]]}}
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{{stack begin|clear=true}}
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[[File:Approaching Summit Again.JPG|thumb|Bear Mountain, highest peak in Connecticut]]
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[[File:LakeMcdonoughFromTunxisTrail.jpg|thumb|Lake Mcdonough reservoir as seen from the Tunxis Trail Overlook Spur trail, Barkhamsted]]
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[[File:New Haven from East Rock.jpg|thumb|[[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]]]]
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[[File:View of City of New London.jpg|thumb|[[New London, Connecticut|New London]]]]
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[[File:Hartford Connecticut Skyline.JPG|thumb|[[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]]]
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[[File:StamfordCTRRstaLookingNE11112007.jpg|thumb|[[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]]]]
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{{stack end}}
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Connecticut is bordered on the south by [[Long Island Sound]], on the west by [[New York]], on the north by [[Massachusetts]], and on the east by [[Rhode Island]]. The state capital and third largest city is [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]], and other major cities and towns (by population) include [[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]], [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]], [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], [[Waterbury, Connecticut|Waterbury]], [[Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk]], [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]], [[New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]], [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]] and [[Bristol, Connecticut|Bristol]]. There are 169 [[New England town|incorporated towns]] in Connecticut.
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The highest peak in Connecticut is [[Bear Mountain (Connecticut)|Bear Mountain]] in [[Salisbury, Connecticut|Salisbury]] in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, [[Massachusetts]], and New York meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of [[Mount Frissell]], whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts.<ref>{{cite peakbagger |pid=7083 |name=Mount Frissell-South Slope, Connecticut/Massachusetts}}</ref>
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The [[Connecticut River]] cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the [[Connecticut River Valley]]. Despite Connecticut's relatively small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape; for example, in the northwestern [[Litchfield Hills]], it features rolling mountains and horse farms, whereas in the southeastern [[New London County]], it features beaches and maritime activities.
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Although Connecticut has a long maritime history, and a reputation based on that history, Connecticut has no direct access to the sea. The jurisdiction of New York actually extends east at [[Fishers Island]], where New York shares a sea border with [[Rhode Island]] dividing [[Narragansett Bay]]. Although Connecticut has easy access to the Atlantic, between [[Long Island Sound]] and [[Block Island Sound]], Connecticut has no direct ocean coast.
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{{further2|[[List of Connecticut rivers]]}}
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Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London, then northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns center around a "[[village green|green]]," such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green (the largest in the state), and Wethersfield Green (the oldest in the state). Near the green typically stand historical visual symbols of [[New England]] towns, such as a white church, a [[colonial meeting house]], a colonial [[tavern]] or "[[inn]]e," several [[colonial house]]s, and so on, establishing a scenic historic appearance maintained for both [[historic preservation]] and tourism.
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Connecticut consists of [[temperate broadleaf and mixed forests]]. [[Northeastern coastal forests]] of [[Quercus|oaks]], [[Carya|hickories]], and [[Acer (genus)|maple]] cover much of the state.<ref name = "ecoregions">{{cite journal |author=Olson |title = Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth |journal=[[BioScience]] |year = 2001 |volume=51 |issue=11 |pages= 933–938 |url = http://gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder/ |doi = 10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0933:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2 |archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkyhbI6 |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no |author2 = D. M |author3 = E. Dinerstein |display-authors = 3 |issn = 0006-3568 |last4 = Burgess |first4 = Neil D. |last5 = Powell |first5 = George V. N. |last6 = Underwood |first6 = Emma C. |last7 = d'Amico |first7 = Jennifer A. |last8 = Itoua |first8 = Illanga |last9 = Strand |first9 = Holly E.}}</ref> In the northwest, these give way to [[New England-Acadian forests]] of the [[Taconic Mountains]].<ref name = "ecoregions"/>
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{{further2|[[List of Connecticut state forests]]}}
  +
  +
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5&nbsp;mile (4.0&nbsp;km) square detour into Connecticut. The actual origin of this anomaly is clearly established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which was finally concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick, (whose residents sought to leave Massachusetts), was split in half.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.southwickma.org/Public_Documents/F000102F9/S00476B50-00476B5B.0/The%20Southwick%20Jog.pdf | title=The Southwick Jog|format=PDF|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5p1plFeFC |archivedate = April 16, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/jog.htm|title=Connecticut's Southwick Jog| publisher=Connecticut State Library|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkzcI4A |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref>
  +
  +
The southwestern border of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State, is marked by a [[panhandle]] in [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]], containing the towns of [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]], [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], [[New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan]], [[Darien, Connecticut|Darien]], and parts of [[Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk]] and [[Wilton, Connecticut|Wilton]].This irregularity in the boundary is the result of [[History of Connecticut#Territorial disputes|territorial disputes]] in the late 17th century, culminating with New York giving up its claim to the area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from [[Ridgefield, Connecticut|Ridgefield]] to the Massachusetts border as well as undisputed claim to [[Rye (town), New York|Rye, New York]].<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/panhandle.htm| title=Connecticut's "Panhandle"| publisher=Connecticut State Library|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKl03gYx |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref>
  +
{{further2|[[Connecticut panhandle]]}}
  +
  +
Areas maintained by the [[National Park Service]] include [[Appalachian National Scenic Trail]], [[Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor]], and [[Weir Farm National Historic Site]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Connecticut | publisher=National Park Service | accessdate =July 15, 2008 | url = http://www.nps.gov/state/ct/index.htm}}</ref>
   
 
===Climate===
 
===Climate===
  +
[[File:Barndoor Hills original.JPG|thumb|Scenery upon [[Barndoor Hills]] in [[Granby, Connecticut|Granby]] in autumn]]
Connecticut has a [[Koppen climate classification#GROUP D: Continental.2Fmicrothermal climate|Humid Continental Climate]], with seasonal extremes tempered by its proximity to the {{wp|Atlantic Ocean}}. Winters are cold, with average temperatures ranging from 31 °F (-1 °C) in the southeast to 23 °F (-5 °C) in the northwest in January. The average yearly snowfall is about 25–100" (64–254 cm) across the state, with higher totals in the northwest. Spring has variable temperatures with frequent rainfall. Summer is hot and humid throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81 °F (27 °C) and 87 °F (31 °C) in Windsor Locks. Fall months are mild, and bring foliage across the state in October and November. During hurricane season, tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the summer, occurring on average 30 times annually. These storms can be severe, though tornadoes are rare.<ref name= "tornadoes"> {{cite web| url=http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/research/tornado/small/avgt5304.gif| title=Annual average number of tornadoes| publisher=NOAA National Climatic Data Center| accessdate=2006-10-24}} </ref>
 
  +
Much of Connecticut has a [[humid continental climate]], with cold winters and hot summers. Far southern and coastal Connecticut has a more mild [[humid temperate/subtropical climate]] with seasonal extremes tempered by proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, warmer winters, and longer frost - free seasons. Most of Connecticut sees a fairly even precipitation pattern with rainfall/snowfall spread throughout the 12 months. Connecticut averages 56% of possible sunshine (higher than the USA average), averaging 2,400 hours of [[sunshine]] annually.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://maps.howstuffworks.com/united-states-annual-sunshine-map.htm |title= United States annual sunshine map|publisher=HowStuffWorks |accessdate=March 15, 2011}}</ref>
   
  +
Summer is hot and often humid throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81&nbsp;°F (27&nbsp;°C) and 87&nbsp;°F (31&nbsp;°C) in Windsor Locks. Although summers are sunny in Connecticut, summer thunderstorms often bring quick downpours and thunder and lighting. Winters are generally cool to cold from south to north in Connecticut, with average January temperatures ranging from 38&nbsp;°F (3&nbsp;°C) in the coastal lowlands to 29&nbsp;°F (−2&nbsp;°C) in the inland and northern portions on the state. The average yearly snowfall ranges from about 50–60" in the higher elevations of the northern portion of the state to only 20-25" along the southeast coast of Connecticut. Generally, any locale north or west of [[Interstate 84 (Pennsylvania–Massachusetts)|Interstate 84]] receives the most snow, during a storm, and throughout the season.
  +
  +
Early spring (April) is can range from coolish to warm, while mid and late spring (May/early June) is warm to hot. Fall months are mild and bring colorful foliage across northern parts of the state (the southern and coastal areas have more oak and hickory trees and fewer maples) in October and November. During hurricane season, tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the summer, occurring on average 30 times annually. These storms can be severe, and the state usually averages one tornado per year.<ref name="tornadoes">{{cite web| url= http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/research/tornado/small/avgt5304.gif | title=Annual average number of tornadoes| publisher=NOAA National Climatic Data Center | format = [[GIF]] | accessdate =October 24, 2006}}</ref> Connecticut's warmest temperature is {{convert|106|F|C}} which occurred in [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]] on July 15, 1995; the coldest temperature is {{convert|-32|F|C}} which occurred in [[Falls Village, Connecticut|Falls Village]] on February 16, 1943, and [[Coventry, Connecticut|Coventry]] on January 22, 1961.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/extremes/scec/getextreme.php?elem=ALL&state=CT| title = All-Time Climate Extremes for CT|publisher=[[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]]|accessdate=March 18, 2011}}</ref>
 
{| class="wikitable" "text-align:center;font-size:90%;"|
 
{| class="wikitable" "text-align:center;font-size:90%;"|
| colspan="13" style="text-align:center;font-size:120%;background:#E8EAFA;"|Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Connecticut Cities
+
| colspan="13" style="text-align:center;font-size:120%;background:#E8EAFA;"|Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures for Various Connecticut Cities
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color: #000000" height="17" | City
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000; height:17px;"| City
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Jan
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Jan
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Feb
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Feb
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Mar
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Mar
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Apr
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Apr
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | May
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| May
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Jun
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Jun
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Jul
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Jul
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Aug
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Aug
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Sep
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Sep
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Oct
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Oct
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Nov
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Nov
! style="background: #E5AFAA; color:#000000;" | Dec
+
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Dec
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" height="16;" | Bridgeport
+
! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000; height:16px;"| Bridgeport
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 37/23
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#0ff; color:#000;"| 37/23
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 39/25
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#0fe; color:#000;"| 39/25
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 47/32
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ffae; color:#000;"| 47/32
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 57/41
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff5e; color:#000;"| 57/41
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 67/51
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#0f1; color:#000;"| 67/51
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 76/60
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#4f0; color:#000;"| 76/60
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 82/66
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#7f0; color:#000;"| 82/66
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 81/65
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#6eff00; color:#000;"| 81/65
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 74/58
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#3f0; color:#000;"| 74/58
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 63/46
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff2f; color:#000;"| 63/46
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 53/38
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff7b; color:#000;"| 53/38
| style="text-align:center; background: #F8F3CA; color:#000000;" | 42/28
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ffd4; color:#000;"| 42/28
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" height="16;" | Hartford
+
! style="background:#c5dfe1; color:#000; height:16px;"| Hartford
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 34/17
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00d9ff; color:#000;"| 35/16
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 38/20
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00f7ff; color:#000;"| 39/19
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 48/28
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ffc3; color:#000;"| 47/27
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 60/38
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff62; color:#000;"| 59/38
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 72/48
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff08; color:#000;"| 70/48
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 80/57
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#4f0; color:#000;"| 79/57
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 85/62
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#73ff00; color:#000;"| 84/63
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 82/61
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#62ff00; color:#000;"| 82/61
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 74/52
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#1aff00; color:#000;"| 74/51
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 63/41
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff48; color:#000;"| 63/40
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 51/33
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#0f9; color:#000;"| 52/32
| style="text-align:center; background: #C5DFE1; color:#000000;" | 39/23
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00fff7; color:#000;"| 40/22
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="13" style="text-align:center;font-size:90%;background:#E8EAFA;"|''[http://www.ustravelweather.com/weather-connecticut/]''
+
| colspan="13" style="text-align:center;font-size:90%;background:#E8EAFA;"|''<ref>{{cite web |url = http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/06604 |title=Monthly Averages for Bridgeport, CT |publisher = [[The Weather Channel]] |accessdate=September 15, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/06604 |title=Monthly Averages for Hartford, CT |publisher=[[The Weather Channel]] |accessdate=September 15, 2011}}</ref>''
 
|}
 
|}
   
== History ==
+
==History==
  +
{{multiple issues|section=yes|
{{refimprovesect|date=September 2007}}
 
  +
{{Refimprove section|date=September 2007}}
{{main|History of Connecticut}}
 
  +
{{Expand section|date=July 2010}}
[[Image:Ctcolony.png|thumb|right|400px|A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies.]]
 
  +
}}
The name "Connecticut" originates from the {{wp|Mohegan}} word ''quinnitukqut'', meaning "place of long tidal river."<ref name="AboutCT">{{cite web | url = http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=246434 | title = CT.gov: About Connecticut | accessdate =2005-12-18}}</ref> The first European explorer in Connecticut was the Dutch explorer {{wp|Adriaen Block}}. After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (Named Versche Rivier by the Dutch) and built a fort at Dutch Point near present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" ({{wp|Dutch language|Dutch}}: Huis van Hoop).
 
  +
{{Main|History of Connecticut}}
  +
[[File:Ctcolony.png|thumb|right|400px|A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies]]
   
  +
===Exploration and early settlement===
{{wp|John Winthrop the Younger|John Winthrop}}, then of Massachusetts, got permission to create a new colony at {{wp|Saybrook Colony|Old Saybrook}} at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635. This was the first of three distinct colonies that later would be combined to make up Connecticut. Saybrook Colony was a direct challenge to Dutch claims. The colony was not more than a small outpost and never matured. In 1644, the Saybrook Colony merged itself into the Connecticut Colony.
 
  +
The name Connecticut is derived from anglicized versions of the [[Algonquian languages|Algonquian]] word that has been translated as "long tidal river" and "upon the long river."<ref name="Project">{{cite book|author=Federal Writers' Project|title=Connecticut: A Guide to Its Roads, Lore and People|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=CPYfSsQ-WE4C&pg=PA3|accessdate=September 23, 2010 | publisher =US History Publishers|isbn=978-1-60354-007-0|page=3}}</ref> The Connecticut region was inhabited by multiple [[Native Americans in the United States|Native American]] tribes prior to European settlement and colonization, including the [[Mohegan people|Mohegans]], the [[Pequot people|Pequots]], and the [[Golden Hill Paugussett Indian Nation|Paugusetts]].<ref>http://www.cslib.org/tribes.htm "Connecticut Native American Tribes," Connecticut State Library. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> The first European explorer in Connecticut was the Dutch explorer [[Adriaen Block]].<ref>http://www.wesleyan.edu/ees/JCV/block.pdf Varekamp, Johan and Daphne, "Adriaen Block, the discovery of Long Island Sound and the New Netherlands colony: what drove the course of history?" Wesleyan University. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (then known by the Dutch as Versche Rivier – "Fresh River") and built a fort at Dutch Point in what is present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" ({{lang-nl|Huis van Hoop}}).<ref>http://colonialwarsct.org/1614.htm "1614 Adriaen," The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
   
  +
[[John Winthrop the Younger|John Winthrop]], then of Massachusetts, received a commission to create a new colony at [[Saybrook Colony|Old Saybrook]] at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635.<ref>http://www.saybrookhistory.org/web_page.php?id=13 "Brief History of Old Saybrook," Old Saybrook Historical Society. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> This was the first of three distinct colonies that later would be combined to make up Connecticut. Saybrook Colony was a direct challenge to Dutch claims. The colony was not more than a small outpost and never matured. In 1644, the Saybrook Colony merged itself into the Connecticut Colony.<ref>http://books.google.com/books?id=jeAXAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA74&lpg=PA74&dq=%22saybrook+colony%22+%22connecticut+colony%22&source=bl&ots=eegJqMVB43&sig=acUbl7XWe8zEWNqN_uRevPaUZag&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Nnt2U_z2GObisASrpoHACg&ved=0CNYBEOgBMBQ#v=onepage&q=%22saybrook%20colony%22%20%22connecticut%20colony%22&f=false Swinton, William, ''A school history of the United States,'' New York: American Book Co., 1893, page 74. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled Windsor and Wethersfield. However the main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. The settlers were {{wp|Puritan}}s from Massachusetts, led by {{wp|Thomas Hooker}}. Hooker had been prominent in England, and was a professor of Theology at Cambridge. He was also an important political writer, and made a significant contribution to Constitutional theory. He broke with the political leadership in Massachusetts, and, just as {{wp|Roger Williams}} created a new polity in {{wp|Rhode Island}}, Hooker and his cohort did the same and established the {{wp|Connecticut Colony}} at Hartford in 1636. This was the second of the three colonies.
 
   
  +
The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled at Windsor, and then at Wethersfield the following year.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.cslib.org/earlysettlers.htm |title=Early Settlers of Connecticut | publisher = Connecticut State Library |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref> However, the main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. The settlers were [[Puritan]]s from Massachusetts, led by [[Thomas Hooker]]. Hooker had been prominent in England and was a professor of theology at Cambridge. He was also an important political writer and made a significant contribution to Constitutional theory. He broke with the political leadership in Massachusetts, and, just as [[Roger Williams (theologian)|Roger Williams]] created a new polity in [[Rhode Island]], Hooker and his cohort did the same and established the [[Connecticut Colony]] at Hartford in 1636.<ref>http://colonialwarsct.org/1636.htm "1636-Hartford," The Society of Colonial Wars in Connecticut. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> This was the second of the three colonies.
Because the Dutch were outnumbered by the flood of English settlers from Massachusetts, they left their fort in 1654.
 
  +
The third colony was founded in March 1638. [[New Haven Colony]] (originally known as the Quinnipiack Colony<ref>{{citation |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=wmdJAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA176&lpg=PA176&dq=%22Quinnipiack+Colony%22&source=bl&ots=qlhXg47WX5&sig=uRj95lwKPHciDkRu6pv33drPd6Q&hl=en&sa=X&ei=F-JKUoWlCIe14AO5ioGQBg&ved=0CEoQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=%22Quinnipiack%20Colony%22&f=false |title=New Englander and Yale Review, |volume=47 |pages=176–177 |editors=Edward Royall Tyler, William Lathrop Kingsley, George Park Fisher, Timothy Dwight |publisher=W.L. Kingsley |date=January 1, 1887 }}</ref>) was established by [[John Davenport (clergyman)|John Davenport]], [[Theophilus Eaton]], and others at New Haven. The New Haven Colony had its own constitution, "The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony," which was signed on June 4, 1639.<ref>http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/ct01.asp Thorpe, Francis Newton, ''The Federal and State Constitutions Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming the United States of America,'' 1906; as posted online as "Fundamental Agreement, or Original Constitution of the Colony of New Haven, June 4, 1639," The Avalon Project, Yale Law School. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
   
  +
Because the Dutch were outnumbered by the flood of English settlers from Massachusetts, they left their fort in 1654.<ref>http://books.google.com/books?id=mDPF4ILESaUC&pg=RA1-PA10&lpg=RA1-PA10&dq=hartford+1654+dutch+abandon+fort&source=bl&ots=XFW45VeZAK&sig=lVtItnobXST63RFCSTVS-Ut7FLk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=K5Z2U_3VEevMsQTMmIHgBg&ved=0CE4Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=hartford%201654%20dutch%20abandon%20fort&f=false Davenport, Frances G., ''European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies to 1648,'' The Lawbook Exchange, 2004, page 10. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
The third colony was founded in March of 1638. {{wp|New Haven Colony}}, (originally known as the Quinnipiack Colony), was established by {{wp|John Davenport}}, {{wp|Theophilus Eaton}} and others at New Haven. The New Haven Colony had its own Constitution, 'The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony' which was signed on June 4, 1639.
 
   
Neither the establishment of the Connecticut Colony or the Quinnipiack Colony were done with the sanction of British imperial authorities, and were independent political entities. They naturally were presumptively English, but in a legal sense, they were only secessionist outposts of Massachusetts Bay. In 1662, Winthrop took advantage of this void in political affairs, and obtained in England the charter by which the colonies of Connecticut and Quinnipiack were united. Although Winthrop's charter favored the Connecticut colony, New Haven remained a seat of government with Hartford, until after the American Revolution.
+
Neither the establishment of the Connecticut Colony or the Quinnipiack Colony was carried out with the sanction of the English Crown, and they were independent political entities.<ref>http://www.colonialwarsct.org/1638_new_haven.htm "1638 - New Haven - The Independent Colony," The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> They naturally were presumptively English, but in a legal sense, they were only secessionist outposts of Massachusetts Bay. In 1662, Winthrop took advantage of this void in political affairs and obtained in England the charter by which the colonies of Connecticut and Quinnipiack were united from the newly restored [[Charles II of England|Charles II]], who granted liberal political terms.<ref>1662-Charter for Connecticut "1662-Charter for Connecticut." The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> Although Winthrop's charter favored the Connecticut colony, New Haven remained a seat of government with Hartford until after the American Revolution.<ref>http://books.google.com/books?id=8gk7AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA150&lpg=PA150&dq=%22new+haven%22+%22hartford%22+%22seat+of+government%22+colony&source=bl&ots=lbw7xngRvH&sig=ywptPWK__zH4Uq751zbfBAEzfOY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=V6N2U5-BIs2SyASLkYLoCA&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%22new%20haven%22%20%22hartford%22%20%22seat%20of%20government%22%20colony&f=false Haskel, Daniel and Smith, Calvin, ''A Complete Descriptive and Statistical Gazetteer of the United States of America,'' New York: Sherman & Smith, 1843, page 150. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
   
  +
[[File:LowsCTmap.jpeg|thumb|right|250px|A 1799 map of Connecticut which shows [[The Oblong]]. From [[Low's Encyclopaedia]].]]
Winthrop was very politically astute, and secured the charter from the newly restored {{wp|Charles II of England|Charles II}}; who granted the most liberal political terms.
 
  +
Historically important colonial settlements included [[Windsor, Connecticut|Windsor]] (1633), [[Wethersfield, Connecticut|Wethersfield]] (1634), [[Deep River, Connecticut|Saybrook]] (1635), [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] (1636), [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]] (1638), [[Fairfield, Connecticut|Fairfield]] (1639), [[Guilford, Connecticut|Guilford]] (1639), [[Milford, Connecticut|Milford]] (1639), [[Stratford, Connecticut|Stratford]] (1639), [[Farmington, Connecticut|Farmington]] (1640), [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]] (1641), and [[New London, Connecticut|New London]] (1646).
   
  +
The Pequot War marked the first major clash between European settlers and Native Americans in New England. With the [[Pequot people]] reacting with increasing aggression to European settlers encroaching on their territory, settlers responded in 1636 with a raid on a Pequot village on [[Block Island]]. The Pequots laid siege to Saybrook Colony's garrison that autumn, then in the spring of 1637 raided Wethersfield. Colonists there declared war on the Pequots, organized a band of militia and Native Americans, and attacked a Pequot village on the [[Mystic River (Connecticut)|Mystic River]], with death toll estimates ranging between 300 and 700 Pequots. After suffering another major loss at a battle in [[Fairfield, Connecticut|Fairfield]], the Pequots asked for a truce and peace terms.<ref>http://books.google.com/books?id=YHVwmVKjhaoC&pg=PA31&lpg=PA31&dq=pequot+raid+wethersfield+mystic&source=bl&ots=o8SoT2AuEx&sig=ZFthvEqnuMIwofgEh-doouI3u38&hl=en&sa=X&ei=k7J2U6ajI8mnyATLsILQCw&ved=0CGMQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=pequot%20raid%20wethersfield%20mystic&f=false Williams, Tony, ''America's Beginnings: The Dramatic Events that Shaped a Nation's Character,'' Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010, pages 32-34.</ref>
Historically important colonial settlements included:
 
:{{wp|Windsor, Connecticut|Windsor}} (1633),
 
:{{wp|Wethersfield, Connecticut|Wethersfield}} (1634),
 
:{{wp|Old Saybrook, Connecticut|Saybrook}} (1635),
 
:{{wp|Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford}} (1636),
 
:{{wp|New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven}} (1638),
 
:{{wp|Fairfield, Connecticut|Fairfield}} (1639),
 
:{{wp|Stratford, Connecticut|Stratford}} (1639),
 
:{{wp|New London, Connecticut|New London}} (1646),
 
:{{wp|Middletown, Connecticut|Middletown}} (1647)
 
   
  +
[[Image:View of New London, Connecticut, from the Shore Road.jpg|thumb|View of New London in 1854]]
Its first constitution, the "{{wp|Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders}}," was adopted on {{wp|January 14}}, {{wp|1639}}, while its {{wp|Connecticut Constitution|current constitution}}, the third for Connecticut, was adopted in 1965. Connecticut is the fifth of the original thirteen states. The original constitutions influenced the US Constitution as one of the leading authors was {{wp|Roger Sherman}} of New Haven.
 
   
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===Colonial Connecticut===
The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. According to a 1650 agreement with the {{wp|Netherlands|Dutch}}, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from the west side of {{wp|Greenwich Bay}} "provided the said line come not within 10 miles [16 km] of Hudson River." On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea," i.e. the Pacific Ocean. Most colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut took its grant seriously, and established a ninth county between the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers, named {{wp|Westmoreland County, Connecticut|Westmoreland County}}. This resulted in the brief {{wp|Pennamite Wars}} with {{wp|Pennsylvania}}.
 
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Connecticut developed a conservative elite that would dominate colonial affairs in the years leading up to the American Revolution.<ref>{{cite book|author=Joseph A. Conforti|title=Imagining New England: Explorations of Regional Identity from the Pilgrims to the Mid-Twentieth Century: Explorations of Regional Identity from the Pilgrims to the Mid-twentieth Century|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=UzyR6xZQXYAC&pg=PA111|year=2003|publisher=U of North Carolina Press|page=111}}</ref> The forces of liberalism and democracy emerged slowly, encouraged by the entrepreneurship of the business community, and the new religious freedom stimulated by the [[First Great Awakening]].<ref>{{cite book|author=Richard L. Bushman|title=From Puritan to Yankee: Character and the Social Order in Connecticut, 1690–1765|year=1970|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=tMgHkGUo_8IC|publisher=Harvard University Press}}</ref>
Connecticut's lands also extended across northern Ohio, called the {{wp|Western Reserve}} lands. The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio. Agreements with Pennsylvania and New York extinguished the land claims by Connecticut within its neighbors, and the Western Reserve lands were relinquished to the federal government, which brought the state to its present boundaries.
 
   
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With the establishment of Yale College in 1701, Connecticut had an important institution to educate clergy and civil leaders.<ref>http://www.yale.edu/about/history.html "About-History," Yale University. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> Just as Yale dominated Connecticut's intellectual life, the Congregational church dominated religious life in the colony, and by extension, town affairs in many parts.<ref>Roth, David M., ''Connecticut A History,'' New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1979, pages 40-41.</ref>
==Names and symbols==
 
Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is ''"The Constitution State,"'' based on its colonial constitution of 1638–39.<ref name=SOTS/> Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as ''"The {{wp|Nutmeg}} State"''.<ref name=SOTS/> The nutmeg connection to Connecticut may come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice in New England). It is also said to come from {{wp|Yankee}} peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.roadescape.com/nutmeg.html | title=roadscape.com/nutmeg.html}}</ref> {{wp|George Washington}} gave Connecticut the title of ''"The Provisions State"''<ref name=SOTS/> because of the material aid the state rendered to the {{wp|Revolutionary War}} effort. Connecticut is also known as ''"The Land of Steady Habits"''.<ref name=SOTS/>
 
   
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The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. According to the Hartford Treaty with the Dutch, signed on September 19, 1650, but never ratified by the British, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich Bay]] for a distance of 20&nbsp;miles<ref name="BOWEN">{{Citation | last = Bowen | first = Clarence Winthrop | title = Boundary Disputes of Connecticut | place = Boston, [[Massachusetts|MA]] | year = 1882 | pages = 17–18}}.</ref><ref name="FLICK">{{Citation | editor-last = Flick | editor-first = Alexander C | title = History of the State of New York | volume = 2 | place = New York City | publisher = [[Columbia University]] Press | year = 1933–37 | pages = 50–57}}.</ref> "provided the said line come not within {{convert |10|mi|km}} [16&nbsp;km] of Hudson River. This agreement was observed by both sides until war erupted between England and The Netherlands in 1652. No other limits were found. Conflict over uncertain colonial limits continued until the [[James II of England|Duke of York]] captured [[New Netherland]] in 1664."<ref name="BOWEN"/><ref name="FLICK"/> On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea," i.e. the Pacific Ocean.<ref>{{cite web| work = US history | first = James | last = Callison |url=http://www.law.ou.edu/ushistory/colony.shtml |title=Connecticut Colony Charter of 1662 | publisher = OU |date=March 14, 2006 |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{Citation | type = topical survey | url = http://www.ctheritage.org/encyclopedia/topicalsurveys/migration.htm | title = Encyclopedia | contribution = Migration from Connecticut | first = Barbara | last = Lacey | publisher = Connecticut's Heritage Gateway}}.</ref> Most colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut took its grant seriously, and established a ninth county between the [[Susquehanna River|Susquehanna]] and [[Delaware River]]s, named [[Westmoreland County, Connecticut|Westmoreland County]]. This resulted in the brief [[Pennamite Wars]] with [[Pennsylvania]].<ref>http://colonialwarsct.org/1769.htm "1769- The Pennamite Wars," The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter". There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "Connecticotian" - {{wp|Cotton Mather}} in 1702. "Connecticutensian" - {{wp|Samuel Peters}} in 1781. "Nutmegger" is sometimes used,<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/nicknamesCT.htm| title=Connecticut's Nicknames| publisher=Connecticut State Library}}</ref> as is "Yankee" (the official State Song is "{{wp|Yankee Doodle}}"), though this usually refers someone from the wider {{wp|New England}} region.<ref>See {{wp|Yankee}} main article.</ref> Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn."; the official {{wp|United States postal abbreviations|postal abbreviation}} is CT.
 
   
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===The American Revolution===
{{wp|Commemorative stamp}}s issued by the {{wp|United States Postal Service}} with Connecticut themes include {{wp|Nathan Hale}}, {{wp|Eugene O'Neill}}, {{wp|Josiah Willard Gibbs}}, {{wp|Noah Webster}}, {{wp|Eli Whitney}}, the {{wp|whaling}} {{wp|ship}} the {{wp|Charles W. Morgan (ship)|Charles W. Morgan}} which is docked in {{wp|Mystic Seaport}}, and a {{wp|decoy}} of a broadbill {{wp|duck}}.
 
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Connecticut designated four delegates to the [[Second Continental Congress]] who would sign the [[United States Declaration of Independence|Declaration of Independence]]: [[Samuel Huntington (statesman)|Samuel Huntington]], [[Roger Sherman]], [[William Williams (Continental Congress)|William Williams]], and [[Oliver Wolcott]].<ref>http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration_signers_gallery_facts.pdf "Signers of the Declaration of Independence," National Archives. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
   
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In 1775, in the wake of the clashes between British regulars and Massachusetts militia at Lexington and Concord, Connecticut's legislature authorized the outfitting of six new regiments, with some 1,200 Connecticut troops on hand at the [[Battle of Bunker Hill]] in June 1775.<ref>http://www.wpi.edu/academics/military/hillprelim.html "Battle of Bunker's Hill Preliminary Study," Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
<!-- Image with unknown copyright status removed: [[Image:CT02ZZ-4710.jpg|thumb|right|Connecticut's license plate including the state nickname]] -->
 
[[Image:Charter Oak in Hartford CT.jpg|thumb|right|The Charter Oak]]
 
[[Image:SS-571-Nautilus-trials.gif|thumb|right|The USS Nautilus]]
 
   
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Getting word in 1777 of [[Continental Army]] supplies in [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]], the British landed an expeditionary force of some 2,000 troops in [[Westport, Connecticut|Westport]], who marched to Danbury and destroyed much of the depot along with homes in Danbury. On the return march, Continental Army troops and militia led by General [[David Wooster]] and General [[Benedict Arnold]] engaged the British at [[Battle of Ridgefield|Ridgefield]] in 1777.<ref>http://archive.org/stream/accountoftryonsr00case#page/n3/mode/2up Case, James, "Tryon's Raid on Danbury in April, 1777," 1927. Retrieved May 17, 2017.</ref>
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto"
 
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|+ Connecticut state insignia and historical figures<ref name=SOTS/><sup>, except where noted</sup>
 
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For the winter of 1778–79, General [[George Washington]] decided to split the Continental Army into three divisions encircling [[New York City]], where British General Sir [[Henry Clinton (American War of Independence)|Henry Clinton]] had taken up winter quarters.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Poirier|first1=David A.|title=Camp Reading: Logistics of a Revolutionary War Winter Encampment|journal=Northeast Historical Archaeology|date=1976|volume=5|issue=1|url=http://digitalcommons.buffalostate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1326&context=neha&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.com%2Fscholar%3Fq%3D%2522redding%252C%2Bconnecticut%2522%26btnG%3D%26hl%3Den%26as_sdt%3D1%252C7%26as_vis%3D1#search=%22redding%2C%20connecticut%22|accessdate=February 17, 2015}}</ref> Major General [[Israel Putnam]] chose Redding as the winter encampment quarters for some 3,000 regulars and militia under his command. The Redding encampment allowed Putnam's soldiers to guard the replenished supply depot in [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]] and support any operations along Long Island Sound and the [[Hudson River]] Valley.<ref>http://putnampark.org/putnam-park-history-1778.htm "Park History - Putnam's 1778–1779 encampment," Friends and Neighbors of Putnam Park. Retrieved April 27, 2014.</ref> Some of the men were veterans of the winter encampment at [[Valley Forge]], [[Pennsylvania]] the previous winter. Soldiers at the Redding camp endured supply shortages, cold temperatures and significant snow, with some historians dubbing the encampment "Connecticut's Valley Forge."<ref>{{cite book|last1=O'Keefe|first1=Thomas C.|editor1-last=Johnson|editor1-first=James M.|editor2-last=Pryslopski|editor2-first=Christopher|editor3-last=Villani|editor3-first=Andrew|title=Key to the Northern Country: The Hudson River Valley in the American Revolution|date=August 1, 2013|publisher=[[SUNY Press]]|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=NfADAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA241&lpg=PA241&dq=%22putnam+park%22+%22valley+forge%22+encampment&source=bl&ots=u7vJRcF7jH&sig=dYS5a9I-Y1X_vskhxBBu4Fyt6Y0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=eSBdU8zKPJTKsATk-oDgBQ&ved=0CFcQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=%22putnam%20park%22%20%22valley%20forge%22%20encampment&f=false|accessdate=February 17, 2015|chapter=George Washington and the Redding Encampments}}</ref>
|-
 
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<!-- STATE "NATURAL" THINGS -->
 
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The state was also the launching site for a number of raids against Long Island orchestrated by [[Samuel Holden Parsons]] and [[Benjamin Tallmadge]],<ref>{{cite book|last1=Hall|first1=Charles Samuel|title=Life and Letters of Samuel Holden Parsons: Major-general in the Continental Army and Chief Judge of the Northwestern Territory, 1737-1789|year=1905|publisher=Otseningo Publishing|location=Binghamton, New York|page=110|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=llssAAAAMAAJ&pg=PR10&lpg=PR10&dq=battle+of+setauket+parsons&source=bl&ots=CUUBlo1MGX&sig=x73BLP50vjZupOYKvcP9Q9w4h8g&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8E53U8inDI_isATVwIKQAw&ved=0CGcQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=battle%20of%20setauket%20parsons&f=false|accessdate=February 17, 2015}}</ref> and provided men and material for the war effort, especially to Washington's army outside New York City. General [[William Tryon]] [[Tryon's raid|raided the Connecticut coast]] in July 1779, focusing on New Haven, Norwalk, and Fairfield.<ref>http://archive.org/stream/britishinvasiono00towniala/britishinvasiono00towniala_djvu.txt Townshend, Charles H., "British Invasion of New Haven, Connecticut," 1879. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> New London and Groton Heights [[Battle of Groton Heights|were raided]] in September 1781 by Arnold, who at that point had turned to the British.<ref>http://www.hogriver.org/issues/v04n04/benedictarnold.htm Baker, Edward, "Benedict Arnold Turns and Burns New London," Hog River Journal, Fall 2006. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
|{{wp|State tree}} || {{wp|White Oak}}; or more specifically, the {{wp|Charter Oak}}
 
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|-
 
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===Early National Period and Industrial Revolution===
|{{wp|List of U.S. state birds|State bird}} || {{wp|American Robin}}
 
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On January 9, 1788, Connecticut ratified the U.S. Constitution, becoming the fifth state.<ref>"About Connecticut," CT.gov. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
|-
 
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|{{wp|State flower}} || {{wp|Mountain Laurel}}
 
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Connecticut prospered during the era following the American Revolution, as mills and textile factories were built and seaports flourished from trade<ref>{{cite book|last1=La Bella|first1=Laura|title=Connecticut: Past and Present|date=August 15, 2010|publisher=[[Rosen Publishing]]|location=New York|page=17|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=ZYJtf6CoCs4C&pg=PA17&dq=industrial+revolution+in+connecticut&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Umd3U_3gDuzLsASHkIKgBQ&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=industrial%20revolution%20in%20connecticut&f=false|accessdate=February 17, 2015}}</ref> and fisheries.
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|{{wp|State insect}} || {{wp|European Mantis}}
 
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In 1786, Connecticut ceded territory to the U.S. government that became part of the [[Northwest Territory]]. Connecticut retained land
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extending across the northern part of present-day Ohio, called the [[Connecticut Western Reserve]].<ref name="United States Summary 2010, page V-5">http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/cph-2-1.pdf "United States Summary: 2010," U.S. Census Bureau, September 2010, page V-5. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio. Agreements with Pennsylvania and New York extinguished the land claims by Connecticut within its neighbors, creating the [[Connecticut Panhandle]]. Connecticut ceded the Western Reserve in 1800 to the federal government,<ref name="United States Summary 2010, page V-5"/> which brought the state to its present boundaries other than minor adjustments with Massachusetts.
|{{wp|State animal}} || {{wp|Sperm Whale}}
 
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|-
 
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The British blockade during the [[War of 1812]] hurt exports, and bolstered the influence of Federalists who opposed the war.<ref>Glenn S. Gordinier, ''The Rockets' Red Glare: The War of 1812 and Connecticut'' (2012)</ref> The cessation of imports from Britain stimulated the construction of factories to manufacture textiles and machinery. Due in part to the inventions of [[Eli Whitney]] and other early innovators of the [[Industrial Revolution]], Connecticut would come to be recognized as a major center for manufacturing.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Morris|first1=Charles R.|title=The Dawn of Innovation: The First American Industrial Revolution|date=January 1, 2012|publisher=[[PublicAffairs]]|page=136|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=n97K02J6eQgC&pg=PA338&dq=industrial+revolution+in+connecticut+whitney&hl=en&sa=X&ei=_md3U8HIFtGxsASvoYDACw&ved=0CHwQ6AEwCw#v=onepage&q=connecticut&f=false|accessdate=February 17, 2015}}</ref>
|{{wp|State mineral}} || {{wp|Garnet}}
 
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|-
 
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The state was known for its political conservatism, typified by its Federalist party and the Yale College of [[Timothy Dwight IV|Timothy Dwight]]. The foremost intellectuals were Dwight and [[Noah Webster]],<ref>{{cite book|last1=Elliott|first1=Emory|title=Revolutionary Writers: Literature and Authority in the New Republic, 1725-1810|year=1982|publisher=[[Oxford University Press]]|page=14|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=WmI6avgH0GoC&pg=PA14&dq=timothy+dwight+noah+webster+connecticut+intellectuals&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wWp3U4CMM47IsATNn4DADQ&ved=0CD0Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=timothy%20dwight%20noah%20webster%20connecticut%20intellectuals&f=false|accessdate=February 17, 2015}}</ref> who compiled his great dictionary in New Haven. Religious tensions polarized the state, as the established Congregational Church, in alliance with the Federalists, tried to maintain its grip on power. The failure of the [[Hartford Convention]] in 1814 hurt the Federalist cause, with the Republican Party gaining control in 1817.<ref>https://archive.org/details/shortaccountofha00lyma Lyman, Theodore, "A short account of the Hartford Convention," 1823. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
|{{wp|State shellfish}} || {{wp|Eastern Oyster}}
 
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|-
 
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Having been governed under the "[[Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders]]" since 1639, Connecticut adopted in 1818 a new constitution.<ref>http://www.cga.ct.gov/asp/Content/constitutions/1818Constitution.htm "The Constitution of Connecticut (1818)," Connecticut General Assembly. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
|{{wp|State fish}} || {{wp|American Shad}}
 
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|-
 
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===Civil War era===
|{{wp|State fossil}} || {{wp|Eubrontes giganteus}}
 
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{{Main|Connecticut in the American Civil War}}
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[[Image:Connecticut1895.jpg|thumb|600px|1895 map from [[Rand McNally]]]]
<!-- STATE "MADE" THINGS -->
 
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|{{wp|State ship}} || {{wp|USS Nautilus (SSN-571)}}
 
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Connecticut manufacturers played a major role in supplying the Union forces with weapons and supplies during the [[Union (American Civil War)|Civil War]]. The state furnished 55,000 men. They were formed into thirty full regiments of infantry, including two in the [[U.S. Colored Troops]], with several Connecticut men becoming generals. The Navy attracted 250 officers and 2100 men, and [[Gideon Welles]] was Secretary of the Navy. [[James H. Ward]] of Hartford was the first U.S. Naval Officer killed in the Civil War.<ref>http://norwich.typepad.com/museum/2012/08/james-h-ward-first-us-navy-officer-killed-in-the-civil-war.html</ref> Connecticut casualties included 2088 killed in combat, 2801 dying from disease, and 689 dying in Confederate prison camps.<ref>Van Dusen, ''Connecticut'' pp 224-38</ref><ref>Matthew Warshauer, ''Connecticut in the American Civil War: Slavery, Sacrifice, and Survival'' (Wesleyan University Press, 2011)</ref><ref>{{cite book|author1=William Augustus Croffut|author2=John Moses Morris|title=The Military and Civil History of Connecticut During the War of 1861–65: Comprising a Detailed Account of the Various Regiments and Batteries, Through March, Encampment, Bivouac, and Battle; Also Instances of Distinguished Personal Gallantry, and Biographical Sketches of Many Heroic Soldiers: Together with a Record of the Patriotic Action of Citizens at Home, and of the Liberal Support Furnished by the State in Its Executive and Legislative Departments|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=3TUyuhpp9zoC|year=1869}}</ref>
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|State {{wp|flagship}} and {{wp|tall ship}} ambassador || {{wp|Freedom Schooner Amistad}}
 
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A surge of national unity in 1861 brought thousands flocking to the colors from every town and city. However as the war became a crusade to end slavery, many Democrats (especially Irish Catholics) pulled back. The Democrats took a peace position and included many [[Copperhead (politics)|Copperheads]] willing to let the South secede. The intensely fought 1863 election for governor was narrowly won by the Republicans.<ref>Joanna D. Cowden, "The Politics of Dissent: Civil War Democrats in Connecticut," ''New England Quarterly'' (1983) 56#4 pp. 538-554 DOI: 10.2307/365104 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/365104 in JSTOR]</ref><ref>Jarlath Robert Lane, ''A Political History of Connecticut During the Civil War'' (1941)</ref>
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|{{wp|State aircraft}} || {{wp|F4U Corsair}}
 
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===Second Industrial Revolution===
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Connecticut's extensive industry, dense population, flat terrain, and wealth encouraged the construction of railroads, starting in 1839. By 1840, 102 miles of line were in operation, growing to 402 in 1850 and 601 in 1860.<ref>Edward Chase Kirkland, ''Men, Cities and Transportation, A Study of New England History 1820–1900'' (1948), vol 2 pp 72-110, 288-306</ref>
|{{wp|State tartan}} || visible [http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/Images/TARTAN.jpg here]
 
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The [[New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad]], called the ''New Haven'' or "The Consolidated," became the dominant Connecticut railroad company after 1872. Starting in the 1890s [[J. P. Morgan]] began financing the major New England railroads, and dividing territory so they would not compete. The New Haven purchased 50 smaller companies, including steamship lines, and built a network of light rails (electrified trolleys) that provided inter-urban transportation for all of southern New England. By 1912, the New Haven operated over 2000 miles of track, and 120,000 employees.<ref>http://doddcenter.uconn.edu/asc/findaids/NHRR_Smallformat/MSS19910133.html "New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Small Format Photograph and Postcard Collection," University of Connecticut, 2005. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
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In 1875, the first telephone exchange in the world was established in New Haven.<ref>http://connecticuthistory.org/the-first-commercial-telephone-exchange-today-in-history/ "First Commercial Telephone Exchange," ConnecticutHistory.org. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
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===World War I===
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When World War I broke out in 1914, Connecticut became a major supplier of weaponry to the U.S. military; by 1918, 80% of the state's industries were producing goods for the war effort.<ref>{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=EP7bDoZcGTIC&pg=PA107&dq=connecticut+%22world+war+I%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5Q2HU8_eKorKsQTXpoHgDg&ved=0CHEQ6AEwCg#v=onepage&q=connecticut%20%22world%20war%20I%22&f=false |author=Breen, William |title=''Labor Market Politics and the Great War: The Department of Labor, the States and the First U.S. Employment Service, 1907-1933'' |publisher=Kent State University Press |date=1997 |page=107 |ref=Breen |accessdate=May 29, 2014}}</ref> [[Remington Arms]] in Bridgeport produced half the small-arms cartridges used by the U.S. Army;<ref>{{cite web|url=http://connecticuthistory.org/topics-page/world-war-i/ |title=World War I |publisher=ConnecticutHistory.org |accessdate=May 28, 2014}}</ref> with other major suppliers including [[Winchester Repeating Arms Company|Winchester]] in New Haven and [[Colt's Manufacturing Company|Colt]] in Hartford.<ref>Van Dusen, ''Connecticut'' (1961) p 266-68</ref>
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Connecticut was also an important U.S. Navy supplier, with [[General Dynamics Electric Boat|Electric Boat]] receiving orders for 85 submarines,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.gdeb.com/about/history/ |title=EB History |publisher=General Dynamics Electric Boat |accessdate=May 17, 2014}}</ref> [[Lake Torpedo Boat]] building more than 20 subs,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.shipbuildinghistory.com/history/shipyards/2large/inactive/laketorpedo.htm |title=Lake Torpedo Boat Company, Bridgeport CT |publisher=Shipbuilding History |accessdate=May 28, 2014}}</ref> and the [[Groton Iron Works]] building freighters.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://connecticuthistory.org/freighter-worcester-launched-today-in-history/ |title=Freighter Worcester Launched – Today in History |publisher=ConnecticutHistory.org |accessdate=May 28, 2014}}</ref> On June 21, 1916, the U.S. Navy made Groton the site for its East Coast submarine base and school.<ref>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_Submarine_Base_New_London#History "History," CNIC Naval Submarine Base New London. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
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The state enthusiastically supported the American war effort in 1917 and 1918, with large purchases of war bonds and a further expansion of war industry, and emphasis on increasing food production in the farms. Thousands of state, local, and volunteer groups mobilized for the war effort, and were coordinated by the Connecticut State Council of Defense.<ref>William J. Breen, "Mobilization and Cooperative Federalism: The Connecticut State Council of Defense, 1917‐1919." ''Historian'' (1979) 42#1 pp 58-84</ref> Manufacturers wrestled with manpower shortages; with American Brass and Manufacturing running at half capacity, the federal government agreed to furlough soldiers to join the Waterbury company.{{sfn|Breen |page=116}}
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===Interwar period===
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In 1919, Henry Roraback started the [[Northeast Utilities|Connecticut Light & Power Co.]],<ref>http://www.cl-p.com/Home/AboutCLP/CLPHistory/CL_P_History/?MenuID=4294984959 "Beginnings of the Connecticut Light and Power Company," Connecticut Light & Power. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> which would grow to become the state's dominant electric utility.
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In 1925, [[Frederick Rentschler]] spurred the creation of [[Pratt & Whitney]] in Hartford to develop engines for aircraft; the company would become an important military supplier in World War II and in time one of the three major manufacturers of jet engines in the world.<ref>http://nationalaviation.org/rentschler-frederick/ "Frederick Rentschler," The National Aviation Hall of Fame. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
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On September 21, 1938, the most destructive storm in New England history struck eastern Connecticut, killing hundreds of people.<ref>http://www.weather.gov/okx/1938HurricaneHome "The Great New England Hurricane of 1938," National Weather Service. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> The eye of the [[1938 New England hurricane|"Long Island Express"]] passed just west of New Haven and devastated the Connecticut shoreline between Old Saybrook and Stonington, which lacked the partial protection provided by Long Island, N.Y. to points west from the full force of wind and waves. The hurricane caused extensive damage to infrastructure, homes, and businesses. In New London, a 500-foot sailing ship was driven into a warehouse complex, causing a major fire. Heavy rainfall caused the Connecticut River to flood downtown Hartford and East Hartford. An estimated 50,000 trees fell onto roadways.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/21/nyregion/remembering-the-great-hurricane-of-38.html |title=Remembering the Great Hurricane of '38 |publisher=New York Times |date=September 21, 2003 |accessdate=May 17, 2014}}</ref>
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===World War II===
  +
The advent of [[Lend-Lease]] in support of Britain helped lift Connecticut from the Great Depression,<ref>http://content.library.ccsu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/ccsutheses/id/1014 Brandi, Anthony, "Lend-lease : FDR's most unheralded achievement and Connecticut's unprecedented response to it," Central Connecticut State University, May 2007. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> with the state a major production center for weaponry and supplies used in [[World War II]]. Connecticut manufactured 4.1 percent of total U.S. military armaments produced during World War II, ranking ninth among the 48 states,<ref>[[Whiz Kids (Department of Defense)|Peck, Merton J.]] & [[Frederic M. Scherer|Scherer, Frederic M.]] ''The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis'' (1962) [[Harvard Business School]] p.111</ref> with major factories including [[Colt's Manufacturing Company|Colt]]<ref>http://articles.courant.com/2012-08-19/business/hc-colt-timeline-20120817_1_colt-firearms-firearms-division-rampant-colt "Colt Manufacturing: A Timeline," Hartford Courant, August 19, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> for firearms, [[Pratt & Whitney]] for aircraft engines, [[Vought|Chance Vought]] for fighter planes, [[Hamilton Standard]] for propellers,<ref>http://connecticuthistory.org/topics-page/world-war-ii/ "World War II," ConnecticutHistory.org. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> and [[General Dynamics Electric Boat|Electric Boat]] for submarines and PT boats.<ref>http://www.gdeb.com/about/history/ "EB History," General Dynamics Electric Boat. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> In Bridgeport, General Electric would produce a significant new weapon to counter opposing tanks: the bazooka.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://connecticuthistory.org/the-bazooka-changes-war/ |title=The Bazooka Changes War – Today in History |publisher=ConnecticutHistory.org |accessdate=May 28, 2014}}</ref>
  +
  +
On May 13, 1940, [[Igor Sikorsky]] made an untethered flight of what was the first practical [[helicopter]].<ref>http://www.sikorskyarchives.com/VS-300_Helicopter.php "VS-300 Helicopter," Sikorsky Archives. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> While the helicopter would see only limited use in World War II, future military production would make [[Sikorsky Aircraft]]'s [[Stratford, Connecticut|Stratford]] plant Connecticut's largest single manufacturing site by the start of the 21st century.<ref>http://www1.ctdol.state.ct.us/lmi/EmpSearchTopList.asp?intSort=6 "Search Results for the 100 largest employers in Connecticut," Connecticut Department of Labor. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
  +
===Post-World War II economic expansion===
  +
While Connecticut saw the loss of some wartime factories following the end of hostilities, the state shared in a general post-war expansion that included the construction of highways,<ref>http://www.ct.gov/dot/cwp/view.asp?A=1380&Q=259704 "Interstate Highways Given New Life by Federal Aid Highway Acts," Connecticut Department of Transportation, September 9, 2003. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> resulting in middle-class growth in suburban areas.
  +
  +
[[Prescott Bush]] represented Connecticut in the U.S. Senate from 1952 to 1963; his son [[George H.W. Bush]] and grandson [[George W. Bush]] both would become presidents of the United States.<ref>http://www.georgewbushlibrary.smu.edu/The-President-and-Family/The-Bush-Family.aspx "The Bush Family," George W. Bush Library, Southern Methodist University. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
  +
  +
In 1965, Connecticut ratified its [[Connecticut Constitution|current constitution]], replacing the document that had served since 1818.<ref>http://www.cslib.org/constitutionalAmends/ "The Connecticut Constitution, 1965–2008: Legislative History of Amendments," Connecticut State Library. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
  +
  +
In 1968, commercial operation began for the Connecticut Yankee Nuclear Power Plant in [[East Haddam, Connecticut|East Haddam]]; in 1970, the [[Millstone Nuclear Power Plant|Millstone Nuclear Power Station]] would begin operations in [[Waterford, Connecticut|Waterford]].<ref>http://wnpr.org/post/connecticut-yankee-and-millstone-46-years-nuclear-power "Connecticut Yankee and Millstone: 46 Years of Nuclear Power," WNPR.org, January 31, 2014. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
  +
  +
In 1974 Connecticut elected as governor Democrat [[Ella T. Grasso]], who became the first woman in any state to be elected governor in her own right.<ref>Jon E. Purmont. ''Ella Grasso: Connecticut's Pioneering Governor'' (2012)</ref>
  +
  +
===Late 20th century===
  +
Connecticut's dependence on the defense industry posed an economic challenge at the end of the [[Cold War]]. The resulting budget crisis helped elect [[Lowell Weicker]] as governor on a third-party ticket in 1990. Weicker's remedy, a state income tax, proved effective in balancing the budget but politically unpopular, and Weicker did not run for a second term.<ref>http://www.cslib.org/gov/weickerl.htm "Lowell Weicker
  +
Governor of Connecticut, 1991–1995," Connecticut State Library, 2008. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
  +
  +
In 1992, initial construction was completed on [[Foxwoods Resort Casino|Foxwoods Casino]] at the [[Mashantucket Pequots]] reservation in eastern Connecticut, which would become the largest casino in the Western Hemisphere. [[Mohegan Sun]] would follow four years later.<ref>http://www.ct.gov/dcp/cwp/view.asp?a=4107&q=482860 "Legalized Gambling," Connecticut Department of Consumer Protection. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
  +
  +
===Early 21st century===
  +
In August 2000, presidential candidate [[Al Gore]] chose as his running mate Senator [[Joe Lieberman]], marking the first time a major party presidential ticket included someone of the Jewish faith.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2000/08/08/news/08iht-veep.2.t.html |title=Gore's Choice for His Running Mate: Moderate Senator Who Scorned Clinton: Selecting Lieberman Is Seen as Bold Move; Religion May Be Issue |publisher=New York Times |date=August 8, 2000 |accessdate=May 21, 2014}}</ref> Gore and Lieberman fell five votes short of [[George W. Bush]] and [[Dick Cheney]] in the Electoral College.
  +
  +
In the terrorist [[September 11 attacks|attacks of September 11, 2001]], 65 state residents were killed. The vast majority were [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]] residents who were working in the [[World Trade Center]].<ref>Associated Press listing as it appeared in ''The Advocate'' of Stamford, September 12, 2006, page A4</ref>
  +
  +
In 2004, Republican Governor [[John G. Rowland]] resigned during a corruption investigation,<ref>http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/06/21/connecticut.governor/ "Connecticut governor announces resignation," CNN.com, June 21, 2004. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> later pleading guilty to federal charges.<ref>http://www.foxnews.com/story/2004/12/23/ex-gov-rowland-pleads-guilty-to-corruption/ "Ex-Gov. Rowland Pleads Guilty to Corruption," Fox News, December 23, 2004. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
  +
  +
In 2011 and 2012, Connecticut was hit by three major storms in the space of just over 14 months, with all three causing extensive property damage and electric outages. Hurricane Irene struck Connecticut August 28 with the storm blamed for the deaths of three residents. Damage totaled $235 million, including 20 houses that were destroyed in [[East Haven, Connecticut|East Haven]].<ref>http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/hurricane-irene-year-storm-cost-15-8-damage-florida-new-york-caribbean-article-1.1145302 "Hurricane Irene one year later: Storm cost $15.8 in damage from Florida to New York to the Caribbean," New York Daily News, August 27, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> Two months later in late October, the so-called [[2011 Halloween nor'easter|"Halloween nor'easter"]] dropped extensive snow onto trees in Connecticut that still had foliage, resulting in a significant numbers of snapped branches and trunks that damaged property and power lines, with some areas not seeing electricity restored for 11 days.<ref>https://www.ferc.gov/legal/staff-reports/05-31-2012-ne-outage-report.pdf ''Report on Transmission Facility Outages During the Northeast Snowstorm of October 29–30, 2011,'' Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and North American Electric Reliability Corporation, 2012-05-12, pages 8-16. Retrieved May 3, 2014.</ref> Hurricane Sandy had tropical storm-force winds when it reached Connecticut October 29, 2012, with four deaths blamed on the storm.<ref>http://www.cnn.com/2013/07/13/world/americas/hurricane-sandy-fast-facts/ "Hurricane Sandy Fast Facts," July 13, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> Sandy's winds drove storm surges into coastal streets, toppled trees, and cut power to 98 percent of homes and businesses en route to more than $360 million in damage.<ref>http://www.insurancejournal.com/news/east/2012/11/16/270954.htm "Conn. Gov.: State's Damage From Superstorm Sandy $360M and Climbing," Insurance Journal, November 16, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
  +
  +
On December 14, 2012, [[Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting|Adam Lanza shot and killed 26 people]], including 20 children and 6 staff, at [[Sandy Hook Elementary School]] in the [[Sandy Hook, Connecticut|Sandy Hook]] village of [[Newtown, Connecticut]], and then killed himself.<ref>[http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/U/US_CONNECTICUT_SCHOOL_SHOOTING?SITE=AP&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT&CTIME=2012-12-14-13-27-48 Associated Press ''Official: 27 dead in Conn. school shooting '']</ref> The massacre would spur renewed efforts by activists for tighter laws on gun ownership nationally.<ref>http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/10/us/state-gun-laws-enacted-in-the-year-since-newtown.html "State Gun Laws Enacted in the Year Since Newtown," New York Times, December 10, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
  +
  +
==Demographics==
  +
{{US Census population
  +
|1790= 237946
  +
|1800= 251002
  +
|1810= 261942
  +
|1820= 275248
  +
|1830= 297675
  +
|1840= 309978
  +
|1850= 370792
  +
|1860= 460147
  +
|1870= 537454
  +
|1880= 622700
  +
|1890= 746258
  +
|1900= 908420
  +
|1910= 1114756
  +
|1920= 1380631
  +
|1930= 1606903
  +
|1940= 1709242
  +
|1950= 2007280
  +
|1960= 2535234
  +
|1970= 3031709
  +
|1980= 3107576
  +
|1990= 3287116
  +
|2000= 3405565
  +
|2010= 3574097
  +
|estimate= 3596677
  +
|estyear= 2014
  +
|footnote=<center>'''Sources:'''<ref name="PopEstUS"/><ref>{{Citation|url=http://www.census.gov/population/censusdata/table-16.pdf|title=Population|contribution=1790 to 1990|publisher=Census}}.</ref><ref>{{Citation|url=http://www.census.gov/population/cen2000/tab02.txt|title=Resident Population of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico|publisher=Census|year=2000}}.</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Resident Population Data|url=http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-pop-text.php|publisher=Census|year=2010|accessdate=January 23, 2011}}</ref>
  +
}}
  +
[[File:Connecticut population map.png|right|thumb|200px|Connecticut Population Density Map]]
  +
  +
The [[United States Census Bureau]] estimates that the population of Connecticut was 3,596,677 on July 1, 2014, a 0.63% increase since the [[2010 United States Census]].<ref name="PopEstUS">{{cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/popest/data/state/totals/2014/tables/NST-EST2014-01.csv|format=CSV|title=Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014|date=January 4, 2015|publisher=[[U.S. Census Bureau]]|accessdate=January 4, 2015}}</ref>
  +
  +
As of 2014, Connecticut had an estimated population of 3,596,677,<ref name="PopEstUS"/> which is an increase of 9,638, or 0.2%, from the prior year and an increase of 16,250, or 0.5%, since the year 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. [[Immigration to the United States|Immigration]] from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and [[Human migration|migration]] within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moves from the 29th most populous state to 30th.
  +
  +
6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.
  +
  +
In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut was classified as "rural." The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, it was only 12.3%. Most of western and southern Connecticut (particularly the [[Gold Coast (Connecticut)|Gold Coast]]) is strongly associated with New York City; this area is the most affluent and populous region of the state. Eastern Connecticut is more culturally influenced by the greater New England area, including the cities of Boston and Providence. The [[center of population]] of Connecticut is located in the town of [[Cheshire, Connecticut|Cheshire]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Population and Population Centers by State | year = 2000 | publisher=United States Census Bureau | accessdate = December 4, 2008 | url = http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5mqyj8Y7G |archivedate = January 17, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref>
  +
  +
===Race, ancestry, and language===
  +
As of the [[2010 U.S. Census]], Connecticut's race and ethnic percentages were:
  +
* 77.6% White (71.2% [[Non-Hispanic White]], 6.4% [[White Hispanic]])
  +
* 10.1% Black or [[African American]]
  +
* 0.3% [[Native Americans in the United States|American Indian]] and [[Alaska Native]]
  +
* 3.8% Asian
  +
* 0.0% [[Native Hawaiian]] and Other [[Pacific Islander (U.S. Census)|Pacific Islander]]
  +
* 5.6% from some other race
  +
* 2.6% Two or more races
  +
  +
In the same year Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 13.4% of the population.<ref>{{Citation | title = Fact finder | publisher = Census bureau | place = [[United States of America|US]] | url = http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_PL_QTPL&prodType=table}}.</ref>
  +
  +
The state's most populous ethnic group, Non-Hispanic White, has declined from 98% in 1940 to 71% in 2010.<ref>{{cite web | title =Connecticut – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990|publisher=US Census Bureau|url= http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0056/twps0056.html |accessdate=April 18, 2012}}</ref>
  +
  +
{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"
  +
|+ '''Connecticut Racial Breakdown of Population'''
 
|-
 
|-
  +
! Racial composition !! 1990<ref>[http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0056/twps0056.html Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States]</ref>!! 2000<ref>[http://censusviewer.com/state/CT Population of Connecticut: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts]</ref>!! 2010<ref>[http://www.census.gov/2010census/data/ 2010 Census Data]</ref>
<!-- STATE MUSIC -->
 
|{{wp|State song}} || {{wp|Yankee Doodle}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| [[White American|White]] || 87.0% || 81.6% || 77.6%
|{{wp|State folk dance}} || {{wp|Square dance}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| [[African American|Black]] || 8.3% || 9.1% || 10.1%
|{{wp|State cantata}} || ''The Nutmeg''
 
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| [[Asian American|Asian]] || 1.5% || 2.4% || 3.8%
<!-- STATE PEOPLE, MEMORIALS-->
 
|{{wp|State hero}} || {{wp|Nathan Hale}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| [[Native Americans in the United States|Native]] || 0.2% || 0.3% || 0.3%
|{{wp|State heroine}} || {{wp|Prudence Crandall}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| [[Native Hawaiian]] and<br />[[Pacific Islander|other Pacific Islander]] || - || - || -
|{{wp|State composer}} || {{wp|Charles Edward Ives}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| [[Race and ethnicity in the United States Census|Other race]] || 2.9% || 4.3% || 5.6%
|State statues in {{wp|National Statuary Hall Collection|Statuary Hall}} || {{wp|Roger Sherman}} and {{wp|Jonathan Trumbull}}<ref>See {{wp|National Statuary Hall Collection#Collection|National Statuary Hall Collection}}</ref>
 
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| [[Multiracial American|Two or more races]] || - || 2.2% || 2.6%
<!-- STATE PEOPLE, HONORARY POSTS-->
 
|{{wp|State poet laureate}} || {{wp|John Hollander}}
 
|-
 
|{{wp|Connecticut State Troubadour}} || {{wp|Pierce Campbell}}<ref>[http://www.ct.gov/cct/cwp/view.asp?a=2162&q=293748&cctNav=%7C43587%7C Connecticut State Troubadour]; CT Commission on Culture & Tourism Arts Division website; retrieved {{wp|January 4}}, {{wp|2007}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|{{wp|State composer laureate}} || {{wp|Jacob Druckman}}
 
 
|}
 
|}
   
  +
As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born. In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.
== Demographics ==
 
{{USCensusPop
 
|1790 = 237946
 
|1800 = 251002
 
|1810 = 261942
 
|1820 = 275248
 
|1830 = 297675
 
|1840 = 309978
 
|1850 = 370792
 
|1860 = 460147
 
|1870 = 537454
 
|1880 = 622700
 
|1890 = 746258
 
|1900 = 908420
 
|1910 = 1114756
 
|1920 = 1380631
 
|1930 = 1606903
 
|1940 = 1709242
 
|1950 = 2007280
 
|1960 = 2535234
 
|1970 = 3031709
 
|1980 = 3107576
 
|1990 = 3287116
 
|2000 = 3405565
 
|2004 = 3503604
 
| footnote= '''Sources:'''<ref>[http://www.census.gov/population/censusdata/table-16.pdf Population: 1790 to 1990] census.gov</ref><ref>[http://www.census.gov/population/cen2000/tab02.txt Resident Population of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: Census 2000] census.gov</ref>
 
}}
 
[[Image:Connecticut population map.png|right|thumb|200px|Connecticut Population Density Map]]
 
   
  +
As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke English at home and 8.42% spoke Spanish, followed by Italian at 1.59%, French at 1.31% and Polish at 1.20%.<ref>{{cite web| url = http://www.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=9&mode=state_tops&order=r | title = Most spoken languages in Connecticut| accessdate = January 16, 2007| work= Language Map| publisher=The Modern Language Association|archiveurl = //web.archive.org/web/20070930171318/http%3A//www.mla.org/map_data_results%26state_id%3D9%26mode%3Dstate_tops%26order%3Dr |archivedate = September 30, 2007|deadurl= yes}}</ref>
As of 2005, Connecticut has an estimated population of 3,510,297,<ref name=stateest>{{cite web |date={{wp|June 21}} {{wp|2006}} | url = http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2005-01.csv | title = Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005|format = {{wp|Comma-separated values|CSV}} | work = 2005 Population Estimates | publisher = U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division | accessdate =2006-11-17}}</ref> which is an increase of 11,331, or 0.3%, from the prior year and an increase of 104,695, or 3.1%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. {{wp|Immigration to the United States|Immigration}} from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and {{wp|Human migration|migration}} within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moves from the 29th most populous state to 30th.<ref name=stateest/>
 
   
  +
The largest ancestry groups are:<ref>{{cite web| work =American FactFinder | location = [[United States|US]] | publisher = Census Bureau |url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&-qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_DP3YR2&-ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_&-tree_id=3308&-redoLog=false&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=04000US09&-format=&-_lang=en | title = American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref>
6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.
 
  +
* 32% British Isles (17.9% [[Irish American|Irish]], 10.7% [[English American|English]], 2.0% [[Scottish American|Scottish]], 1.4% [[Scotch-Irish American|Scotch Irish]])
  +
* 19.3% [[Italian American|Italian]]
  +
* 10.4% [[German American|German]]
  +
* 8.6% [[Polish American|Polish]]
  +
* 6.6% [[Franco American|French]]
  +
* 3.0% [[French Canadian]]
  +
* 2.7% [[Americans|American]]
  +
* 2.1% [[Russian American|Russian]]
  +
* 2.1% [[West Indies|West Indian]]
  +
* 2.0% [[Scottish American|Scottish]]
  +
* 2.0% [[Swedish American|Swedish]]
  +
* 1.6% [[Portuguese American|Portuguese]]
  +
* 1.2% [[Hungarian American|Hungarian]]
  +
* 1.0% [[Lithuanian American|Lithuanian]]
   
  +
Connecticut has large [[Italian American]], [[Irish American]] and [[English American]] populations, as well as [[German American]] and [[Portuguese American]] populations, with the Italian American population having the second highest percentage of any state, behind Rhode Island (19.3%). [[Italian American|Italian]] is the largest ancestry group in five of the state's counties, while the [[Irish American|Irish]] are the largest group in Tolland county, [[French Canadians]] the largest group in Windham county. African Americans and [[Hispanics in the United States|Hispanics]] (mostly [[Puerto Ricans in the United States|Puerto Ricans]]) are numerous in the urban areas of the state. Connecticut is also known for its relatively large [[Hungarian American]] population, the majority of which live in and around [[Fairfield, Connecticut|Fairfield]], [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], [[Naugatuck, Connecticut|Naugatuck]] and [[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]]. Connecticut also has a sizable [[Polish American]] population, with [[New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]] containing the largest [[Polish American]] population in the state.
In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut were classified as "rural". The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, it was only 12.3%. The southwestern coast is all urban and is most widely known from New York City. The eastern half of the state though mostly is associated with Boston because of proximity. This split has caused a lack of more than a few professional sport teams. ie: NHL hockey since the mid 1990s, NFL football, MLS soccer and men's basketball.
 
   
  +
More recent immigrant populations include those from [[India]], [[Philippines]], Laos, [[Vietnam]], Thailand, [[Indonesia]], [[Mexico]], [[Brazil]], Guatemala, [[Panama]], Jamaica, [[Haiti]], Cape Verde and former [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] countries.
The {{wp|center of population}} of Connecticut is located in the town of {{wp|Cheshire, Connecticut|Cheshire}}.<ref> {{cite web| url=http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt| title=Population and Population Centers by State: 2000| publisher=US Census Bureau}}</ref>
 
   
  +
As of 2011, 46.1% of Connecticut's population younger than age 1 were minorities.<ref>{{cite news|url = http://www.cleveland.com/datacentral/index.ssf/2012/06/americas_under_age_1_populatio.html |title=Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot|last=Exner|first=Rich|date=June 3, 2012|work=[[The Plain Dealer]]}}</ref>
=== Race, ancestry, and language ===
 
{{US Demographics}}
 
   
  +
[[File:A map showing the majority racial or ethnic group in Connecticut by census block.png|thumbnail|Majority Racial and Ethnic Groups in Connecticut, 2010]]
As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born, and 10% of the foreign-born in the state were illegal aliens (about 1.1% of the population). In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.
 
   
  +
===Religion===
As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke {{wp|English language|English}} at home and 8.42% spoke {{wp|Spanish language|Spanish}}, followed by {{wp|Italian language|Italian}} at 1.59%, {{wp|French language|French}} at 1.31% and {{wp|Polish language|Polish}} at 1.20%.<ref>{{cite web| url = http://www.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=9&mode=state_tops&order=r| title = Most spoken languages in Connecticut| accessdate = 2007-01-16| work = MLA Language Map| publisher = The Modern Language Association}}</ref>
 
  +
A Pew survey of Connecticut residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations: Protestant 27%, [[Mormonism]] 0.5%, Jewish 1%, [[Roman Catholicism in the United States|Roman Catholic]] 43%, Orthodox 1%, [[Non-religious]] 23%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, Hinduism 0.5%, Buddhism 1% and Islam 0.5%.<ref>http://religions.pewforum.org/maps</ref> [[Jewish American|Jewish congregations]] had 108,280 (3.2%) members in 2000.<ref name="www.thearda.com">{{cite web|url=http://www.thearda.com/rcms2010/r/s/05/rcms2010_05_state_adh_2010.asp |title=The Association of Religion Data Archives &#124; State Membership Report |publisher=www.thearda.com |accessdate=November 7, 2013}}</ref> The Jewish population is concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]] and [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]], in [[Greater New Haven]] and in [[Greater Hartford]], especially the suburb of [[West Hartford, Connecticut|West Hartford]]. According to the [[Association of Religion Data Archives]], the largest Christian denominations, by number of adherents, in 2010 were: the [[Catholic Church]], with 1,252,936; the [[United Church of Christ]], with 96,506; and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants, with 72,863.<ref name="www.thearda.com" />
   
  +
Recent immigration has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low. Connecticut is also home to New England's largest Protestant Church: [[The First Cathedral]] in [[Bloomfield, Connecticut]] located in [[Hartford County]]. Hartford is seat to the Roman Catholic [[Archdiocese of Hartford]], which is sovereign over the [[Diocese of Bridgeport]] and the [[Roman Catholic Diocese of Norwich|Diocese of Norwich]].
The five largest reported ancestries in the state are: {{wp|Italian-American|Italian}} (18.6%), {{wp|Ireland|Irish}} (16.6%), {{wp|British-American|English}} (10.3%), {{wp|German-American|German}} (9.9%), and {{wp|French American|French/French Canadian}} (9.9%).
 
   
  +
==Economy==
Connecticut has large {{wp|Italian-American}} and {{wp|Irish-American}} populations , as well as German and {{wp|Portuguese-American}}, second highest percentage of any state behind Rhode Island. {{wp|Italian people|Italian}} is the largest ancestry group in five of the state's counties, while the {{wp|Irish people|Irish}} are the largest group in Tolland county, {{wp|French-Canadians}} the largest group in Windham county, and old stock {{wp|Yankee|New England Yankees}} are present throughout. Connecticut is the most Italian-American state percentage-wise, just above Rhode Island. {{wp|African American|Blacks}} and {{wp|Hispanics in the United States|Hispanics}} (mostly {{wp|Puerto Ricans in the United States|Puerto Ricans}}) are numerous in the urban areas of the state. Connecticut also has a sizable {{wp|Polish American}} population, with {{wp|New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain}} containing the largest Polish-American population in the state.
 
  +
{{See also|List of Connecticut locations by per capita income}}
  +
[[File:Welcome Connecticut.jpg|thumb|Connecticut state welcome sign in [[Enfield, Connecticut]]]]
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[[File:Merritt Parkway.jpg|thumb|Entering the Merritt Parkway from New York in [[Greenwich, Connecticut]]]]
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The total [[gross state product]] for 2012 was $229.3&nbsp;billion, up from $225.4&nbsp;billion in 2011.<ref>{{cite web|title=Total Gross Domestic Product by State for Connecticut|url = http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/CTNGSP |publisher=Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis |accessdate=May 15, 2014}}</ref>
   
  +
Connecticut's per capita personal income in 2013 was estimated at $60,847, the highest of any state.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/regional/spi/2014/pdf/spi0314.pdf|title= State Personal Income 2013| publisher=U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis |date=March 25, 2014 |accessdate=May 15, 2014 }}</ref> There is, however, a great disparity in incomes throughout the state; after New York, Connecticut had the second largest gap nationwide between the average incomes of the top 1 percent and the average incomes of the bottom 99 percent.<ref>"The Increasingly Unequal States of America," The Economic Policy Institute, February 19, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-15.</ref> According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Connecticut had the third-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 7.32 percent.<ref>{{cite web|last=Frank|first=Robert|title=Top states for millionaires per capita|url=http://www.cnbc.com/id/101338309|publisher=CNBC|accessdate=January 22, 2014}}</ref> [[New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan]] is the wealthiest town in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $85,459. [[Darien, Connecticut|Darien]], [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]], [[Weston, Connecticut|Weston]], [[Westport, Connecticut|Westport]] and [[Wilton, Connecticut|Wilton]] also have per capita incomes over $65,000. [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] is the poorest municipality in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 in 2000.<ref name="CTincome2000">{{cite web | format = [[Microsoft Excel file format|XLS]] | publisher = State of Connecticut | url=http://www.ct.gov/ecd/lib/ecd/economic_data/income/2000_median_hh,_family_&_per_cap_income.xls |title=Connecticut per capita income, median household income, and median family income at State, County and Town level: Census 2000 data | type = spreadsheet | accessdate =July 25, 2010}}</ref>
More recent immigrant populations include those from {{wp|Laos}}, {{wp|Vietnam}}, {{wp|Thailand}}, {{wp|Indonesia}}, {{wp|Mexico}}, {{wp|Brazil}}, {{wp|Guatemala}}, {{wp|Panama}}, and former {{wp|Soviet Union|Soviet}} countries.
 
   
  +
The state's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in March 2014 was 7.0 percent, the 39th highest in the nation.<ref>{{cite web|title=Local Area Unemployment Statistics|url = http://www.bls.gov/web/laus/laumstrk.htm |publisher=U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics|accessdate=May 15, 2014}}</ref>
=== Religion ===
 
A 2001 survey of Connecticut residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations:<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/research_briefs/aris/key_findings.htm |title=American Religious Identification Survey, Key Findings, Exhibit 15 |accessdate=2007-01-04 |author=Mayer, Egon |coauthors=Kosmin, Barry A., Keysar, Ariela |year=2001 |publisher= {{wp|City University of New York}}}}</ref>
 
   
  +
===Taxation===
*{{wp|Roman Catholicism in the United States|Roman Catholic}} &ndash; 32%
 
  +
Prior to 1991, Connecticut had an investment-only [[income tax]] system. Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at 13%, the highest rate in the U.S., with no deductions allowed for costs of producing the investment income, such as interest on borrowing.
*{{wp|Baptist}} &ndash; 10%
 
*{{wp|Episcopal Church in the United States of America|Episcopal}} &ndash; 6%
 
*{{wp|Methodism|Methodist}} &ndash; 4%
 
*{{wp|Lutheranism|Lutheran}} &ndash; 4%
 
*{{wp|Congregational church|Congregational}}/{{wp|United Church of Christ}} &ndash; 2%
 
*{{wp|Presbyterian}} &ndash; 1%
 
*{{wp|Pentecostal}} &ndash; 1%
 
*Other Protestant or general Protestant &ndash; 4%
 
*{{wp|Mormonism|Latter-Day Saint}} &ndash; 2%
 
*{{wp|Church of Christ}} &ndash; 2%
 
*{{wp|Assembly of God}} &ndash; 1%
 
*Non-denominational &ndash; 1%
 
*Other Christian &ndash; 7%
 
*{{wp|Judaism|Jewish}} &ndash; 1%
 
*{{wp|Islam in the United States|Muslim}} &ndash; 1%
 
*Other Religions &ndash; 4%
 
*Non-Religious &ndash; 12%
 
*No answer &ndash; 6%
 
   
  +
In 1991, under Governor [[Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.]], an Independent, the system was changed to one in which the taxes on employment income and investment income were equalized at a maximum rate of 4%. The new tax policy drew investment firms to Connecticut; as of 2014, [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]] was home to the headquarters for 14 of the 200 largest [[hedge fund]]s in the world.<ref>file:///Users/casoule/Downloads/FILE_aec2f15d619800a8503f9902c0b81750Top200Managers.pdf "Top 200 Hedge Fund Managers," HFAlert.com. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
There is a significant {{wp|Jewish American|Jewish}} population in the state, concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between {{wp|Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich}} and {{wp|New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven}}, in {{wp|Greater New Haven}} and in {{wp|Greater Hartford}}, especially the suburb of {{wp|West Hartford, Connecticut|West Hartford}}.
 
   
  +
As of 2014, the income tax rates on Connecticut individuals are divided into six tax brackets of 3% (on income up to $10,000); 5% ($10,000-$50,000); 5.5% ($50,000-$100,000); 6% ($100,000-$200,000); 6.5% ($200,000-$250,000); and 6.7% (more than $250,000), with additional amounts owed depending on the bracket.<ref>http://www.tax-brackets.org/connecticuttaxtable "Connecticut Income Tax Brackets," Tax-Brackets.org. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
Recent {{wp|immigration}} has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low.
 
   
  +
All wages of Connecticut residents are subject to the state's income tax, even if earned outside the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Since New York and Massachusetts have higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents that work in those states have no Connecticut income tax withheld. Connecticut permits a credit for taxes paid to other jurisdictions, but since residents who work in other states are still subject to Connecticut income taxation, they may owe taxes if the jurisdictional credit does not fully offset the Connecticut tax amount.
== Economy ==
 
[[Image:RellTakesOver.jpg|thumb|260px|Connecticut welcome sign being updated as Rell takes office on July 1, 2004.]]
 
[[Image:Connecticut quarter, reverse side, 1999.jpg|50px|left]]
 
The total {{wp|gross state product}} for 2004 was $187 billion. The {{wp|per capita income}} for 2005 was $47,819, ranking first among the states.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.bea.gov/bea/newsrel/spi_highlights.pdf|title=Per Capita Income Growth in 2005| publisher=Bureau of Economic Analysis, US Dept. of Commerce |date={{wp|2006-09-26}} |format=PDF}}</ref> There is, however, a great disparity in incomes through the state; although New Canaan has one of the highest per capita incomes in America, Hartford is one of the ten cities with the {{wp|Connecticut locations by per capita income|lowest per capita incomes}} in America (The low number may partially be due to the fact that the city, like other cities in the area, has a small footprint relative to a typical American city (only about 18 square miles) and therefore does not have more middle-income areas included in its total to "balance out", statistically, inner areas with older housing stock and a poorer population).{{Fact|date=February 2007}} Should Hartford (or similar cities New Haven and Bridgeport) be combined with its immediate suburbs, it would rank as one of the richest cities in the country. Fairfield County has become a {{wp|bedroom community}} for higher-paid {{wp|New York City}} workers seeking a less urban lifestyle. This in turn has attracted businesses wishing to remain near New York City to southwestern Connecticut, most notably to {{wp|Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford}}. {{Fact|date=December 2006}}
 
   
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Connecticut levies a 6.35% state [[sales tax]] on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods.<ref name="2011Sect6Summary">{{Citation | url = http://www.ct.gov/drs/cwp/view.asp?A=1514&Q=480936 | publisher = The State of Connecticut | title = Summary of Tax Provisions Contained in 2011 Conn. Pub. Acts 6 | accessdate = July 6, 2011}}.</ref> Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by [[statute]]. A provision excluding clothing under $50 from sales tax was repealed as of July 1, 2011.<ref name =2011Sect6Summary /> There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. In August 2013, Connecticut authorized a sales tax "holiday" for one week during which retailers did not have to remit sales tax on certain items and quantities of clothing.<ref>http://www.forbes.com/sites/kellyphillipserb/2013/07/17/get-ready-to-shop-state-sales-tax-holidays-are-back/ "Get Ready To Shop: State Sales Tax Holidays Are Back!" Forbes, July 17, 2013. Retrieved May 16, 2016.</ref>
{{wp|New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan}} is the {{wp|Connecticut locations by per capita income|wealthiest town in Connecticut}}, with a per capita income of $85,459. {{wp|Darien, Connecticut|Darien}}, {{wp|Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich}}, {{wp|Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford}}, {{wp|Weston, Connecticut|Weston}}, {{wp|Woodbridge, Connecticut|Woodbridge}}, {{wp|Westport, Connecticut|Westport}} and {{wp|Wilton, Connecticut|Wilton}} also have per capita incomes over $65,000. {{wp|Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford}} is the poorest city in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 (although see above).{{Fact|date=February 2007}} There are other lower-income and blue-collar towns, mostly parts of towns, in the eastern part of the State. Poor and medium wealth households are particularly affected by a very high cost of living, due to a combination of expensive real estate, expensive heating for the winters, and other factors.{{Fact|date=December 2006}}
 
   
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All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of [[fair market value]]. Another 20% of the value may be taxed by the local government though. The maximum property tax credit is $500 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward.<ref name="inctax">{{cite web|url=http://www.ct.gov/drs/lib/drs/forms/2009forms/incometax/ct-1040booklet.pdf | title = Connecticut income tax instructions |format=PDF |accessdate=July 25, 2010|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uCmk84cj |archivedate = November 13, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref> Connecticut does not levy an intangible personal [[property tax]]. According to the [[Tax Foundation]], the 2010 Census data shows Connecticut residents paying the 2nd highest average property taxes in the nation with only New Jersey ahead of them.<ref>{{cite news |url = http://money.cnn.com/2010/09/30/pf/taxes/highest_property_taxes/index.htm?source=cnn_bin&hpt=Sbin |title = Highest property taxes in the nation | accessdate=September 30, 2010 |publisher=CNN | first=Les|last=Christie|date= September 30, 2010}}</ref>
===Taxation===
 
Prior to 1991, Connecticut had a highly populist {{wp|income tax}} system. Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at the highest rate in the United States: 13%. And this burden was further increased by the method of calculation: no deductions were allowed for the cost (for example, interest on borrowing) of producing the investment income. Under Governor {{wp|Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.}}, an Independent, this was reformed to the present system.
 
   
  +
The Tax Foundation determined Connecticut residents had the third highest burden in the nation for state and local taxes at 11.86%, or $7,150, compared to the national average of 9.8%.<ref>http://taxfoundation.org/state-tax-climate/connecticut "The Facts on Connecticut's Tax Climate," The Tax Foundation. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
This system prior to 1991 made it an attractive haven for high-salaried earners fleeing the heavy taxes of {{wp|New York State}}, but highly unattractive for members of Wall Street partnerships. It put an enormous burden on Connecticut {{wp|property tax}} payers, particularly in the cities with their more extensive {{wp|municipal services}}. As a result, the {{wp|middle class}} largely fled the urban areas for the {{wp|suburb}}s, taking stores and other tax-paying businesses with them, leaving mostly the urban poor in the older, central areas of Connecticut cities.{{Fact|date=December 2006}}
 
   
  +
As of 2014, the gasoline tax in Connecticut is 49.3 cents per gallon (the third highest in the nation) and the diesel tax is 54.9 cents per gallon (the highest in the nation).<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_taxes_in_the_United_States Fuel taxes in the United States. Retrieved September 4, 2014.</ref>
With Weicker's 1991 tax reform, the tax on employment and investment income was equalized at a then-maximum of 4%. Since then, Greenwich, Connecticut, has become the headquarters of choice for a large number of America's largest {{wp|hedge fund}}s, and Connecticut income from that industry has soared. Today the income tax rate on Connecticut individuals is divided into two tax brackets of 3% and 5%.<ref name=inctax>[http://www.ct.gov/drs/lib/drs/forms/2006forms/income/ct-1040booklet.pdf Connecticut income tax instructions]</ref> All {{wp|wage}}s of a Connecticut resident are subject to the state's income tax, even when the resident works outside of the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Since New York state has higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents that work in New York state pay no income tax to Connecticut.
 
 
Connecticut levies a 6% state {{wp|sales tax}} on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods. Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by {{wp|statute}}. There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. During the summer there is one week of duty free buying to spur retail sales.
 
 
All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of {{wp|fair market value}}. Another 20% of the value may be taxed by the local government though. The maximum property tax credit is $500 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward.<ref name=inctax/> Connecticut does not levy an intangible personal {{wp|property tax}}.
 
   
 
===Real estate===
 
===Real estate===
  +
Of home-sale transactions that closed in March 2014, the median home in Connecticut sold for $225,000, up 3.2% from March 2013.<ref>[http://www.thewarrengroup.com/2014/05/connecticut-single-family-home-sales-post-modest-increase-in-march/ "Connecticut Single-Family Home Sales Post Modest Increase In March"], The Warren Group, May 8, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> Connecticut ranked ninth nationally in foreclosure activity as of April 2014, with one of every 887 residential units involved in a foreclosure proceeding, or 0.11% of the total housing stock.<ref>http://www.realtytrac.com/Content/foreclosure-market-report/april-2014-us-foreclosure-market-report-8059 "U.S. Foreclosure Activity Decreases 1 Percent in April Despite 1 Percent Increase in Bank Repossessions," RealtyTrac, May 15, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
Homes in southwestern Connecticut on the fringes of the {{wp|New York City}} metropolitan area are quite expensive. Many towns have median home prices over $500,000, with some more desirable homes exceeding $1 million. Greenwich has the most expensive real estate market, with most houses selling at over $1 million and most condos selling at over $600,000. Connecticut has the most million-dollar homes in the northeast, and the second most in the nation after California, with 3.3% of homes in Connecticut priced over one million dollars in 2003.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/22/real_estate/february_million_dollar_homes/index.htm?section=money_topstories| title=Million Dollar Homes|last=Christie|first=Les| publisher={{wp|CNN}}.com| date=23 February 2006| accessdate=2007-01-23}}</ref> In 2007, the median price for a house in Connecticut passed $300,000 for the first time, even though most of the country was mired in a real estate slump.<ref>[http://news.uconn.edu/archive/archive_in_the_news_0807.php UConn in the News: August 2007]</ref>
 
   
 
===Industries===
 
===Industries===
  +
Finance and insurance is Connecticut's largest industry, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, generating 16.4% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2009. Major financial industry employers include [[The Hartford]], [[The Travelers Companies|Travelers]], [[Cigna]], [[Aetna]], [[Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company|Mass Mutual]], [[People's United Bank|People's United Financial]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www1.ctdol.state.ct.us/lmi/EmpSearchTopList.asp?intSort=6 |title=Search Results for the 100 largest employers in Connecticut |publisher=Connecticut Department of Labor |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref> [[Royal Bank of Scotland]],<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ctpost.com/news/article/RBS-4-800-job-cuts-might-only-scratch-Stamford-2490307.php |title=RBS' 4,800 job cuts might only scratch Stamford operation |publisher=Connecticut Post |date=January 12, 2012 |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref> [[UBS]]<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ctpost.com/news/article/Stamford-could-gain-from-UBS-exit-of-New-York-4493312.php |title=Stamford could gain from UBS exit of New York space |publisher=Connecticut Post |date=May 6, 2013 |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref> [[Bridgewater Associates]]<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.einnews.com/pr_news/204391481/bridgewater-associates-is-the-world-s-largest-hedge-fund-firm-for-fourth-straight-year-says-institutional-investor-s-alpha |title=Bridgewater Associates is the world's largest hedge fund firm for the fourth straight year says Institutional Investor's Alpha |publisher=EIN News date=May 16, 2014 |accessdate=May 28, 2014}}</ref> and [[GE Capital]]. Separately, the real estate industry accounted for an additional 15% of economic activity in 2009, with major employers including [[Realogy]];<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.realogy.com/media/pr/show_release.cfm?id=1530 |title=Gov. Malloy: Global Leader in Corporate Relocation Management Services to Expand and Grow Jobs in Danbury |publisher=Realogy |date=April 17, 2014 |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref> and William Raveis Real Estate.<ref name="Connecticut Department of Labor">{{cite web |url=http://www1.ctdol.state.ct.us/lmi/EmpSearchTopList.asp?intSort=6 |title=Search Results for the 100 largest employers in Connecticut |publisher=Connecticut Department of Labor |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref>
The agricultural output for the state is {{wp|Nursery (horticulture)|nursery stock}}, {{wp|egg (food)|eggs}}, {{wp|dairy product}}s, {{wp|cattle}}, and {{wp|tobacco#shade tobacco|tobacco}}. Its industrial outputs are {{wp|transport}}ation equipment (especially {{wp|helicopter}}s, {{wp|aircraft}} parts, and {{wp|nuclear submarine}}s), heavy industrial machinery and electrical equipment, military weaponry and fabricated metal products, {{wp|chemical}} and {{wp|pharmaceutical}} products, and {{wp|Measuring instrument|scientific instrument}}s.
 
  +
  +
Manufacturing, the third biggest industry at 11.9% of GDP, is dominated by Hartford-based [[United Technologies Corporation]] or UTC, which employs more than 22,000 people in Connecticut.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://articles.courant.com/2014-02-26/business/hc-malloy-united-technologies-east-hartford-20140226_1_united-technologies-corp-utc-aerospace-systems-connecticut-home |title=Tax Breaks Encourage United Technologies To Stay In State |publisher=Hartford Courant |date=February 26, 2014 |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref> UTC subsidiary [[Sikorsky Aircraft]] operates Connecticut's single largest manufacturing plant in [[Stratford, Connecticut|Stratford]],<ref name="Connecticut Department of Labor"/> where it makes helicopters. Other UTC divisions include UTC Propulsion and Aerospace Systems, including the jet-engine maker [[Pratt & Whitney]], and UTC Building and Industrial Systems.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.utc.com/Our-Company/Pages/Key-Facts.aspx |title=Our Businesses |publisher=United Technologies Corp |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref>
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  +
Other major manufacturers include the [[Electric Boat]] subsidiary of [[General Dynamics]], which makes submarines in [[Groton, Connecticut|Groton]];<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gdeb.com/about/history/ |title=EB History |publisher=General Dynamics Electric Boat |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref> and [[Boehringer Ingelheim]], a pharmaceuticals manufacturer with its U.S. headquarters in [[Ridgefield, Connecticut|Ridgefield]].<ref name="Connecticut Department of Labor"/>
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  +
Connecticut was an historical center of gun manufacturing, and, as of December 2012, four gun-manufacturing firms, [[Colt's Manufacturing Company|Colt]], [[Stag Arms|Stag]], [[Sturm, Ruger & Co.|Ruger]], and [[O.F. Mossberg & Sons|Mossberg]], employing 2,000 employees, continued to operate in the state.<ref name="NYT122312">{{cite news|title=Gun Makers Use Home Leverage in Connecticut |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/24/nyregion/gun-makers-based-in-connecticut-form-a-potent-lobby.html | accessdate =December 24, 2012|newspaper=The New York Times|date= December 23, 2012| first1 = Ray | last1 = Rivera | first2 = Alison Leigh | last2 = Cowan}}</ref> [[Marlin Firearms|Marlin]], by then owned by [[Remington Arms|Remington]], closed in April 2011.<ref name="Courant010111">{{cite news|title= Marlin Firearms Closes In North Haven, Ending 141 Years of Manufacturing In Connecticut | url= http://articles.courant.com/2011-04-01/business/hc-marlin-firearms-20110401_1_john-m-marlin-frank-kenna-remington-arms |newspaper= The Hartford Courant|date=April 1, 2011| first = Matthew | last = Sturdevant}}</ref>
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A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006, demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14&nbsp;billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides $9&nbsp;billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7&nbsp;billion in state and local revenue.<ref>{{Citation | format = [[PDF]] | url = http://www.cultureandtourism.org/cct/lib/cct/Econ_Summary_Web2_%282%29.pdf | title = The Economic Impact of the Arts, Film, History, and Tourism Industries in Connecticut (Highlights) | place = CT | publisher = Commission on Culture and Tourism}}.</ref> Two casinos, [[Foxwoods Resort Casino]] and [[Mohegan Sun]], number among the state's largest employers;<ref>http://www1.ctdol.state.ct.us/lmi/EmpSearchTopList.asp?intSort=6 "Search Results for the 100 largest employers in Connecticut," Connecticut Department of Labor. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> both are located on Native American reservations in the eastern part of Connecticut.
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Non-profit organizations register in Connecticut under the local statutory provisions and therefore affect taxation and governance mechanisms. For instance, the headquarters of the [[Connecticut Food Bank]] are located in East Hampton since early 1980s when the non-profit was established.<ref>{{Cite web|url = http://www.ct.gov/dss/cwp/view.asp?a=2353&q=305154|title = Department of Social Services Nutritional Assistance Programs|date = |accessdate = |website = Connecticut Department of Social Services|publisher = |last = |first = }}</ref>
   
  +
Connecticut's agricultural sector employed about 12,000 people as of 2010; with more than a quarter of that number involved in [[Nursery (horticulture)|nursery stock]] production. Other agricultural products include [[dairy product]]s and [[egg (food)|eggs]]; [[tobacco]]; [[commercial fishing|fish]] and [[shellfish]]; and [[fruit]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.are.uconn.edu/documents/economicimpacts.pdf |title=Economic Impacts of Connecticut's Agricultural Industry |publisher=University of Connecticut |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref>
[[Image:IMG 1175 (2) ....jpg|thumb|right|200px|Downtown Hartford's {{wp|Central Business District}}.]]
 
Due to the prominence of the aircraft industry in the state, Connecticut has an official state aircraft, the {{wp|F4U Corsair}}, and an official Connecticut Aviation Pioneer, {{wp|Igor Sikorsky}}. The state officially recognizes aircraft designer {{wp|Gustav Whitehead}} as "Father of Connecticut Aviation" for his research into powered flight in {{wp|Bridgeport, Connecticut}} in 1901, two years before the {{wp|Wright brothers}} at {{wp|Kitty Hawk, North Carolina}}.<ref>{{cite journal | last = O'Dwyer | first = Maj. William J. | title = The "Who Flew First" Debate | journal = Flight Journal | publisher = Air Age Media | date = October 1998 | url =http://www.flightjournal.com/articles/wff/wff2.asp | accessdate = 2007-01-23 }}</ref> Governor John Dempsey also declared August 15 to be "Gustave Whitehead Day."<ref>{{cite journal | last = Delear | first = Frank | title = Gustave Whitehead and the First-Flight Controversy | journal = Aviation History | date = March 1996 | url =http://www.historynet.com/air_sea/aviation_history/3032816.html?page=7&c=y | accessdate = 2007-01-23 }}</ref>
 
<!-- A list of large companies might be appropriate here -->
 
   
  +
[[Oyster]] harvesting was historically an important source of income to towns along the Connecticut coastline. In the 19th century, oystering boomed in New Haven, Bridgeport and Norwalk and achieved modest success in neighboring towns. In 1911, Connecticut's oyster production reached its peak at nearly 25 million pounds of oyster meats. This was, at the time, higher than production in New York, Rhode Island, or Massachusetts.<ref>[http://connecticuthistory.org/oystering-in-connecticut-from-colonial-times-to-today/] Ct history.org "Oystering in CT, from Colonial Times to the 21st Century"</ref> During this time, the Connecticut coast was known, in the shellfishing industry, as the oyster capital of the world. Until 1969, Connecticut laws enacted before World War I restricted the harvesting of oysters in state-owned beds to vessels under sail. These laws prompted the construction of the oyster sloop style vessel to last well into the 20th century.<ref>''This Fine Piece of Water: An Environmental History of Long Island Sound''. Tom Andersen. p.90</ref> ''[[Hope (sloop)|Hope]]'', completed in [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]] in 1948, is believed to be the last oyster sloop built in Connecticut.
A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on {{wp|December 7}}, 2006 demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides $9 billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7 billion in state and local revenue.<ref>[http://www.cultureandtourism.org/cct/lib/cct/Econ_Summary_Web2_%282%29.pdf The Economic Impact of the Arts, Film, History, and Tourism Industries in Connecticut (Highlights)] Connecticut Commission on Culture and Tourism</ref>
 
   
 
==Transportation==
 
==Transportation==
  +
{{main|Transportation in Connecticut}}
[[Image:Map of Connecticut NA cropped.png|300px|right|thumb|Map of Connecticut showing major highways]]
 
  +
[[File:Map of Connecticut NA cropped.png|300px|right|thumb|Map of Connecticut showing major highways]]
   
 
===Roads===
 
===Roads===
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{{main |List of State Routes in Connecticut}}
{{wp|Glacier}}s carved valleys in Connecticut running north to south; as a result, many more roadways in the state run north to south than do east to west, mimicking the previous use of the many north-south rivers as transportation.{{Fact|date=December 2006}} The {{wp|Interstate highway}}s in the state are {{wp|Interstate 95 in Connecticut|I-95}} (the {{wp|Connecticut Turnpike}}) running southwest to northeast along the coast, {{wp|Interstate 84 (east)|I-84}} running southwest to northeast in the center of the state, {{wp|I-91}} running north to south in the center of the state, and {{wp|Interstate 395 (Connecticut)|I-395}} running north to south near the eastern border of the state. The other major highways in Connecticut are the {{wp|Merritt Parkway}} and {{wp|Wilbur Cross Parkway}}, which together form {{wp|Route 15 (Connecticut)|State Route 15}}, running from the {{wp|Hutchinson River Parkway}} in {{wp|New York State}} parallel to I-95 before turning north of {{wp|New Haven}} and running parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in {{wp|Berlin, Connecticut}}. Route 15 and I-95 were originally {{wp|toll road}}s; they relied on a system of {{wp|toll plaza}}s at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988.<ref>[http://www.nycroads.com/roads/ct-turnpike/ Connecticut Turnpike (I-95)] nycroads.com</ref> Other major arteries in the state include {{wp|U.S. Route 7}} in the west running parallel to the NY border, {{wp|Route 8 (Connecticut)|State Route 8}} farther west near the industrial city of Waterbury and running north-south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with U.S. 7, and {{wp|Route 9 (Connecticut)|State Route 9}} in the east. See {{wp|List of State Routes in Connecticut}} for an overview of the state's highway system.
 
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The [[Interstate highway]]s in the state are [[Interstate 95 in Connecticut|Interstate&nbsp;95]] (I-95; the [[Connecticut Turnpike]]) traveling southwest to northeast along the coast, [[Interstate 84 in Connecticut|I-84]] traveling southwest to northeast in the center of the state, [[Interstate 91 in Connecticut|I-91]] traveling north to south in the center of the state, and [[Interstate 395 in Connecticut|I-395]] traveling north to south near the eastern border of the state. The other major highways in Connecticut are the [[Merritt Parkway]] and [[Wilbur Cross Parkway]], which together form [[Connecticut Route 15]] (Route&nbsp;15), traveling from the [[Hutchinson River Parkway]] in [[New York]] parallel to I-95 before turning north of [[New Haven]] and traveling parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in [[Berlin, Connecticut|Berlin]]. I-95 and Route&nbsp;15 were originally [[toll road]]s; they relied on a system of [[toll plaza]]s at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988.<ref>{{Citation | url = http://www.nycroads.com/roads/ct-turnpike/ | title = Connecticut Turnpike (I-95) | publisher = NYC roads}}.</ref> Other major arteries in the state include [[U.S. Route 7 in Connecticut|U.S. Route&nbsp;7]] (US&nbsp;7) in the west traveling parallel to the New York state line, [[Connecticut Route 8|Route&nbsp;8]] farther east near the industrial city of Waterbury and traveling north–south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with US&nbsp;7, and [[Connecticut Route 9|Route&nbsp;9]] in the east. See [[List of State Routes in Connecticut]] for an overview of the state's highway system.
   
Between New Haven and the New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Many people now drive longer distances to work in the New York City area. This strains the three lanes of traffic capacity, resulting in lengthy {{wp|rush hour}} delays. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway. The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and {{wp|ride-sharing}}.<ref>[http://www.ctrides.com/ ctrides.com]</ref>
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Between New Haven and New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Many people now drive longer distances to work in the New York City area. This strains the three lanes of traffic capacity, resulting in lengthy [[rush hour]] delays. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway. The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and [[carpool|ride-sharing]].<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.ctrides.com/ | title= CT rides |date=April 15, 2010 |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref>
   
  +
Connecticut also has a very active bicycling community, with one of the highest rates of bicycle ownership and use in the United States. New Haven's cycling community, organized in a local advocacy group called [[ElmCityCycling]], is particularly active. According to the US Census 2006 American Community Survey, New Haven has the highest percentage of commuters who bicycle to work of any major metropolitan center on the East Coast.
===Public transportation===
 
====Rail====
 
Since many Connecticut residents commute to {{wp|New York City}}, there is an extensive {{wp|commuter rail}}way network connecting New York City to {{wp|New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven}} on {{wp|Metro North Railroad}} (a commuter railroad based in New York and operated by the Metropolitan Transit Authority) with spurs servicing Waterbury, Danbury, and New Canaan. Rail service does not end with New Haven, however. Connecticut is in the heart of Amtrak's {{wp|Northeast Corridor}} and the Amtrak Regional line makes stops in New Haven-State Street, Old Saybrook, New London, and Mystic. Smaller town stops between New Haven and New London are served by {{wp|Shore Line East}}, which takes commuters to those stations to catch a main train. These commuter services are heavily utilized during weekday rush hours. Regional rail service is provided by {{wp|Amtrak}}, which makes regular stops in Stamford, Bridgeport, New Haven, and Hartford, as well as in Wallingford, Meriden, Berlin, Windsor, and Windsor Locks. There are plans to operate commuter trains from New Haven to Springfield on Amtrak's {{wp|New Haven-Springfield Line}}.<ref>{{cite news |first=Stephanie |last=Reitz |title=Conn. looks into building rail line from Springfield to New Haven |url=http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2006/07/30/conn_looks_into_building_rail_line_from_springfield_to_new_haven/ |work={{wp|The Boston Globe}} |publisher={{wp|The New York Times Company}} |date={{wp|2006-07-30}} |accessdate=2007-01-29}}</ref>
 
   
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[[File:Metro-North train 1567 enters Stamford.jpg|250px|right|thumb|A [[Metro-North Railroad]] [[New Haven Line]] train leaving [[Stamford Transportation Center|Stamford Station]]]]
====Bus====
 
Statewide {{wp|bus}} service is supplied by {{wp|Connecticut Transit}}, owned by the {{wp|Connecticut Department of Transportation}}, with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. A three-year construction project to build a busway from New Britain to Hartford will begin in August 2009.<ref>{{cite press release |title=New Britain-to-Hartford ‘Busway’ Receives Final Federal Design Approval |publisher=State of Connecticut |date={{wp|2006-10-31}} |url=http://www.ct.gov/governorrell/cwp/view.asp?Q=326626&A=2425 |accessdate=2007-01-29}}</ref><ref>[http://www.ctrapidtransit.com/ct_schedule.asp New Britain-Hartford Rapid Transit Project Schedule]</ref>
 
   
====Air====
+
===Rail===
  +
Southwestern Connecticut is served by the [[Metro-North Railroad]]'s [[New Haven Line]], operated by the [[Metropolitan Transportation Authority (New York)|Metropolitan Transportation Authority]] and providing commuter service to New York City and New Haven, with branches servicing [[New Canaan Branch|New Canaan]], [[Danbury Branch|Danbury]], and [[Waterbury Branch|Waterbury]]. Connecticut lies along [[Amtrak]]'s [[Northeast Corridor]] which features frequent [[Northeast Regional]] and [[Acela Express]] service. Towns between New Haven and New London are also served by the [[Shore Line East]] commuter line. A commuter rail service called the [[Hartford Line]] between New Haven and Springfield on Amtrak's [[New Haven-Springfield Line]] is scheduled to begin operating in 2016. Amtrak also operates a shuttle service between New Haven and [[Springfield, Massachusetts]], serving Wallingford, Meriden, Berlin, Hartford, Windsor Locks, and Springfield, MA and the [[Vermonter]] runs from Washington to St. Albans, Vermont via the same line.
{{wp|Bradley International Airport}}, which became truly 'International' in the summer of 2007 beginning service to Europe, is located in {{wp|Windsor Locks}}, 15 miles (24 km) north of {{wp|Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford}}. Regional air service is provided at {{wp|Tweed-New Haven Airport}}. Larger civil airports include {{wp|Danbury Municipal Airport}} and {{wp|Waterbury-Oxford Airport}} in western Connecticut. The {{wp|Westchester County Airport}} in {{wp|Harrison, New York}} serves part of southwestern Connecticut.
 
   
  +
===Bus===
== Law and government ==
 
  +
Statewide [[bus]] service is supplied by [[Connecticut Transit]], owned by the [[Connecticut Department of Transportation]], with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. A three-year construction project to build a [[bus rapid transit|BRT]] [[New Britain–Hartford Busway|busway from New Britain to Hartford]] began in August 2009.<ref>{{cite press release |title=New Britain-to-Hartford 'Busway' Receives Final Federal Design Approval |publisher=State of Connecticut |date=October 31, 2006 |url= http://www.ct.gov/governorrell/cwp/view.asp?Q=326626&A=2425 |accessdate=January 29, 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ctrapidtransit.com/ct_schedule.asp |title=New Britain-Hartford Rapid Transit Project Schedule |publisher=CT rapid transit |accessdate = July 25, 2010}}{{dead link|date=June 2011}}</ref>
{{seealso|Administrative divisions of Connecticut}}
 
  +
[[Image:Dscn3088 connecticut capitol.jpg|250px|right|thumb|The Connecticut State Capitol in downtown Hartford]]
 
  +
===Air===
{{wp|Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford}} has been the sole capital of Connecticut since 1875. Before then, {{wp|New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven}} and Hartford alternated as capitals.<ref name="AboutCT"/>
 
  +
[[Bradley International Airport]] is located in [[Windsor Locks]], 15&nbsp;miles (24&nbsp;km) north of [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]. Regional air service is provided at [[Tweed New Haven Regional Airport]]. Larger civil airports include [[Danbury Municipal Airport]] and [[Waterbury-Oxford Airport]] in western Connecticut, and [[Groton-New London Airport]] in eastern Connecticut. [[Sikorsky Memorial Airport]] is located in Stratford and mostly services cargo, helicopter and private aviation.
===Constitutional History===
 
  +
Connecticut is known as the “Constitution State.” While the origin on this title is uncertain, the nickname is assumed to reference the {{wp|Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders}} of 1638-39. These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal {{wp|government}} written by a representative body in Connecticut. The government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of {{wp|Connecticut Constitutional History}}. After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut was granted governmental authority by King {{wp|Charles II of England}} through the Connecticut Charter of 1662. While these two documents acted to lay the ground work for the state’s government, both lacked essential characteristics of a {{wp|constitution}}. The Fundamental Orders and the Connecticut Charter could both be altered simply by a majority vote of the {{wp|Connecticut General Assembly|General Assembly}}. Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority. A true constitution was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965. The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications.
 
  +
===Ferry===
Another possible source of the nickname "constitution state" comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, during which Roger Sherman and {{wp|Oliver Ellsworth}} helped to orchestrate what became known as the {{wp|Connecticut Compromise}}, or the Great Compromise. This plan combined the {{wp|Virginia Plan}} and the {{wp|New Jersey Plan}} to form a bicameral legislature, a form copied by almost every state constitution since the adoption of the federal constitution.
 
  +
The [[Rocky Hill – Glastonbury Ferry]] and the [[Chester–Hadlyme Ferry]] cross the Connecticut River. The [[Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Ferry]] travels between [[Bridgeport, Connecticut]] and [[Port Jefferson, New York]] by crossing [[Long Island Sound]]. Ferry service also operates out of [[New London, Connecticut|New London]] to [[Orient, New York]]; [[Fishers Island, New York]]; and [[Block Island, Rhode Island]].
  +
  +
==Law and government==
  +
{{See also|Administrative divisions of Connecticut}}
  +
[[File:Connecticut State Capitol, February 24, 2008.jpg|right|250px|thumb|The [[Connecticut State Capitol]] in downtown Hartford]]
  +
  +
[[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] has been the sole capital of Connecticut since 1875. Before then, [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]] and Hartford alternated as capitals.<ref name="AboutCT"/>
  +
  +
===Constitutional history===
  +
{{Main|History of the Connecticut Constitution}}
  +
Connecticut is known as the "Constitution State." While the origin of this title is uncertain, the nickname may either refer to the [[Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders]] of 1638–39 or possibly the "Great Compromise" ("Connecticut Compromise") of the 1787 Constitutional convention. These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal government written by a representative body in Connecticut. The government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of [[Connecticut Constitutional History]]. After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut was granted governmental authority by King [[Charles II of England]] through the Connecticut Charter of 1662.
  +
  +
Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority. A constitution similar to the modern [[U.S. Constitution]] was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965. The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications.
  +
  +
The more likely source of the nickname "Constitution State" comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, during which [[Roger Sherman]] and [[Oliver Ellsworth]] helped to orchestrate what became known as the [[Connecticut Compromise]], or the Great Compromise. This plan combined the [[Virginia Plan]] and the [[New Jersey Plan]] to form a bicameral legislature, a form copied by almost every state constitution since the adoption of the federal constitution. Although variations of the bicameral legislature had been proposed by Virginia and New Jersey, Connecticut's plan is the one that was in effect until the early 20th century, when Senators ceased to be selected by their state legislatures and were instead directly elected. Otherwise, it is still the design of Congress.
   
 
===Executive===
 
===Executive===
The governor heads the executive branch. The current {{wp|List of Governors of Connecticut|Governor of Connecticut}} is {{wp|M. Jodi Rell}} (Republican). The current {{wp|List of Lieutenant Governors of Connecticut|Lieutenant Governor}} is {{wp|Michael Fedele}}. From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. Connecticut was the first state in the United States to elect a woman as governor without electing her husband first, {{wp|Ella Grasso}} in 1974.
+
The governor heads the executive branch. [[Dan Malloy]] is the current [[List of Governors of Connecticut|Governor]] and [[Nancy Wyman]] is the [[List of Lieutenant Governors of Connecticut|Lieutenant Governor]], both are Democrats. Malloy, the former mayor of [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], won the [[Connecticut gubernatorial election, 2010|2010 general election]] for Governor, and was sworn in on January 5, 2011. From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. In 1974, [[Ella Grasso]] was elected as the governor of Connecticut. This was the first time in United States history when a woman was a governor without her husband being governor first.
   
There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, Developmental Services, Education, Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Information Technology, Insurance, Labor, Mental Health and Addiction Services, Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Safety, Public Utility Control, Public Works, Revenue Services, Social Services, Transportation, Veterans Affairs. In addition to these departments, there are other independent bureaus, offices and commissions.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=246450| title=Connecticut's Executive Branch of Government| publisher=ct.gov}}</ref>
+
There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, [[Connecticut Department of Developmental Services|Developmental Services]], Construction Services, Education, Emergency Management and Public Protection, Energy & Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Insurance, Labor, Mental Health and Addiction Services, Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Utility Regulatory Authority, Public Works, Revenue Services, Social Services, [[Connecticut Department of Transportation|Transportation]], and Veterans Affairs. In addition to these departments, there are other independent bureaus, offices and commissions.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=246450| title=Connecticut's Executive Branch of Government| publisher=ct.gov}}</ref>
   
In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, there are four other executive officers named in the state constitution that are elected directly by voters: Secretary of State, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General. All executive officers are elected to four year terms.<ref name="AboutCT"/>
+
In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, there are four other executive officers named in the state constitution that are elected directly by voters: Secretary of the State, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General. All executive officers are elected to four-year terms.<ref name="AboutCT"/>
   
 
===Legislative===
 
===Legislative===
The {{wp|legislature}} is the {{wp|Connecticut General Assembly|General Assembly}}. The General Assembly is a {{wp|bicameral}} body consisting of an upper body, the {{wp|Connecticut Senate|State Senate}} (36 senators); and a lower body, the {{wp|Connecticut House of Representatives|House of Representatives}} (151 representatives).<ref name="AboutCT"/> Bills must pass each house in order to become law. The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Senators and representatives, all of whom must be at least eighteen years of age, are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the {{wp|List of Presidents Pro Tempore of Connecticut|President Pro Tempore}} presides. The {{wp|List of Speakers of the House of Connecticut|Speaker of the House}} presides over the House; {{wp|James A. Amann}} is the current Speaker of the House of Connecticut. The {{wp|Democratic Party (United States)|Democrats}} currently hold the majority in both houses of the General Assembly.
+
The legislature is the [[Connecticut General Assembly|General Assembly]]. The General Assembly is a [[bicameral]] body consisting of an upper body, the [[Connecticut Senate|State Senate]] (36 senators); and a lower body, the [[Connecticut House of Representatives|House of Representatives]] (151 representatives).<ref name="AboutCT"/> Bills must pass each house in order to become law. The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Per Article XV of the state constitution, Senators and Representatives must be at least 18 years of age and are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. There also must always be between 30 and 50 senators and 125 to 225 representatives. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the [[President pro tempore]] presides. The [[Speaker (politics)|Speaker of the House]] presides over the House.<ref name ="CT_CONST">{{Citation | url = http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/cwp/view.asp?a=3188&q=392288/ | title = Constitution of the State of Connecticut | place = CT | publisher = Secretary of State | accessdate = April 30, 2012}}.</ref> As of 2012, [[Christopher G. Donovan]] is the current Speaker of the House of Connecticut.
   
Connecticut's U.S. senators are {{wp|Christopher J. Dodd}} (Democrat) and {{wp|Joseph I. Lieberman}} (Democrat) who is part of the Democratic Caucus. Connecticut currently has five {{wp|U.S. Congressional Delegations from Connecticut|representatives in the U.S. House}}, four of whom are Democrats.
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Connecticut's current [[United States Senators]] are [[Richard Blumenthal]] (Democrat) and [[Chris Murphy (politician)|Chris Murphy]] (Democrat). Connecticut currently has five [[U.S. Congressional Delegations from Connecticut|representatives in the U.S. House]], all of whom are Democrats.
  +
  +
Locally elected representatives also develop [[Local ordinance]]s to govern cities and towns.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.jud.ct.gov/lawlib/ordinances.htm |title= Ordinances and Charters by Town – Judicial Branch Law Libraries | publisher = Judiciary | location = CT |accessdate=June 10, 2013}}</ref> The town ordinances often include [[noise pollution#Human|noise control]] and [[zoning]] guidelines.<ref>{{cite web|author=Town of Newtown, CT |url = http://www.newtown-ct.gov/Public_Documents/NewtownCT_Police/Ord%20Folder/Ordinances/262 |title= Noise Control Ordinance | publisher = The Government of Newtown |date=August 20, 2010 |accessdate=June 10, 2013}}</ref> However, the State of Connecticut does also provide state-wide ordinances for noise control as well.<ref>{{Citation | format = [[PDF]] | publisher = The Government of Connecticut | url = http://www.ct.gov/dep/lib/dep/regulations/22a/22a-69-1through7.pdf | title = Regulations}}{{dead link|date=June 2013}}</ref>
   
 
===Judicial===
 
===Judicial===
The highest {{wp|court}} of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. The current {{wp|List of Chief Justices of Connecticut|Chief Justice}} is {{wp|Chase T. Rogers}}.
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The highest [[court]] of Connecticut's judicial branch is the [[Connecticut Supreme Court]], headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. The current [[Chief Justice]] is [[Chase T. Rogers]].
   
Before 1818 the highest court in Connecticut was the General Assembly, and later, the Upper House, with the Governor having the title "Chief Judge".{{Fact|date=February 2007}} In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches.<ref>[http://www.jud.state.ct.us/ystday/history.html History of the Connecticut Courts]. Last retrieved {{wp|2007-02-20}}.</ref> The Appellate Court is a lesser state-wide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states.
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In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches.<ref>[http://www.jud.state.ct.us/ystday/history.html History of the Connecticut Courts]. Last retrieved February 20, 2007.</ref> The Appellate Court is a lesser state-wide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states.
  +
  +
The State of Connecticut also offers access to [[Arrest warrant]] enforcement statistics through the Office of Policy and Management.<ref>{{cite web|author=Enter your Company or Top-Level Office |url=http://www.ct.gov/opm/cwp/view.asp?a=2969&Q=383588&opm_Nav_GID=1797 |title=OPM: Arrest Warrant Data |publisher=Ct.gov |date=May 15, 2013 |accessdate=June 10, 2013}}</ref>
   
 
===Local government===
 
===Local government===
  +
{{See also| Administrative divisions of Connecticut}}
{{seealso| Administrative divisions of Connecticut}} and several lists: {{wp|List of municipalities of Connecticut by population}}, {{wp|List of towns in Connecticut}}, {{wp|List of cities in Connecticut}}, {{wp|Borough (Connecticut)}}, {{wp|List of counties in Connecticut}}
 
  +
::''and several lists:'' [[List of municipalities of Connecticut by population]], [[List of towns in Connecticut]], [[List of cities in Connecticut]], [[Borough (Connecticut)]], [[List of counties in Connecticut]]
Connecticut has 169 {{wp|New England town|towns}}, which serve as the fundamental local political subdivision of the state; the entire state is divided into towns.<ref name="AboutCT"/> Connecticut shares a local form of government with the rest of {{wp|New England}} called the {{wp|New England town}}. There are also 21 cities,<ref name="AboutCT"/> most of which are coterminous with their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. There are two exceptions: {{wp|Groton (city), Connecticut|City of Groton}}, which is a subsection of the {{wp|Groton (town), Connecticut|Town of Groton}} and the City of {{wp|Winsted, Connecticut|Winsted}} in the Town of {{wp|Winchester, Connecticut|Winchester}}. There are also nine incorporated {{wp|borough}}s which may provide additional services to a section of town.<ref name="AboutCT"/><ref>[http://www.cslib.org/boroughcity.htm Connecticut's Boroughs and Cities]. Connecticut State Library. Accessed 20 January 2007.</ref> One, {{wp|Naugatuck}}, is a consolidated town and borough.
 
  +
Unlike all but one other state (Rhode Island), Connecticut does not have [[County (United States)|county]] government. Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of [[Sheriffs in the United States|sheriffs]] elected in each county.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/SectionVI/SecVICounty.htm |title= Connecticut State Register and Manual: Counties |accessdate=November 7, 2006| archiveurl = //web.archive.org/web/20061010172922/http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/SectionVI/SecVICounty.htm| archivedate = October 10, 2006}}</ref> In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the [[Connecticut State Marshal|state marshal]] system, which has districts that follow the old county territories. The judicial system is divided, at the trial court level, into judicial districts which largely follow the old county lines.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.jud.ct.gov/directory/directory/location/Default.htm |title=State of Connecticut Judicial Branch |publisher=Jud.ct.gov |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref> The [[list of Connecticut counties|eight counties]] are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as [[Weather forecasting|weather reports]], and census reporting.
   
  +
Connecticut shares with the rest of [[New England]] a governmental institution called the [[New England town]]. The state is divided into 169 towns, which serve as the fundamental political jurisdictions.<ref name="AboutCT"/> There are also 21 cities,<ref name="AboutCT"/> most of which are coterminous with their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. There are two exceptions: [[Groton (city), Connecticut|City of Groton]], which is a subsection of the [[Groton (town), Connecticut|Town of Groton]], and the City of [[Winsted, Connecticut|Winsted]] in the Town of [[Winchester, Connecticut|Winchester]]. There are also nine incorporated [[Borough (Connecticut)|boroughs]] which may provide additional services to a section of town.<ref name="AboutCT"/><ref>[http://www.cslib.org/boroughcity.htm Connecticut's Boroughs and Cities]. Connecticut State Library. Retrieved January 20, 2007.</ref> One, [[Naugatuck]], is a consolidated town and borough.
Unlike most other states, Connecticut does not have {{wp|county}} government. Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of the {{wp|sheriff}} system.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/SectionVI/SecVICounty.htm |title= Connecticut State Register and Manual: Counties |accessdate=2006-11-07}}</ref> In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the {{wp|Connecticut State Marshal|state marshal}} system, which has districts that follow the old county territories. The judicial system is divided, at the trial court level, into judicial districts.<ref> [http://www.jud.ct.gov/directory/directory/location/Default.htm State of Connecticut Judicial Branch]</ref> The {{wp|list of Connecticut counties|eight counties}} are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as {{wp|Weather forecasting|weather report}}s, and census reporting.
 
   
The state is divided into 15 {{wp|Administrative divisions of Connecticut#Regions|planning regions}} defined by the state Office of Planning and Management.<ref name="OPM">[http://www.ct.gov/opm/cwp/view.asp?a=2985&q=383124 Regional Planning Coordination at the CT Office of Planning and Management]</ref> The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; designation or redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations."<ref name="OPM"/>
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The state (with the exception of the Town of Stafford in Tolland County) is also divided into 15 [[Administrative divisions of Connecticut#Regions|planning regions]] defined by the state Office of Planning and Management.<ref name="OPM">{{cite web|author=Enter your Company or Top-Level Office |url=http://www.ct.gov/opm/cwp/view.asp?a=2985&q=383124 |title=Regional Planning Coordination at the CT Office of Planning and Management |publisher=Ct.gov |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref> The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations."<ref name="OPM"/>
   
 
==Politics==
 
==Politics==
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{{Further |Political party strength in Connecticut|Elections in Connecticut}}
{| align="right" border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="4" style="margin: 2em 2em 2em 2em; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%;"
 
  +
[[File:Connecticut Political Party Registration 1958 - 2012.png|thumb|Connecticut political party registration 1958–2012 marked with presidential influence]]
|+ '''Presidential elections results'''<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/compare.php?year=2004&fips=9&f=0&off=0&elect=0&type=state|title = Presidential General Election Results Comparison - Connecticut|publisher=Dave Leip's Atlas of United States Presidential Elections|year=2005|accessdate=2007-01-20}}</ref>
 
  +
|- bgcolor=lightgrey
 
  +
===Registered voters===
! Year
 
  +
Connecticut residents who register to vote have the option of declaring an affiliation to a political party, may become unaffiliated at will, and may change affiliations subject to certain waiting periods. {{as of|2013}} about 58% of registered voters are enrolled (about 1% total in 18 [[Third party (politics)|third parties]] minor parties), and ratios among unaffiliated voters and the two major parties are about 8 unaffiliated for every 7 in the [[Democratic Party of Connecticut]] and for every 4 in the [[Connecticut Republican Party]].
! {{wp|Republican Party (United States)|Republican}}
 
  +
! {{wp|Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic}}
 
  +
(Among the minor parties, the [[Libertarian Party of Connecticut|Libertarian Party]] and [[Independent Party of Connecticut|Independent Party]] appeared in the Presidential-electors column in 2012, and drew, respectively, 0.81% and 0.35% of the vote.)
  +
  +
Many Connecticut towns show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party.{{Ref}}
  +
  +
{| class=wikitable
  +
! colspan = 6 | Connecticut voter registration and party enrollment as of October 30, 2012<ref>{{cite web|title = Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of October 30, 2012 | publisher = Connecticut Secretary of State | format = PDF | accessdate = May 10, 2013 | url = http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/lib/sots/electionservices/registration_and_enrollment_stats/nov12re.pdf}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
  +
! colspan = 2 | Party
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|{{wp|U.S. presidential election, 2004|2004}}
 
  +
! Active voters
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|43.95% ''693,826
 
  +
! Inactive voters
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|'''54.31%''' ''857,488
 
  +
! Total voters
  +
! Percentage
  +
{{American politics/party colors/Republican/row}}
  +
| [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]]
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 430,564
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 19,084
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 449,648
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 20.27%
  +
{{American politics/party colors/Democratic/row}}
  +
| [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic]]
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 768,176
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 47,537
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 815,713
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 36.77%
  +
{{American politics/party colors/Independent/row}}
  +
| Unaffiliated
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 872,839
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 60,440
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 933,279
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 42.06%
  +
{{American politics/party colors/Libertarian/row}}
  +
| Minor parties
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 18,960
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 1,063
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 20,023
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 0.90%
 
|-
 
|-
  +
! colspan = 2 | Total
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|{{wp|U.S. presidential election, 2000|2000}}
 
  +
! style="text-align:center;"| 2,090,539
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|38.44% ''561,094
 
  +
! style="text-align:center;"| 128,123
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|'''55.91%''' ''816,015
 
  +
! style="text-align:center;"| 2,218,662
  +
! style="text-align:center;"| 100%
  +
|}
  +
  +
===Political office===
  +
Elections in Connecticut take place mostly at the levels of town and/or city, state legislative districts for both houses, Congressional districts, and state-wide. In almost all races, the two major parties have some practical advantages granted on the basis of their respective performances in the most recent election covering the same constituency. Several processes, to varying degrees internal to either a major or minor party, are in practice nearly prerequisites to being permitted mention on the provided ballots, and even more so to winning office.
  +
  +
More specifically, the status of "major party" is usually reconfirmed every four years, as belonging to the two parties that polled best, statewide, in the gubernatorial column; this status includes the benefit of appearing in one of the top two rows on the ballot provided the party has at least one candidate on the ballot. Minor parties appear below major parties, and their performance in recent elections determines whether a candidates who wins in their nomination process must also meet a petitioning threshold in order to appear.
  +
  +
In a major party, a party convention for the office's constituency must be held; in practice, at the town level, a major party convention of voters of the town who are enrolled in the party usually is attended almost exclusively by members of the town party committee. The convention may choose to endorse a candidate, who will appear on the ballot unless additional candidates meet a petition threshold for a primary election; if at least one candidate meets the petition threshold, the endorsed candidate and all who meet the threshold appear on the primary ballot, and the winner of the primary election appears on the party line for that office.
  +
  +
A candidate wishing to run on the ballot line of a minor-party which has recently enough met a general-election vote threshold follows similar steps; candidates of other minor parties must meet petition thresholds, and if other candidates of the same party, for the same office, do so as well, only the winner of a resulting primary will appear on the ballot.
  +
  +
Campaigns by candidates not on the ballot generally are entirely symbolic, and while any voter can cast a write-in ballot, write-in ballots are not even tallied by election officials, except for candidates who have submitted a formal request that the tally be made.
  +
  +
In short, most winning candidates have won the endorsement of the applicable ''major''-party convention; nearly all of the rest have won with a ''professionally managed'' primary-election campaign; and successful minor-party candidates are almost without exception major-party figures like [[Lowell Weicker]] whose minor parties disappear after that success. ([[A Connecticut Party]], which Weicker founded, became nominally the leading major party, and state law was changed during his administration to provide that in a situation such as his win, the top ''three ''parties in the governor's race all became major parties.<!-- Alert readers will notice that i have no idea whether that change remains in effect! -->)
  +
  +
===Republican areas===
  +
{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; margin:2em; text-align: center;"
  +
|+ Presidential election results<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/compare.php?year=2004&fips=9&f=0&off=0&elect=0&type=state |title = Presidential General Election Results Comparison – Connecticut| publisher = Dave Leip's Atlas of United States Presidential Elections|year=2005|accessdate=January 20, 2007}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
  +
! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Year
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|{{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1996|1996}}
 
  +
! scope="col" colspan="2" | [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|34.69% ''483,109
 
  +
! scope="col" colspan="2" | [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|'''52.83%''' ''735,740
 
 
|-
 
|-
  +
! scope="col" | Percent !! scope="col" | Absolute
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|{{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1992|1992}}
 
  +
! scope="col" | Percent !! scope="col" | Absolute
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|35.78% ''578,313
 
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|'''42.21%''' ''682,318
 
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|{{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1988|1988}}
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 2012|2012]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|'''51.98%''' ''750,241
+
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 40.73%
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 634,892
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|46.87% ''676,584
 
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff; font-weight: bold;" | 58.06%
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 905,083
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|{{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1984|1984}}
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 2008|2008]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|'''60.73%''' ''890,877
+
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 38.22%
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 629,428
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|38.83% ''569,597
 
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff; font-weight: bold;" | 60.59%
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 997,773
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|{{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1980|1980}}
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 2004|2004]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|'''48.16%''' ''677,210
+
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 43.95%
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 693,826
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|38.52% ''541,732
 
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff; font-weight: bold;" | 54.31%
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 857,488
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|{{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1976|1976}}
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 2000|2000]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|'''52.06%''' ''719,261
+
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 38.44%
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 561,094
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|46.90% ''647,895
 
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff; font-weight: bold;" | 55.91%
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 816,015
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|{{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1972|1972}}
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 1996|1996]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|'''58.57%''' ''810,763
+
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 34.69%
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 483,109
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|40.13% ''555,498
 
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff; font-weight: bold;" | 52.83%
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 735,740
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|{{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1968|1968}}
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 1992|1992]]
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|44.32% ''556,721
+
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 35.78%
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 578,313
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|'''49.48%''' ''621,561
 
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff; font-weight: bold;" | 42.21%
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 682,318
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|{{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1964|1964}}
+
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | [[United States presidential election, 1988|1988]]
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 51.98%
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|32.09% ''390,996
 
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 750,241
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|'''67.81%''' ''826,269
 
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 46.87%
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 676,584
 
|-
 
|-
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|{{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1960|1960}}
+
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | [[United States presidential election, 1984|1984]]
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 60.73%
|align="center" bgcolor="#fff3f3"|46.27% ''565,813
 
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 890,877
|align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0ff"|'''53.73%''' ''657,055
 
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 38.83%
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 569,597
  +
|-
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | [[United States presidential election, 1980|1980]]
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 48.16%
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 677,210
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 38.52%
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 541,732
  +
|-
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | [[United States presidential election, 1976|1976]]
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 52.06%
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 719,261
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 46.90%
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 647,895
  +
|-
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | [[United States presidential election, 1972|1972]]
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 58.57%
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 810,763
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 40.13%
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 555,498
  +
|-
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 1968|1968]]
  +
| ''' #fff3f3; font-weight:| 44.32%
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 556,721
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | '''49.48%'''
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 621,561
  +
|-
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 1964|1964]]
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 32.09%
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 390,996
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff; font-weight: bold;" | 67.81%
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 826,269
  +
|-
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 1960|1960]]
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 46.27%
  +
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 565,813
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff; font-weight: bold;" | 53.73%
  +
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 657,055
 
|}
 
|}
  +
The suburban towns of [[New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan]] and [[Darien, Connecticut|Darien]] in Fairfield County are considered the most Republican areas in the state. [[Westport, Connecticut|Westport]], a wealthy town a few miles to the east, is often considered one of the most loyally Democratic, liberal towns in Fairfield County. The historically Republican-leaning wealthy town of [[Wilton, Connecticut|Wilton]] voted in the majority for [[Barack Obama]] in the 2008 Presidential Election. [[Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk]] and [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], two larger, mixed-income communities in Fairfield County, have in many elections favored moderate Republicans including former Governor [[John G. Rowland]] and former Congressman [[Chris Shays]], however they have favored Democrats in recent US presidential election years, with Shays being defeated by Democrat [[Jim Himes]] in the 2008 election.
   
  +
The state's Republican-leaning areas are the rural [[Litchfield County, Connecticut|Litchfield County]] and adjoining towns in the west of [[Hartford County, Connecticut|Hartford County]], the industrial towns of the [[Naugatuck River Valley]], and some of the affluent [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]] towns near the New York border.
Connecticut is a generally left-leaning state, allotting its electoral votes to Democratic candidates in the past four presidential elections but to Republican presidential candidates five times in the 1970s and 1980s. Connecticut has a high number of voters who are not registered with a major party. As of 2004, 33.7% of registered voters were registered Democratic, 22.0% were registered Republican, and 44.0% were unaffiliated with any party, with 0.2% registered with a minor party<!-- editor's note: figures do not add up to 100% due to rounding errors -->.<ref>[http://www.sots.ct.gov/ElectionsServices/election_results/statistics/enrolhst.pdf Party Enrollment in Connecticut]. Connecticut Office of the Secretary of State. Last retrieved {{wp|2007-02-22}}.</ref> Voters in the state are more supportive of {{wp|fiscal conservatives}} and may be considered to be generally {{wp|Social liberalism|socially liberal}}.
 
   
  +
Joe Lieberman's predecessor, [[Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.]], was the last Connecticut Republican to serve as Senator. Weicker was known as a liberal Republican. He broke with President [[Richard Nixon]] during [[Watergate Scandal|Watergate]] and successfully ran for governor in 1990 as an independent, creating [[A Connecticut Party]] as his election vehicle. Before Weicker, the last [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]] to represent Connecticut in the Senate was [[Prescott Bush]], the father of former President [[George H.W. Bush]] and the grandfather of former President [[George W. Bush]]. He served 1953–63.
Many Connecticut towns show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party. Democrats hold a registration edge especially in the cities of {{wp|Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford}}; {{wp|New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven}}; and {{wp|Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport}}, where Democratic machines have held power since the great immigration waves of the 1800s. The state's Republican-leaning areas are the rural {{wp|Litchfield County, Connecticut|Litchfield County}} and adjoining towns in the west of {{wp|Hartford County, Connecticut|Hartford County}}, the industrial towns of the {{wp|Naugatuck River Valley}}, and some of the affluent {{wp|Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County}} towns near the {{wp|New York}} border. The suburban towns of {{wp|New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan}} and {{wp|Darien, Connecticut|Darien}} in Fairfield County are considered the most Republican areas in the state, the former being the hometown of conservative activist {{wp|Ann Coulter}}. {{wp|Westport, Connecticut|Westport}}, a wealthy town a few miles to the east, is often considered one of the most loyally-Democratic, liberal towns in Fairfield County. {{wp|Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk}} and {{wp|Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford}}, two larger, affluent communities in Fairfield County, have in many elections favored moderate Republicans including former Governor {{wp|John G. Rowland}} and Congressman {{wp|Chris Shays}}, however they have favored Democrats in recent US presidential candidates. {{wp|Waterbury, Connecticut|Waterbury}} has a Democratic registration edge, but usually favors conservative candidates in both parties. In {{wp|Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury}} unaffiliated voters outnumber voters registered with either major party. Other smaller cities including {{wp|Meriden, Connecticut|Meriden}}, {{wp|New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain}}, and {{wp|Middletown, Connecticut|Middletown}} favor Democratic candidates.
 
   
  +
===Democratic areas===
Democrats hold veto-proof majorities in both houses of the state legislature. In 2006, Republicans were reduced from three out of five to one out of five congressional seats. The remaining Republican, {{wp|Chris Shays}}, is the only Republican from New England in the House of Representatives in the {{wp|110th Congress|current Congress}} and is also one of the most liberal Republicans in the House. {{wp|Christopher Dodd}} and {{wp|Joseph Lieberman}} are Connecticut's U.S. senators. The senior Dodd is a Democrat while the junior Lieberman serves as an {{wp|Independent Democrat}} caucusing with Senate Democrats after his victory on the {{wp|Connecticut for Lieberman}} ballot line in the 2006 general election. Lieberman's predecessor, {{wp|Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.}}, was the last Connecticut Republican to serve as Senator. Weicker was known as a liberal Republican. He broke with President {{wp|Richard Nixon}} during {{wp|Watergate Scandal|Watergate}} and successfully ran for governor in 1990 as an independent, creating {{wp|A Connecticut Party}} as his election vehicle. Before Weicker, the last {{wp|Republican Party (United States)|Republican}} to represent Connecticut in the Senate was {{wp|Prescott Bush}}, the father of former President {{wp|George H.W. Bush}} and the grandfather of President {{wp|George W. Bush}}. He served from 1953–1963.
 
  +
[[Waterbury, Connecticut|Waterbury]] has a Democratic registration edge, but usually favors conservative candidates of both traditional parties. In [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]] unaffiliated voters outnumber voters registered with either major party. Other smaller cities including [[Meriden, Connecticut|Meriden]], [[New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]], [[Norwich, Connecticut|Norwich]] and [[Middletown, Connecticut|Middletown]] favor Democratic candidates.
   
  +
As of 2011, Democrats controlled all five federal congressional seats. The remaining Republican, [[Chris Shays]], lost his seat to Democrat Jim Himes in the Congressional Election in 2008.
{{further|{{wp|U.S. presidential election, 2004, in Connecticut}}}}
 
   
===Political corruption===
+
===Senators===
  +
[[Chris Murphy (politician)|Chris Murphy]] and [[Richard Blumenthal]] are Connecticut's [[United States Senate|U.S. senators]]. Both senators from Connecticut are Democrats.
Several mayors, state legislators, and government employees have been convicted and imprisoned for crimes ranging from bribery to racketeering. In 2004, Governor {{wp|John G. Rowland}}, a Republican, was forced to resign when it was discovered he helped steer state contracts to firms that offered him gifts and free vacations.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/06/21/connecticut.governor/index.html | title=Connecticut governor announces resignation | publisher={{wp|CNN}}.com | date= {{wp|1 July}} {{wp|2004}}| accessdate=2007-01-20}}</ref> Following his resignation, he pled guilty to corruption charges and served ten months in federal prison. Former {{wp|Waterbury, Connecticut|Waterbury}} Mayor and 2000 GOP Senate candidate {{wp|Philip Giordano}} was stripped of power in 2001 after a corruption investigation had to be cut short when phone taps unexpectedly revealed alleged sexual acts with 8- and 10-year-old minor girls and other possible acts of {{wp|pedophilia}}.<ref>{{cite news|url = http://liberty.hypermart.net/voices/2002/Giordano.htm|title= Federal Child Sex Charges Against Republican Mayor Giordano| publisher={{wp|New York Daily News}} | date = {{wp|23 November}} {{wp|2001}}| accessdate =2007-01-20}}</ref> In 2003, he was convicted and sentenced to 37 years in federal prison.<ref>{{cite news|url = http://liberty.hypermart.net/voices/2002/Giordano.htm| title = Ex-Republican Mayor in Connecticut Is Sentenced to 37 Years for Sex Abuse| publisher = {{wp|New York Times}} (AP)| date = {{wp|14 June}} {{wp|2003}}| accessdate =2007-01-20}}</ref> Democrats have been convicted of corruption as well, most notably former Bridgeport Mayor {{wp|Joe Ganim}}. The current Mayor of Bridgeport, {{wp|John Fabrizi}} admitted to using cocaine while in office, but has stayed on while not running for re-election.<ref>{{cite news|url =http://nwkpublish.bits.baseview.com/stamford_templates/stamford_story/319603830946543.php| title = Politics top state stories of 2006| publisher = The Stamford Times (AP)| accessdate =2007-01-20}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url =http://www.connpost.com/news/ci_3958182| title = Fabrizi: I used coke| last = Cummings |first = Bill | publisher= {{wp|Connecticut Post}}| date = {{wp|21 June}} {{wp|2006}} |accessdate =2007-01-20}}</ref> In August 2007 Hartford Mayor {{wp|Eddie Perez}} announced he had been investigated for ties to a city contractor. [http://www.courant.com/news/custom/topnews/hc-perez0817.artaug17,0,3742776.story?coll=hc_tab01_layout]
 
   
  +
===Voting===
Several state agencies, including the {{wp|Connecticut Department of Transportation|Department of Transportation (DOT)}}, {{wp|Connecticut Department of Motor Vehicles|Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV)}}, and {{wp|Connecticut Department of Children and Families|Department of Children and Families (DCF)}} have been rocked by scandals over the past decade.
 
  +
In April 2012 both houses of the Connecticut state legislature passed a bill (20&nbsp;to&nbsp;16 and 86&nbsp;to&nbsp;62) that abolished the [[Capital punishment in the United States|capital punishment]] for all future crimes, while 11 inmates who were waiting on the [[death row]] at the time could still be executed.<ref>{{cite news | url =http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2012/04/25/connecticut-governor-signs-bill-to-repeal-death-penalty/|title = Connecticut governor signs bill to repeal death penalty|date=April 25, 2012|publisher=FOX News Network |accessdate = April 25, 2012}}</ref>
   
  +
In July 2009 the Connecticut legislature overrode a veto by Governor [[M. Jodi Rell]] to pass [[SustiNet]], the first significant public-option health care reform legislation in the nation.<ref>{{Citation | title = Advocac | publisher = Aarp | url = http://www.aarp.org/states/ct/advocacy/articles/in_historic_vote_legislature_overrides_sustinet_veto.html | type = article | contribution = In historic vote, legislature overrides SustiNet veto}}{{dead link|date=July 2010}}</ref>
A more recent scandal involved a botched construction project on {{wp|Interstate 84 (east)|Interstate 84}} near Waterbury. An independent audit of the project in late 2006 revealed that over 300 storm drains installed by the now-defunct L.G. DeFelice Construction Company, were either filled with sand, were improperly installed, or were connected with pipes that led to nowhere. In addition to the faulty storm drains, officials discovered light fixtures with defective mounting brackets when one of the fixtures fell off of its support pole and onto the highway. Inspectors also discovered the structural steel for an overpass was not properly installed, raising serious questions about the bridge's structural integrity. Following the uncovering of this scandal, Attorney-General {{wp|Richard Blumenthal}} filed suit against L.G. DeFelice, its bonding company {{wp|USF&G}}, and the consultants (the Maguire Group) hired by CONNDOT to oversee the project, resulting in a $17.5 million settlement to fix the problems. A federal {{wp|grand jury}} and FBI investigation were also launched into the operations of L.G. DeFelice before the company ceased operations in 2004. Several CONNDOT employees were fired after being implicated in the scandal, and are also subjects of state and federal investigations for allegedly taking {{wp|bribery|bribes}} in exchange for covering up substandard work on the I-84 project. Finally, the scandal prompted the {{wp|Connecticut General Assembly}} to consider contract reform legislation and Governor {{wp|M. Jodi Rell}} to order a complete reorganization of CONNDOT.
 
   
  +
==Education==
On June 1, 2007, Senate Minority Leader {{wp|Louis DeLuca}} (R-Woodbury) was arrested on conspiracy charges after it was discovered he was dealing with a local Mafia boss who is currently facing federal charges stemming from his trash-hauling operations, <ref>[http://www.wtnh.com/Global/story.asp?S=6599228 State Sen. DeLuca arrested. WTNH Channel 8 New Haven, June 1, 2007]</ref> and allegations that he tried to use these same ties to intimidate the husband of his grandaughter, whom he claimed was abusing her.
 
   
  +
===K-12===
Following Rowland's resignation, the state legislature passed a campaign finance reform bill that bans contributions from lobbyists and state contractors in future campaigns.<ref>{{cite press release|title =Connecticut Legislature Passes Sweeping Campaign Finance Reform Bill | publisher = Brennan Center for Justice | date = {{wp|1 December}} {{wp|2005}} | url =http://www.brennancenter.org/press_detail.asp?key=100&subkey=10529&init_key=84 | accessdate =2007-01-20}}</ref>
 
  +
{{See also|Connecticut State Board of Education}}
  +
The [[Connecticut State Board of Education]] manages the public school system for children in grades K-12. Board of Education members are [[cronyism|appointed]] by the [[List of Governors of Connecticut|Governor of Connecticut]]. Statistics for each school are made available to the public through an online database system called "CEDAR."<ref>{{cite web |url=http://sdeportal.ct.gov/Cedar/WEB/ct_report/CedarHome.aspx | work =State Department of Education | title = CEDaR | publisher= Government of Connecticut | accessdate=June 10, 2013}}</ref> The CEDAR database also provides statistics for "ACES" or "RESC" schools for children with behavioral disorders.<ref>{{Citation | url = http://www.aces.org/uploads/files/2011RESCAllianceBrochure.pdf | title = Resc Alliance | type = brochure | format = [[PDF]] | publisher = Aces | year = 2011}}</ref>
   
== Education ==
+
===Private schools===
  +
{{example farm|section|date=December 2013}}
  +
{{See also|Country Day School movement}}
  +
* [[Academy of Our Lady of Mercy, Lauralton Hall]] (1905)
  +
* [[Bridgeport International Academy]] (1997)
  +
* [[Brunswick School]] (1902)
  +
* [[Cheshire Academy]] (1794)
  +
* [[Choate Rosemary Hall]] (1890)
  +
* [[East Catholic High School]] (1961)
  +
* [[Fairfield Country Day School]] (1936)
  +
* [[Fairfield College Preparatory School]] (1942)
  +
* [[Greens Farms Academy]] (1925)
  +
* [[Greenwich Country Day School]] (1926)
  +
* [[Hopkins School]] (1660)
  +
* [[Kingswood-Oxford School]] (1909)
  +
* [[Miss Porter's School]] (1843)
  +
* [[New Canaan Country School]] (1916)
  +
* [[Northwest Catholic High School]] (1961)
  +
* [[Norwich Free Academy]] (1854)
  +
* [[Notre Dame Catholic High School (Connecticut)|Notre Dame Catholic High School]] (1955)
  +
* [[Notre Dame High School (West Haven, Connecticut)|Notre Dame High School]] (1946)
  +
* [[Pomfret School]] (1894)
  +
* [[Saint Bernard School]] (1956)
  +
* [[The Taft School]] (1890)
  +
* [[Westover School]] (1909)
  +
* [[Xavier High School (Connecticut)|Xavier High School]] (1963)
   
  +
===Colleges and universities===
Connecticut is well-known as the home of {{wp|Yale University}}, which maintains a consistent ranking as one of the world's most renowned universities, and has the most selective undergraduate program of any university in the United States (an 8.6% acceptance rate in 2006).<ref>{{cite news | url = http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2006-11-02-collegerates_x.htm| title = College acceptance rates: How many get in?| publisher = {{wp|USA Today}}| date = {{wp|8 November}} {{wp|2006}}| accessdate =2007-01-20}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://media.www.browndailyherald.com/media/storage/paper472/news/2006/04/04/CampusNews/Class.Of.2010.Acceptance.Rate.Lowest.In.University.History-1779032.shtml?sourcedomain=www.browndailyherald.com&MIIHost=media.collegepublisher.com| title= Class of 2010 acceptance rate lowest in University history| last=Lutts | first = Chloe | publisher=The Brown Daily Herald| date = {{wp|4 April}} {{wp|2006}} | accessdate =2007-01-20}}</ref> Yale is one of the largest employers in the state, and its research activity has recently spun off dozens of growing biotechnology companies.
 
  +
Connecticut was home to the nation's first law school, [[Litchfield Law School]], which operated from 1773 to 1833 in [[Litchfield, Connecticut|Litchfield]]. [[Hartford Public High School]] (1638) is the third-oldest secondary school in the nation after the [[Collegiate School (New York)|Collegiate School]] (1628) in [[Manhattan]] and the [[Boston Latin School]] (1635).
   
  +
====Private====
Connecticut is also the host of many other academic institutions, including {{wp|Trinity College}}, (1825), and {{wp|Wesleyan University}}, (1832). The {{wp|University of Connecticut}} has been the highest ranked public university in New England for eight years running, according to ''{{wp|U.S. News and World Report}}''. The State's capital university,{{wp|University of Hartford}}, (1877), is a private, independent, and nonsectarian coeducational university located in West Hartford, Connecticut. It was chartered through the joining of the Hartford Art School, Hillyer College, and The Hartt School of Music in 1957.
 
  +
* [[Yale University]] (1701)<ref>{{cite news | url = http://www.yaledailynews.com/articles/view/28392| title = Admit rate falls to record-low 7.5 percent| publisher=[[Yale Daily News]]| date = March 31, 2009| accessdate =April 23, 2009}} {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref>
  +
* [[Trinity College (Connecticut)|Trinity College]] (1823)
  +
* [[Wesleyan University]] (1831)
  +
* [[University of Hartford]] (1877)
  +
* [[Post University]] (1890)
  +
* [[Connecticut College]] (1911)
  +
* [[United States Coast Guard Academy]] (1915)
  +
* [[University of New Haven]] (1920)
  +
* [[University of Bridgeport]] (1927)
  +
* [[Albertus Magnus College]] (1925)
  +
* [[Quinnipiac University]] (1929)
  +
* [[Mitchell College]] (1938)
  +
* [[Fairfield University]] (1942)
  +
* [[Sacred Heart University]] (1963)
   
  +
====Public universities====
Additionally, the State has many noted {{wp|boarding school}}s, such as {{wp|Miss Porter's School}}, {{wp|Choate Rosemary Hall}}, {{wp|Hotchkiss}}, {{wp|Pomfret School}}, {{wp|Avon Old Farms}}, {{wp|Loomis Chaffee}}, {{wp|Salisbury School}} and {{wp|The Taft School}} which draw students from all over the world. Also Connecticut has many noted private day schools such as {{wp|Kingswood-Oxford School}} located in {{wp|West Hartford}} and the {{wp|Hopkins School}} based in {{wp|New Haven}}.
 
  +
{{See also|Connecticut State University System}}
  +
* [[Central Connecticut State University]] (1849)
  +
* [[University of Connecticut]] (1881)<ref>{{Citation | url = http://www.uconn.edu/rankings.php | title = Rankings | publisher = U Conn}}.</ref>
  +
* [[Eastern Connecticut State University]] (1889)
  +
* [[Southern Connecticut State University]] (1893)
  +
* [[Western Connecticut State University]] (1903)
  +
* [http://www.charteroak.edu/ Charter Oak State College] (1973)
   
  +
====Public community colleges====
{{see also|List of colleges and universities in Connecticut}} for a comprehensive listing. <!-- list of colleges is comprehensive in another article; improve that article/list instead of redundantly adding it here -->
 
  +
* [[Capital Community College]] (1946)<ref>http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/history.htm "A Capital History," Capital Community College. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
{{see also|List of school districts in Connecticut}}
 
  +
* [[Norwalk Community College]] (1961)<ref>http://www.ncc.commnet.edu/about/history.asp "History of Norwalk Community College," Norwalk Community College. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Manchester Community College]] (1963)<ref>https://www.manchestercc.edu/ Manchester Community College, Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Naugatuck Valley Community College]] (1964)<ref>http://www.nv.edu/About-NVCC/College-Facts/itemId/2055/History "History," Naugatuck Valley Community College. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Northwestern Connecticut Community College]] (1965)<ref>http://www.nwcc.commnet.edu/research/pdfs/NCCC_NEASC_Report_2013.pdf "Institutional Self-Study Report," Northwestern Connecticut Community College, February 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Middlesex Community College (Connecticut)|Middlesex Community College]] (1966)<ref>http://mxcc.edu/news/mxcc-named-a-2013-great-college-to-work-for/?print=print "MxCC Named a '2013 Great College to Work For'", Middlesex Community College. Retrieved May 18, 2014.{{dead link|date=February 2015}}</ref>
  +
* [[Housatonic Community College]] (1967)<ref>http://www.hcc.commnet.edu/info/NEASC/2012-10year/Self_Study_Report_2-22-12.pdf "NEASC Self-Study Report," Housatonic Community College, March 4–7, 2012. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Gateway Community College]] (1968)<ref>http://www.gatewaycc.edu/history "Gateway History," Gateway Community College. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Asnuntuck Community College]] (1969)<ref>http://www.asnuntuck.edu/about/history-college "History of the College," Asnuntuck Community College. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Tunxis Community College]] (1969)<ref>http://www.tunxis.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/NEASC-Self-Study-2011.pdf "Tunxis Community College Institutional Self-Study," Tunxis Community College, Fall 2011, page i. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Quinebaug Valley Community College]] (1971)<ref>http://www.qvcc.edu/search/QVCC-President-Prospectus.pdf "Presidential Search Prospectus," Quinebaug Valley Community College, February 6, 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Three Rivers Community College (Connecticut)|Three Rivers Community College]] (1992)<ref>http://www.trcc.commnet.edu/President/about/ "About Our Learning Community," Three Rivers Community College. Retrieved May 18. 2014.</ref>
   
  +
The state also has many noted private day schools, and its [[boarding school]]s draw students from around the world.
== Sports ==
 
  +
{| class="wikitable"
 
  +
{{See also|List of school districts in Connecticut}}
  +
  +
==Sports==
  +
[[File:American Le Mans Series at Road America 2007.jpg|thumb|right|300px|[[Lime Rock Park|Lime Rock]] – a home of the [[American Le Mans Series|American Le Mans]] tournament]]
  +
{{See also|Professional ice hockey in Connecticut}}
  +
  +
===Professional sports===
  +
Connecticut has been the home of multiple teams in the [[Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada|big four sports leagues]], though currently hosts none.
  +
  +
====NHL====
  +
Connecticut's longest-tenured and only modern full-time "big four" franchise were the [[Hartford Whalers]] of the [[National Hockey League]], who played in Hartford from 1975 to 1997 at the [[Hartford Civic Center]]. Their departure to [[Raleigh, North Carolina]], over disputes with the state over the construction of a new arena, caused great controversy and resentment. The former Whalers are now known as the [[Carolina Hurricanes]].
  +
  +
Presently, there are two Connecticut teams in the [[American Hockey League]]: the [[Bridgeport Sound Tigers]], a farm team for the [[New York Islanders]], compete at the [[Webster Bank Arena]] in [[Bridgeport, CT|Bridgeport]] and the [[Hartford Wolf Pack]], the affiliate of the [[New York Rangers]], play in the [[XL Center]] in Hartford.
  +
  +
====MLB====
  +
The [[Hartford Dark Blues]] joined the [[National League]] for one season in 1876, making them the state's only [[major league baseball]] franchise, before moving to [[Brooklyn, New York]] and then disbanding one season later.
  +
  +
Connecticut is a battleground between fans of the [[New York Yankees]], [[Boston Red Sox]], and [[New York Mets]].<ref>{{cite news | url = http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/18/sports/baseball/18fans.html?ei=5088&en=6f3f651e40bd2179&ex=1313553600&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&pagewanted=print | work=The New York Times | title=Where Do Rivals Draw the Line? | first=John | last =Branch | date =August 18, 2006 | accessdate=April 30, 2010}}</ref> For the Mets and Red Sox, split allegiances among fans of both teams in the state during the [[1986 World Series]] led to an article in ''[[The Boston Globe]]'' to coin the phrase "Red Sox Nation."<ref>{{cite news|title=Baseball Border War; In Milford Conn., Geography Brings Sox and Mets Fans|date = October 20, 1986|first=Nathan|last=Cobb|newspaper=Boston Globe|page= 8}}</ref>
  +
  +
====NFL====
  +
In 1926, Hartford had a franchise in the [[National Football League]] known as the [[Hartford Blues]]. The NFL would return to Connecticut from 1973 to 1974 when New Haven hosted the [[New York Giants]] at [[Yale Bowl]] while [[Giants Stadium]] was under construction.<ref name="HistoryNYG">{{Citation | url = http://www.sportsecyclopedia.com/nfl/nyg/nygiants.html | contribution = History of the New York Giants | title = Sports ecyclopedia | accessdate = September 12, 2006}}.</ref>
  +
  +
====NBA====
  +
From 1975 to 1995, the [[Boston Celtics]] of the [[National Basketball Association]] played a number of home games at the Hartford Civic Center.
  +
[[File:Yale-Harvard-Game.jpg|285px|right|thumb|Yale Bowl during "[[Harvard-Yale football games (The Game)|The Game]]" between Yale and Harvard. The Bowl was also the home of the [[NFL]]'s [[New York Giants]] in 1973–74.]]
  +
  +
====PGA====
  +
The state hosts several major sporting events. Since 1952, a [[PGA Tour]] golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area. Originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open," the event is now known as the [[Travelers Championship]]. The [[Pilot Pen Tennis]] tournament is held annually in the [[Cullman-Heyman Tennis Center]] at Yale University in New Haven.
  +
  +
====Motorsports====
  +
[[Lime Rock Park]] in Salisbury is a 1.5-mile road racing course, home to [[American Le Mans Series]], Grand-Am [[Rolex Sports Car Series]], [[SCCA]] and [[NASCAR Camping World East Series]] races. [[Thompson International Speedway]], [[Stafford Motor Speedway]] and [[Waterford Speedbowl]] are oval tracks holding weekly races for NASCAR Modifieds and other classes, including the NASCAR Whelen Modified Tour.
  +
  +
====WNBA====
  +
The [[Connecticut Sun]] of the [[WNBA]] currently play at the [[Mohegan Sun Arena]] in [[Uncasville]]. From 1996 to 1998, Connecticut was home to another professional woman's basketball team, [[American Basketball League (1996–1998)|American Basketball League]] franchise the [[New England Blizzard]], who played at the [[XL Center]].
  +
  +
===Non-professional sports===
  +
  +
====High school====
  +
The [[Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference (CIAC)]] is the state's sanctioning body for high school sports.
  +
  +
====College sports====
  +
The [[UConn Huskies]] play [[Division I (NCAA)|NCAA Division I]] sports and are popular in the state. Both the [[Connecticut Huskies men's basketball|men's basketball]] and [[Connecticut Huskies women's basketball|women's basketball teams]] have won multiple national championships, including in 2004, when UConn became the first school in NCAA Division I history to have its men's and women's basketball programs win the national title in the same year.{{citation needed|date=May 2014}} In 2014, UConn repeated its feat of being the only school in NCAA Division I to win men's and women's basketball tournaments in the same year.{{citation needed|date=May 2014}} The UConn [[Connecticut Huskies women's basketball|women's basketball team]] holds the record for the longest consecutive winning streak in NCAA college basketball at 90 games, a streak that ended in 2008.{{citation needed|date=May 2014}} The [[UConn Huskies football team]] has played in the [[Football Bowl Subdivision]] since 2002, and has played in four bowl games since. Other Connecticut universities which feature Division I sports teams are [[Yale Bulldogs|Yale University]], [[Quinnipiac Bobcats|Quinnipiac University]], [[Fairfield Stags|Fairfield University]], [[Central Connecticut State University]], [[Sacred Heart University]], and the [[Hartford Hawks|University of Hartford]].
  +
  +
====Yale v. Harvard====
  +
New Haven biennially hosts "[[Harvard-Yale football games (The Game)|The Game]]" between Yale and Harvard, the country's second-oldest college football rivalry. Yale alum [[Walter Camp]], deemed the "Father of American Football," helped develop modern football while living in New Haven.<ref>{{Citation | url = http://www.collegefootball.org/famer_selected.php?id=88004 | publisher = College Football | title = Hall of Fame | contribution = Famer Search}}.</ref>
  +
  +
====Arena Football====
  +
Hartford has hosted two [[Arena Football League]] franchises, in the [[Connecticut Coyotes]] from 1995 to 1996 and the [[New England Sea Wolves]] from 1999 to 2000, both playing at the Civic Center. Hartford was home to the [[Hartford Colonials]] of the [[United Football League (2009)|United Football League]] for one season in 2010.
  +
  +
===Current professional sports teams===
  +
{| class="wikitable sortable"
  +
|-
 
!Club
 
!Club
 
!Sport
 
!Sport
 
!League
 
!League
 
|-
 
|-
|{{wp|Bridgeport Sound Tigers}}
+
|[[Bridgeport Sound Tigers]]
|{{wp|Ice hockey}}
+
|[[Ice hockey]]
|{{wp|American Hockey League}}
+
|[[American Hockey League]]
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Hartford Wolf Pack]]
|{{wp|Danbury Trashers}}
 
|Ice hockey
+
|[[Ice hockey]]
|{{wp|United Hockey League}}
+
|[[American Hockey League]]
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Danbury Whalers]]
|{{wp|Hartford Wolf Pack}}
 
|Ice hockey
+
|[[Ice hockey]]
|American Hockey League
+
|[[Federal Hockey League]]
 
|-
 
|-
|{{wp|New England Stars}}
+
|[[New Britain Rock Cats]]
|Ice hockey
 
|{{wp|North Eastern Hockey League}}
 
|-
 
|{{wp|Connecticut Defenders}}
 
|{{wp|Baseball}}
 
|{{wp|Minor League Baseball}} (AA)
 
|-
 
|{{wp|New Britain Rock Cats}}
 
 
|Baseball
 
|Baseball
|Minor League Baseball (AA)
+
|[[Eastern League (baseball)|Eastern League]] (AA)
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Connecticut Tigers]]
|{{wp|Bridgeport Bluefish}}
 
 
|Baseball
 
|Baseball
|{{wp|Atlantic League}}
+
|[[New York-Penn League]] (A)
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Bridgeport Bluefish]]
|{{wp|Manchester Silkworms}}
 
 
|Baseball
 
|Baseball
|{{wp|New England Collegiate Baseball League}}
+
|[[Atlantic League of Professional Baseball|Atlantic League]]
|-
 
|{{wp|New Haven County Cutters}}
 
|Baseball
 
|{{wp|Canadian-American League}}
 
|-
 
|{{wp|Stamford Robins}}
 
|Baseball
 
|{{wp|Atlantic Collegiate Baseball League}}
 
|-
 
|{{wp|Torrington Twisters}}
 
|Baseball
 
|{{wp|New England Collegiate Baseball League}}
 
|-
 
|{{wp|Connecticut Sun}}
 
|{{wp|Basketball}}
 
|{{wp|Women's National Basketball Association}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
|[http://www.ctrollerderby Connecticut Roller Girls]
+
|[[Connecticut Sun]]
  +
|Basketball
|{{wp|Flat Track Roller Derby}}
 
|{{wp|Women's Flat Track Roller Derby Association}}
+
|[[Women's National Basketball Association]]
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| [[AC Connecticut]]
  +
| Soccer
  +
| [[USL PDL]]
 
|}
 
|}
   
  +
==Etymology and symbols==
*From 1979 to 1997, the National Hockey League had a franchise in Hartford, the {{wp|Hartford Whalers}}. Their departure to {{wp|Raleigh, North Carolina}}, caused great controversy and resentment. The former Whalers are now known as the {{wp|Carolina Hurricanes}}.
 
  +
{{Infobox U.S. state symbols
  +
|Flag = Flag of Connecticut.svg
  +
|Seal = Seal of Connecticut.svg
  +
|Name = Connecticut
  +
|Bird = [[American robin]]
  +
|Fish = [[American shad]]
  +
|Flower = [[Kalmia latifolia|Mountain Laurel]]
  +
|Insect = [[European mantis]]
  +
|Mammal = [[Sperm whale]]
  +
|Tree = [[Charter Oak|Charter]] [[White oak]]
  +
|Dance = [[Square dance]]
  +
|Fossil = [[Trace fossil|Dinosaur tracks]]
  +
|Mineral = [[Garnet]]
  +
|Motto = ''[[Qui transtulit sustinet]]''<br />[[Latin]]: "He who transplanted sustains"
  +
|Shell = [[Eastern Oyster]]
  +
|Ships = ''[[USS Nautilus (SSN-571)]]'', ''[[Freedom Schooner Amistad]]''
  +
|Slogan = ''Full of Surprises''
  +
|Song = "[[Yankee Doodle]]",<br />"[[Nutmegger|The Nutmeg]]"
  +
|Tartan = [http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=885&q=246526 Connecticut State Tartan]
  +
|Route Marker = Connecticut Highway 15.svg
  +
|Quarter = 1999 CT Proof.png
  +
|QuarterReleaseDate = 1999
  +
}}
   
  +
The name "Connecticut" originates from the [[Mohegan]] word ''quonehtacut'', meaning "place of long tidal river."<ref name ="AboutCT">{{cite web | url = http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=246434 | title = About Connecticut | publisher = The Government of Connecticut | accessdate =December 18, 2005}}</ref> Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–39 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world.<ref name=SOTS>{{cite web|url=http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/cwp/view.asp?A=3188&QUESTION_ID=392608 | publisher = The Government of Connecticut | work = SOTS | title = Sites, Seals & Symbols | accessdate = June 12, 2008}}</ref> Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as ''"The [[Nutmeg]] State."''<ref name = SOTS/> The origins of the nutmeg connection to Connecticut are unknown. It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice). It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers. It is also facetiously said to come from [[Yankee]] peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers.<ref name = "cslib" /> [[George Washington]] gave Connecticut the title of ''"The Provisions State"''<ref name=SOTS/> because of the material aid the state rendered to the [[American Revolutionary War]] effort. Connecticut is also known as ''"The Land of Steady Habits."''<ref name=SOTS />
* Connecticut is a battleground between fans of the {{wp|New York Yankees}}, {{wp|Boston Red Sox}}, and {{wp|New York Mets}}[http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/18/sports/baseball/18fans.html?ei=5088&en=6f3f651e40bd2179&ex=1313553600&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&pagewanted=print]
 
  +
[[File:Charter Oak in Hartford CT.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Charter Oak]]]]
  +
[[File:SS-571-Nautilus-trials.gif|thumb|right|The [[USS Nautilus (SSN-571)|USS ''Nautilus'' (SSN-571)]]]]
   
  +
According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter." There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "Connecticotian" – [[Cotton Mather]] in 1702. "Connecticutensian" – [[Samuel Peters]] in 1781. "[[Nutmegger]]" is sometimes used,<ref name = "cslib">{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/nicknamesCT.htm| title= Connecticut's Nicknames| publisher= Connecticut State Library | accessdate=September 15, 2011}}</ref> as is "[[Yankee]]" (the official state song is "[[Yankee Doodle]]"), though this usually refers someone from the wider [[New England]] region (and in the Southern United States, to anyone who lives north of the [[Mason-Dixon Line]]). Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn.;" the official [[United States postal abbreviations|postal abbreviation]] is CT.
*In 1876, Hartford had a franchise in baseball's {{wp|National League}} known as the {{wp|Hartford Dark Blues}}.
 
   
  +
[[Commemorative stamp]]s issued by the [[United States Postal Service]] with Connecticut themes include [[Nathan Hale]], [[Eugene O'Neill]], [[Josiah Willard Gibbs]], [[Noah Webster]], [[Eli Whitney]], the [[whaling]] ship the [[Charles W. Morgan (ship)|Charles W. Morgan]] which is docked in [[Mystic Seaport]], and a [[decoy]] of a broadbill [[duck]].
*In 1926, Hartford had a franchise in the {{wp|National Football League}} known as the {{wp|Hartford Blues}}.
 
   
  +
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto"
*From 1975 to 1995, the {{wp|Boston Celtics}} of the {{wp|National Basketball Association}} played a number of home games at the {{wp|Hartford Civic Center}}.
 
  +
|+ Connecticut state insignia and historical figures<ref name=SOTS/><br /><sup> except where noted</sup>
 
  +
|-
*Since 1952, a {{wp|PGA Tour}} golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area. Originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open," the event is now know as the {{wp|Travelers Championship}}.
 
  +
|State aircraft || [[Vought F4U Corsair]]<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/cwp/view.asp?a=3188&q=392608 |title=Connecticut Secretary of the State - Sites, Seals & Symbols - State Aircraft |author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> |date= |website=http://www.sots.ct.gov |publisher=State of Connecticut |accessdate=June 17, 2014}}</ref>
 
  +
|-
The Pilot Pen Tennis Tournament is held annually at the Connecticut Tennis Center at Yale University. It is one of the few dual-sex tournaments in professional tennis and is the warm-up tournament to the US Open, played the following week in Queens, New York. The court speed and weather conditions are identical to those at the US Open.{{Fact|date=May 2007}}
 
  +
|State hero || [[Nathan Hale]]
 
  +
|-
The {{wp|Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference (CIAC)}} is the state's sanctioning body for high school sports. {{wp|Xavier High School (Middletown, CT)}} claimed the 2005 Class LL football championship. Other state champions in football include Staples (in Westport), Greenwich High School (Greenwich, CT) 2006 state LL champions, Branford, Daniel Hand (in Madison), Woodland Regional (in Beacon Falls), East Lyme High School (in East Lyme), Hyde Leadership (in Hamden), Southington High School (in Southington).
 
  +
|State heroine || [[Prudence Crandall]]
  +
|-
  +
|State composer || [[Charles Edward Ives]]
  +
|-
  +
|State statues in [[National Statuary Hall Collection#Collection|Statuary Hall]] || [[Roger Sherman]] and [[Jonathan Trumbull]]
  +
|-
  +
<!-- STATE PEOPLE, HONORARY POSTS-->
  +
|[[State poet laureate]] || [[Dick Allen (poet)|Dick Allen]]
  +
|-
  +
|[[Connecticut State Troubadour]] || Kristen Graves<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.ct.gov/cct/cwp/view.asp?a=2162&q=293748 |title=Connecticut State Troubadour |publisher=State of Connecticut |accessdate=June 29, 2013}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
|State composer laureate || [[Jacob Druckman]]
  +
|}
   
 
==Famous residents==
 
==Famous residents==
  +
{{example farm|date=June 2013}}
{{main|List of famous residents of Connecticut}}
 
  +
{{Main|List of people from Connecticut}}
 
  +
* [[George H.W. Bush]], the 41st president of the United States, who grew up in Greenwich<ref>http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/george-bush "George Bush," History.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref> a member of the [[Bush political family]], with roots in the state extending three generations.
{{wp|George Walker Bush}}, the current President of the United States, was born in Connecticut. He is a member of the {{wp|Bush political family}}, with roots in the state extending three generations. Other notable figures from the state span American political and cultural history, including {{wp|Ralph Nader}}, {{wp|Eli Whitney}}, {{wp|Benedict Arnold}}, {{wp|Nathan Hale}}, {{wp|Harriet Beecher Stowe}}, {{wp|Mark Twain}}, {{wp|John Brown (abolitionist)|John Brown}}, {{wp|Eugene O'Neill}}, {{wp|Charles Ives}} and {{wp|Katharine Hepburn}}, and {{wp|Roger Sherman}}. The state is home to many actors, entertainers and businesspeople.
 
  +
* [[George W. Bush]], the 43rd president of the United States, was born in [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]].<ref>http://www.biography.com/people/george-w-bush-9232768#awesm=~oEDUgKqTHQe2ZZ "George W. Bush Biography," Biography.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Charles Dow]], founder of the Wall Street Journal and Dow Jones.<ref>http://www.anb.org/articles/16/16-03537.html "Dow, Charles Henry," American National Biography Online. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Katharine Hepburn]], named by the American Film Institute as the greatest female star in Hollywood history.<ref>http://www.biography.com/people/katharine-hepburn-9335828#awesm=~oEDV3oZXwvgJaB "Katharine Hepburn Biography," Biography.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[J.P. Morgan]], financier and philanthropist who dominated a period of industrial consolidation and intervened in multiple economic panics during his time.<ref>http://www.biography.com/people/jp-morgan-9414735#awesm=~oEDVgccyvH9m1C "J.P. Morgan Biography," Biography.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Jackie Robinson]], who broke baseball's "color line," contributing significantly to the [[Civil Rights Movement]].<ref>http://www.biography.com/people/jackie-robinson-9460813#awesm=~oEDVDeW7JBvyzD "Jackie Robinson Biography," Biography.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Igor Sikorsky]], who created and flew the first practical helicopter.<ref>http://www.biography.com/people/igor-sikorsky-9483585#awesm=~oEDVMz4yePtkxu "Igor Sikorsky Biography," Biography.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Harriet Beecher Stowe]], whose novel ''Uncle Tom's Cabin'' (1852) energized anti-slavery forces in the American North.<ref>https://www.harrietbeecherstowecenter.org/hbs/ "Harriet Beecher Stowe's Life," Harriet Beecher Stowe Center. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Meryl Streep]], who holds the record for the most [[Academy Awards]] nominations for acting.<ref>http://www.connecticutmag.com/Blog/Arts-Entertainment/February-2014/Meryl-Streep-Oscars-Stars-Other-Celebs-Live-in-Connecticut-We-Map-Them/ "Meryl Streep, Oscars' Stars and Other Celebs in Connecticut (We Map Them)," Connecticut Magazine, February 27, 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Mark Twain]] resided in his innovative [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] home from 1871 until 1891, during which time he published ''The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'' and '' The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn''. He lived in [[Redding, Connecticut|Redding]] from 1908 until his death in 1910.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.marktwainlibrary.org/9samuelclemens-folder/samuel-clemens-and-the-mark-twain-library.htm |title=Samuel Clemens and the Mark Twain Library |publisher=Mark Twain Library |accessdate=September 15, 2011}}</ref>
  +
* [[Noah Webster]] was born in Hartford in an area that is now part of [[West Hartford]] and was the author of the ''Blue Backed Speller'', now known as ''Webster's Dictionary''. The ''Speller'' was used to teach spelling to five generations of Americans.<ref>http://www.biography.com/people/noah-webster-9526224#awesm=~oEDWPi2TfHJD2B "Noah Webster Biography," Biography.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* [[Eli Whitney, Jr.|Eli Whitney]], best known for inventing the [[cotton gin]], which shaped the economy of the [[Antebellum South]]; and promoting the design of interchangeable parts in production, a major development leading to the [[Industrial Revolution]].<ref>http://www.biography.com/people/eli-whitney-9530201#awesm=~oEDX0pOKWHrEmG "Eli Whitney Biography," Biography.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
  +
* Other notable figures from the state span American political and cultural history, including [[Dean Acheson]], [[Ethan Allen]], [[Benedict Arnold]], [[P. T. Barnum]], [[Glenn Beck]], [[Michael Bolton]], [[John Brown (abolitionist)|John Brown]], [[William F. Buckley, Jr.]], [[Prudence Crandall]], [[Glenn Close]], [[Samuel Colt]], [[Phil Donahue]], [[Charles Goodyear]], [[Florence Griswold]], [[Nathan Hale]], [[Dorothy Hamill]], [[Charles Ives]], [[Bruce Jenner]], [[Helen Keller]], [[Henry Lee (forensic scientist)|Henry Lee]], [[Ivan Lendl]], [[John Mayer]], [[Ralph Nader]], [[Paul Newman]], [[Eugene O'Neill]], [[Frederick Law Olmsted]], [[Gene Pitney]], [[Roger Sherman]], [[Alfred P. Sloan]], [[John Trumbull]], [[Mo Vaughn]], [[Steve Young]], [[Kevin Navayne]], [[Gideon Welles]], and [[50 Cent]].
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
*{{wp|Connecticut census statistical areas}}
+
{{portal|Connecticut}}
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* [[Index of Connecticut-related articles]]
*{{wp|Connecticut State Police}}
 
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* [[Outline of Connecticut]] – organized list of topics about Connecticut
*{{wp|Connecticut State Troubadour}}
 
*{{wp|List of television shows set in Connecticut}}
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* [[National Register of Historic Places listings in Connecticut]]
  +
{{clear}}
*{{wp|Scouting in Connecticut}}
 
   
==References ==
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==References==
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==External links==
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* [http://www.ct.gov/ State of Connecticut] - Official website
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* [http://www.ctvisit.com/ CTVisit.com] - Official tourism website
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* [http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/09000.html Connecticut QuickFacts] - U.S Census Bureau
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* {{dmoz|Regional/North_America/United_States/Connecticut}}
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== External links ==
 
{{sisterlinks|Connecticut}}
 
===Government===
 
*[http://www.ct.gov/ State of Connecticut] - Official state website
 
*[http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/regman.htm Connecticut State Register & Manual] - updated annually
 
*[http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=257266 Directory of Web sites of Connecticut towns and cities]
 
===Tourism===
 
*[http://www.ctvisit.com/ CTVisit.com] - Official state tourism website
 
*{{wikitravel}}
 
===History===
 
*[http://www.ctgenealogy.com/ www.ctgenealogy.com] Connecticut Society of Genealogists (Est. 1968)
 
*[http://www.chs.org/ Connecticut Historical Society]
 
*[http://www.usgs.gov/state/state.asp?State=CT USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Connecticut]
 
*[http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/09000.html U.S. Census Bureau]
 
*[http://www.ers.usda.gov/StateFacts/CT.htm Connecticut State Facts]
 
===Civic and business organizations===
 
*[http://www.ctjaycees.org Connecticut Junior Chamber (Jaycees)]
 
*[http://www.usnewspapers.org/state/connecticut Connecticut Newspapers]
 
*[http://www.cbia.com/ Connecticut Business & Industry Association]
 
*[http://www.ctbhof.com/ The Connecticut Business Hall Of Fame]
 
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| Centre = '' Connecticut'': [[Outline of Connecticut|Outline]] • [[Index of Connecticut-related articles|Index]]
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| South = [[Long Island Sound]]<br />[[Long Island|Long Island, New York]]
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{{usedwp|Connecticut}}

Latest revision as of 06:11, 5 April 2015

Main Births etc
State of Connecticut
Flag of Connecticut State seal of Connecticut
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Constitution State (official)
The Nutmeg State
The Provisions State
The Land of Steady Habits[1][2]
Corrupticut [3]
Motto(s): Qui transtulit sustinet.[1] (Latin)
He who transplanted sustains.
State anthem: Yankee Doodle
Map of the United States with Connecticut highlighted
Official language(s) None
Demonym Connecticuter,[4] Connecticutian,[5]
Nutmegger[6]
Capital Hartford
Largest city Bridgeport[7]
Largest metro area Greater Hartford[8]
Area  Ranked 48th in the U.S.
 - Total 5,543 sq mi
(14,357 km2)
 - Width 70 miles (113 km)
 - Length 110 miles (177 km)
 - % water 12.6
 - Latitude 40°58′ N to 42°03′ N
 - Longitude 71°47′ W to 73°44′ W
Population  Ranked 29th in the U.S.
 - Total 3,596,677 (2014 est)[9]
 - Density 739/sq mi  (285/km2)
Ranked 4th in the U.S.
 - Median household income  $68,595 (3rd)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Massachusetts border on south slope of Mount Frissell[10][11]
2,379 ft (725 m)
 - Mean 500 ft  (150 m)
 - Lowest point Long Island Sound[10][11]
sea level
Admission to Union  January 9, 1788 (5th)
Governor Dannel P. Malloy (D)
Lieutenant Governor Nancy Wyman (D)
Legislature General Assembly
 - Upper house Senate
 - Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Richard Blumenthal (D)

Christopher S. Murphy (D)

U.S. House delegation 5 Democrats (list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC −5/−4
Abbreviations CT Conn. US-CT
Website ct.gov

Connecticut ( /kəˈnɛɹɪkət/, kə-NET-i-kət)[12] is the southernmost state in the region of the United States known as New England. Connecticut is also often grouped into the area known as the Tri-State area (New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut). It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, and Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital city is Hartford, and its most populous city is Bridgeport. The state is named after the Connecticut River, a major U.S. river that approximately bisects the state. The word is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river."[13]

Connecticut is the third smallest state by area,[14] the 29th most populous,[15] and the fourth most densely populated[14] of the 50 United States. Called the Constitution State, the Nutmeg State, the Provisions State, and the Land of Steady Habits.[1] It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States. Much of southern and western Connecticut (along with the majority of the state's population) is part of the New York metropolitan area: three of Connecticut's eight counties are statistically included in the New York City combined statistical area, which is widely referred to as the Tri-State area. Connecticut's center of population is in Cheshire, New Haven County,[16] which is also located within the Tri-State area.

Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutch. They established a small, short-lived settlement in present-day Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut rivers, called Huys de Goede Hoop. Initially, half of Connecticut was a part of the Dutch colony, New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware rivers. The first major settlements were established in the 1630s by England. Thomas Hooker led a band of followers overland from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded what would become the Connecticut Colony; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the Saybrook Colony and the New Haven Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in North America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter, making Connecticut a crown colony. This colony was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution.

The Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition, which continues today. The state also has a long history of hosting the financial-services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. As of the 2010 Census, Connecticut features the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index (0.962), and median household income in the United States.[17][18][19]

Although it is one of the wealthiest states in the US by most economic measures, the income gap between its urban and suburban areas is unusually wide.[20]

Geography[edit | edit source]

Bear Mountain, highest peak in Connecticut

Lake Mcdonough reservoir as seen from the Tunxis Trail Overlook Spur trail, Barkhamsted

New Haven

New London

Hartford

Stamford

Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, and on the east by Rhode Island. The state capital and third largest city is Hartford, and other major cities and towns (by population) include Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford, Waterbury, Norwalk, Danbury, New Britain, Greenwich and Bristol. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut.

The highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts.[21]

The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's relatively small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape; for example, in the northwestern Litchfield Hills, it features rolling mountains and horse farms, whereas in the southeastern New London County, it features beaches and maritime activities.

Although Connecticut has a long maritime history, and a reputation based on that history, Connecticut has no direct access to the sea. The jurisdiction of New York actually extends east at Fishers Island, where New York shares a sea border with Rhode Island dividing Narragansett Bay. Although Connecticut has easy access to the Atlantic, between Long Island Sound and Block Island Sound, Connecticut has no direct ocean coast.

Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London, then northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns center around a "green," such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green (the largest in the state), and Wethersfield Green (the oldest in the state). Near the green typically stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or "inne," several colonial houses, and so on, establishing a scenic historic appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism.

Connecticut consists of temperate broadleaf and mixed forests. Northeastern coastal forests of oaks, hickories, and maple cover much of the state.[22] In the northwest, these give way to New England-Acadian forests of the Taconic Mountains.[22]

The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5 mile (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut. The actual origin of this anomaly is clearly established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which was finally concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick, (whose residents sought to leave Massachusetts), was split in half.[23][24]

The southwestern border of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State, is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, Stamford, New Canaan, Darien, and parts of Norwalk and Wilton.This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating with New York giving up its claim to the area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield to the Massachusetts border as well as undisputed claim to Rye, New York.[25]

Areas maintained by the National Park Service include Appalachian National Scenic Trail, Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor, and Weir Farm National Historic Site.[26]

Climate[edit | edit source]

Scenery upon Barndoor Hills in Granby in autumn

Much of Connecticut has a humid continental climate, with cold winters and hot summers. Far southern and coastal Connecticut has a more mild humid temperate/subtropical climate with seasonal extremes tempered by proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, warmer winters, and longer frost - free seasons. Most of Connecticut sees a fairly even precipitation pattern with rainfall/snowfall spread throughout the 12 months. Connecticut averages 56% of possible sunshine (higher than the USA average), averaging 2,400 hours of sunshine annually.[27]

Summer is hot and often humid throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81 °F (27 °C) and 87 °F (31 °C) in Windsor Locks. Although summers are sunny in Connecticut, summer thunderstorms often bring quick downpours and thunder and lighting. Winters are generally cool to cold from south to north in Connecticut, with average January temperatures ranging from 38 °F (3 °C) in the coastal lowlands to 29 °F (−2 °C) in the inland and northern portions on the state. The average yearly snowfall ranges from about 50–60" in the higher elevations of the northern portion of the state to only 20-25" along the southeast coast of Connecticut. Generally, any locale north or west of Interstate 84 receives the most snow, during a storm, and throughout the season.

Early spring (April) is can range from coolish to warm, while mid and late spring (May/early June) is warm to hot. Fall months are mild and bring colorful foliage across northern parts of the state (the southern and coastal areas have more oak and hickory trees and fewer maples) in October and November. During hurricane season, tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the summer, occurring on average 30 times annually. These storms can be severe, and the state usually averages one tornado per year.[28] Connecticut's warmest temperature is 106 °F (41 °C) which occurred in Danbury on July 15, 1995; the coldest temperature is −32 °F (−35.6 °C) which occurred in Falls Village on February 16, 1943, and Coventry on January 22, 1961.[29]

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures for Various Connecticut Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Bridgeport 37/23 39/25 47/32 57/41 67/51 76/60 82/66 81/65 74/58 63/46 53/38 42/28
Hartford 35/16 39/19 47/27 59/38 70/48 79/57 84/63 82/61 74/51 63/40 52/32 40/22
[30][31]

History[edit | edit source]

A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies

Exploration and early settlement[edit | edit source]

The name Connecticut is derived from anglicized versions of the Algonquian word that has been translated as "long tidal river" and "upon the long river."[32] The Connecticut region was inhabited by multiple Native American tribes prior to European settlement and colonization, including the Mohegans, the Pequots, and the Paugusetts.[33] The first European explorer in Connecticut was the Dutch explorer Adriaen Block.[34] After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (then known by the Dutch as Versche Rivier – "Fresh River") and built a fort at Dutch Point in what is present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" (Dutch: Huis van Hoop).[35]

John Winthrop, then of Massachusetts, received a commission to create a new colony at Old Saybrook at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635.[36] This was the first of three distinct colonies that later would be combined to make up Connecticut. Saybrook Colony was a direct challenge to Dutch claims. The colony was not more than a small outpost and never matured. In 1644, the Saybrook Colony merged itself into the Connecticut Colony.[37]

The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled at Windsor, and then at Wethersfield the following year.[38] However, the main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. The settlers were Puritans from Massachusetts, led by Thomas Hooker. Hooker had been prominent in England and was a professor of theology at Cambridge. He was also an important political writer and made a significant contribution to Constitutional theory. He broke with the political leadership in Massachusetts, and, just as Roger Williams created a new polity in Rhode Island, Hooker and his cohort did the same and established the Connecticut Colony at Hartford in 1636.[39] This was the second of the three colonies. The third colony was founded in March 1638. New Haven Colony (originally known as the Quinnipiack Colony[40]) was established by John Davenport, Theophilus Eaton, and others at New Haven. The New Haven Colony had its own constitution, "The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony," which was signed on June 4, 1639.[41]

Because the Dutch were outnumbered by the flood of English settlers from Massachusetts, they left their fort in 1654.[42]

Neither the establishment of the Connecticut Colony or the Quinnipiack Colony was carried out with the sanction of the English Crown, and they were independent political entities.[43] They naturally were presumptively English, but in a legal sense, they were only secessionist outposts of Massachusetts Bay. In 1662, Winthrop took advantage of this void in political affairs and obtained in England the charter by which the colonies of Connecticut and Quinnipiack were united from the newly restored Charles II, who granted liberal political terms.[44] Although Winthrop's charter favored the Connecticut colony, New Haven remained a seat of government with Hartford until after the American Revolution.[45]

A 1799 map of Connecticut which shows The Oblong. From Low's Encyclopaedia.

Historically important colonial settlements included Windsor (1633), Wethersfield (1634), Saybrook (1635), Hartford (1636), New Haven (1638), Fairfield (1639), Guilford (1639), Milford (1639), Stratford (1639), Farmington (1640), Stamford (1641), and New London (1646).

The Pequot War marked the first major clash between European settlers and Native Americans in New England. With the Pequot people reacting with increasing aggression to European settlers encroaching on their territory, settlers responded in 1636 with a raid on a Pequot village on Block Island. The Pequots laid siege to Saybrook Colony's garrison that autumn, then in the spring of 1637 raided Wethersfield. Colonists there declared war on the Pequots, organized a band of militia and Native Americans, and attacked a Pequot village on the Mystic River, with death toll estimates ranging between 300 and 700 Pequots. After suffering another major loss at a battle in Fairfield, the Pequots asked for a truce and peace terms.[46]

View of New London in 1854

Colonial Connecticut[edit | edit source]

Connecticut developed a conservative elite that would dominate colonial affairs in the years leading up to the American Revolution.[47] The forces of liberalism and democracy emerged slowly, encouraged by the entrepreneurship of the business community, and the new religious freedom stimulated by the First Great Awakening.[48]

With the establishment of Yale College in 1701, Connecticut had an important institution to educate clergy and civil leaders.[49] Just as Yale dominated Connecticut's intellectual life, the Congregational church dominated religious life in the colony, and by extension, town affairs in many parts.[50]

The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. According to the Hartford Treaty with the Dutch, signed on September 19, 1650, but never ratified by the British, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from Greenwich Bay for a distance of 20 miles[51][52] "provided the said line come not within 10 miles (16 km) [16 km] of Hudson River. This agreement was observed by both sides until war erupted between England and The Netherlands in 1652. No other limits were found. Conflict over uncertain colonial limits continued until the Duke of York captured New Netherland in 1664."[51][52] On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea," i.e. the Pacific Ocean.[53][54] Most colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut took its grant seriously, and established a ninth county between the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers, named Westmoreland County. This resulted in the brief Pennamite Wars with Pennsylvania.[55]

The American Revolution[edit | edit source]

Connecticut designated four delegates to the Second Continental Congress who would sign the Declaration of Independence: Samuel Huntington, Roger Sherman, William Williams, and Oliver Wolcott.[56]

In 1775, in the wake of the clashes between British regulars and Massachusetts militia at Lexington and Concord, Connecticut's legislature authorized the outfitting of six new regiments, with some 1,200 Connecticut troops on hand at the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775.[57]

Getting word in 1777 of Continental Army supplies in Danbury, the British landed an expeditionary force of some 2,000 troops in Westport, who marched to Danbury and destroyed much of the depot along with homes in Danbury. On the return march, Continental Army troops and militia led by General David Wooster and General Benedict Arnold engaged the British at Ridgefield in 1777.[58]

For the winter of 1778–79, General George Washington decided to split the Continental Army into three divisions encircling New York City, where British General Sir Henry Clinton had taken up winter quarters.[59] Major General Israel Putnam chose Redding as the winter encampment quarters for some 3,000 regulars and militia under his command. The Redding encampment allowed Putnam's soldiers to guard the replenished supply depot in Danbury and support any operations along Long Island Sound and the Hudson River Valley.[60] Some of the men were veterans of the winter encampment at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania the previous winter. Soldiers at the Redding camp endured supply shortages, cold temperatures and significant snow, with some historians dubbing the encampment "Connecticut's Valley Forge."[61]

The state was also the launching site for a number of raids against Long Island orchestrated by Samuel Holden Parsons and Benjamin Tallmadge,[62] and provided men and material for the war effort, especially to Washington's army outside New York City. General William Tryon raided the Connecticut coast in July 1779, focusing on New Haven, Norwalk, and Fairfield.[63] New London and Groton Heights were raided in September 1781 by Arnold, who at that point had turned to the British.[64]

Early National Period and Industrial Revolution[edit | edit source]

On January 9, 1788, Connecticut ratified the U.S. Constitution, becoming the fifth state.[65]

Connecticut prospered during the era following the American Revolution, as mills and textile factories were built and seaports flourished from trade[66] and fisheries.

In 1786, Connecticut ceded territory to the U.S. government that became part of the Northwest Territory. Connecticut retained land extending across the northern part of present-day Ohio, called the Connecticut Western Reserve.[67] The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio. Agreements with Pennsylvania and New York extinguished the land claims by Connecticut within its neighbors, creating the Connecticut Panhandle. Connecticut ceded the Western Reserve in 1800 to the federal government,[67] which brought the state to its present boundaries other than minor adjustments with Massachusetts.

The British blockade during the War of 1812 hurt exports, and bolstered the influence of Federalists who opposed the war.[68] The cessation of imports from Britain stimulated the construction of factories to manufacture textiles and machinery. Due in part to the inventions of Eli Whitney and other early innovators of the Industrial Revolution, Connecticut would come to be recognized as a major center for manufacturing.[69]

The state was known for its political conservatism, typified by its Federalist party and the Yale College of Timothy Dwight. The foremost intellectuals were Dwight and Noah Webster,[70] who compiled his great dictionary in New Haven. Religious tensions polarized the state, as the established Congregational Church, in alliance with the Federalists, tried to maintain its grip on power. The failure of the Hartford Convention in 1814 hurt the Federalist cause, with the Republican Party gaining control in 1817.[71]

Having been governed under the "Fundamental Orders" since 1639, Connecticut adopted in 1818 a new constitution.[72]

Civil War era[edit | edit source]

1895 map from Rand McNally

Connecticut manufacturers played a major role in supplying the Union forces with weapons and supplies during the Civil War. The state furnished 55,000 men. They were formed into thirty full regiments of infantry, including two in the U.S. Colored Troops, with several Connecticut men becoming generals. The Navy attracted 250 officers and 2100 men, and Gideon Welles was Secretary of the Navy. James H. Ward of Hartford was the first U.S. Naval Officer killed in the Civil War.[73] Connecticut casualties included 2088 killed in combat, 2801 dying from disease, and 689 dying in Confederate prison camps.[74][75][76]

A surge of national unity in 1861 brought thousands flocking to the colors from every town and city. However as the war became a crusade to end slavery, many Democrats (especially Irish Catholics) pulled back. The Democrats took a peace position and included many Copperheads willing to let the South secede. The intensely fought 1863 election for governor was narrowly won by the Republicans.[77][78]

Second Industrial Revolution[edit | edit source]

Connecticut's extensive industry, dense population, flat terrain, and wealth encouraged the construction of railroads, starting in 1839. By 1840, 102 miles of line were in operation, growing to 402 in 1850 and 601 in 1860.[79]

The New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, called the New Haven or "The Consolidated," became the dominant Connecticut railroad company after 1872. Starting in the 1890s J. P. Morgan began financing the major New England railroads, and dividing territory so they would not compete. The New Haven purchased 50 smaller companies, including steamship lines, and built a network of light rails (electrified trolleys) that provided inter-urban transportation for all of southern New England. By 1912, the New Haven operated over 2000 miles of track, and 120,000 employees.[80]

In 1875, the first telephone exchange in the world was established in New Haven.[81]

World War I[edit | edit source]

When World War I broke out in 1914, Connecticut became a major supplier of weaponry to the U.S. military; by 1918, 80% of the state's industries were producing goods for the war effort.[82] Remington Arms in Bridgeport produced half the small-arms cartridges used by the U.S. Army;[83] with other major suppliers including Winchester in New Haven and Colt in Hartford.[84]

Connecticut was also an important U.S. Navy supplier, with Electric Boat receiving orders for 85 submarines,[85] Lake Torpedo Boat building more than 20 subs,[86] and the Groton Iron Works building freighters.[87] On June 21, 1916, the U.S. Navy made Groton the site for its East Coast submarine base and school.[88]

The state enthusiastically supported the American war effort in 1917 and 1918, with large purchases of war bonds and a further expansion of war industry, and emphasis on increasing food production in the farms. Thousands of state, local, and volunteer groups mobilized for the war effort, and were coordinated by the Connecticut State Council of Defense.[89] Manufacturers wrestled with manpower shortages; with American Brass and Manufacturing running at half capacity, the federal government agreed to furlough soldiers to join the Waterbury company.[90]

Interwar period[edit | edit source]

In 1919, Henry Roraback started the Connecticut Light & Power Co.,[91] which would grow to become the state's dominant electric utility.

In 1925, Frederick Rentschler spurred the creation of Pratt & Whitney in Hartford to develop engines for aircraft; the company would become an important military supplier in World War II and in time one of the three major manufacturers of jet engines in the world.[92]

On September 21, 1938, the most destructive storm in New England history struck eastern Connecticut, killing hundreds of people.[93] The eye of the "Long Island Express" passed just west of New Haven and devastated the Connecticut shoreline between Old Saybrook and Stonington, which lacked the partial protection provided by Long Island, N.Y. to points west from the full force of wind and waves. The hurricane caused extensive damage to infrastructure, homes, and businesses. In New London, a 500-foot sailing ship was driven into a warehouse complex, causing a major fire. Heavy rainfall caused the Connecticut River to flood downtown Hartford and East Hartford. An estimated 50,000 trees fell onto roadways.[94]

World War II[edit | edit source]

The advent of Lend-Lease in support of Britain helped lift Connecticut from the Great Depression,[95] with the state a major production center for weaponry and supplies used in World War II. Connecticut manufactured 4.1 percent of total U.S. military armaments produced during World War II, ranking ninth among the 48 states,[96] with major factories including Colt[97] for firearms, Pratt & Whitney for aircraft engines, Chance Vought for fighter planes, Hamilton Standard for propellers,[98] and Electric Boat for submarines and PT boats.[99] In Bridgeport, General Electric would produce a significant new weapon to counter opposing tanks: the bazooka.[100]

On May 13, 1940, Igor Sikorsky made an untethered flight of what was the first practical helicopter.[101] While the helicopter would see only limited use in World War II, future military production would make Sikorsky Aircraft's Stratford plant Connecticut's largest single manufacturing site by the start of the 21st century.[102]

Post-World War II economic expansion[edit | edit source]

While Connecticut saw the loss of some wartime factories following the end of hostilities, the state shared in a general post-war expansion that included the construction of highways,[103] resulting in middle-class growth in suburban areas.

Prescott Bush represented Connecticut in the U.S. Senate from 1952 to 1963; his son George H.W. Bush and grandson George W. Bush both would become presidents of the United States.[104]

In 1965, Connecticut ratified its current constitution, replacing the document that had served since 1818.[105]

In 1968, commercial operation began for the Connecticut Yankee Nuclear Power Plant in East Haddam; in 1970, the Millstone Nuclear Power Station would begin operations in Waterford.[106]

In 1974 Connecticut elected as governor Democrat Ella T. Grasso, who became the first woman in any state to be elected governor in her own right.[107]

Late 20th century[edit | edit source]

Connecticut's dependence on the defense industry posed an economic challenge at the end of the Cold War. The resulting budget crisis helped elect Lowell Weicker as governor on a third-party ticket in 1990. Weicker's remedy, a state income tax, proved effective in balancing the budget but politically unpopular, and Weicker did not run for a second term.[108]

In 1992, initial construction was completed on Foxwoods Casino at the Mashantucket Pequots reservation in eastern Connecticut, which would become the largest casino in the Western Hemisphere. Mohegan Sun would follow four years later.[109]

Early 21st century[edit | edit source]

In August 2000, presidential candidate Al Gore chose as his running mate Senator Joe Lieberman, marking the first time a major party presidential ticket included someone of the Jewish faith.[110] Gore and Lieberman fell five votes short of George W. Bush and Dick Cheney in the Electoral College.

In the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, 65 state residents were killed. The vast majority were Fairfield County residents who were working in the World Trade Center.[111]

In 2004, Republican Governor John G. Rowland resigned during a corruption investigation,[112] later pleading guilty to federal charges.[113]

In 2011 and 2012, Connecticut was hit by three major storms in the space of just over 14 months, with all three causing extensive property damage and electric outages. Hurricane Irene struck Connecticut August 28 with the storm blamed for the deaths of three residents. Damage totaled $235 million, including 20 houses that were destroyed in East Haven.[114] Two months later in late October, the so-called "Halloween nor'easter" dropped extensive snow onto trees in Connecticut that still had foliage, resulting in a significant numbers of snapped branches and trunks that damaged property and power lines, with some areas not seeing electricity restored for 11 days.[115] Hurricane Sandy had tropical storm-force winds when it reached Connecticut October 29, 2012, with four deaths blamed on the storm.[116] Sandy's winds drove storm surges into coastal streets, toppled trees, and cut power to 98 percent of homes and businesses en route to more than $360 million in damage.[117]

On December 14, 2012, Adam Lanza shot and killed 26 people, including 20 children and 6 staff, at Sandy Hook Elementary School in the Sandy Hook village of Newtown, Connecticut, and then killed himself.[118] The massacre would spur renewed efforts by activists for tighter laws on gun ownership nationally.[119]

Demographics[edit | edit source]

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1790 237,946
1800 251,002 5.5%
1810 261,942 4.4%
1820 275,248 5.1%
1830 297,675 8.1%
1840 309,978 4.1%
1850 370,792 19.6%
1860 460,147 24.1%
1870 537,454 16.8%
1880 622,700 15.9%
1890 746,258 19.8%
1900 908,420 21.7%
1910 1,114,756 22.7%
1920 1,380,631 23.9%
1930 1,606,903 16.4%
1940 1,709,242 6.4%
1950 2,007,280 17.4%
1960 2,535,234 26.3%
1970 3,031,709 19.6%
1980 3,107,576 2.5%
1990 3,287,116 5.8%
2000 3,405,565 3.6%
2010 3,574,097 4.9%
Est. 2014 3,596,677 5.6%
Sources:[9][120][121][122]

Connecticut Population Density Map

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Connecticut was 3,596,677 on July 1, 2014, a 0.63% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[9]

As of 2014, Connecticut had an estimated population of 3,596,677,[9] which is an increase of 9,638, or 0.2%, from the prior year and an increase of 16,250, or 0.5%, since the year 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moves from the 29th most populous state to 30th.

6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.

In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut was classified as "rural." The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, it was only 12.3%. Most of western and southern Connecticut (particularly the Gold Coast) is strongly associated with New York City; this area is the most affluent and populous region of the state. Eastern Connecticut is more culturally influenced by the greater New England area, including the cities of Boston and Providence. The center of population of Connecticut is located in the town of Cheshire.[123]

Race, ancestry, and language[edit | edit source]

As of the 2010 U.S. Census, Connecticut's race and ethnic percentages were:

In the same year Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 13.4% of the population.[124]

The state's most populous ethnic group, Non-Hispanic White, has declined from 98% in 1940 to 71% in 2010.[125]

Connecticut Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1990[126] 2000[127] 2010[128]
White 87.0% 81.6% 77.6%
Black 8.3% 9.1% 10.1%
Asian 1.5% 2.4% 3.8%
Native 0.2% 0.3% 0.3%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
- - -
Other race 2.9% 4.3% 5.6%
Two or more races - 2.2% 2.6%

As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born. In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.

As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke English at home and 8.42% spoke Spanish, followed by Italian at 1.59%, French at 1.31% and Polish at 1.20%.[129]

The largest ancestry groups are:[130]

Connecticut has large Italian American, Irish American and English American populations, as well as German American and Portuguese American populations, with the Italian American population having the second highest percentage of any state, behind Rhode Island (19.3%). Italian is the largest ancestry group in five of the state's counties, while the Irish are the largest group in Tolland county, French Canadians the largest group in Windham county. African Americans and Hispanics (mostly Puerto Ricans) are numerous in the urban areas of the state. Connecticut is also known for its relatively large Hungarian American population, the majority of which live in and around Fairfield, Stamford, Naugatuck and Bridgeport. Connecticut also has a sizable Polish American population, with New Britain containing the largest Polish American population in the state.

More recent immigrant populations include those from India, Philippines, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Mexico, Brazil, Guatemala, Panama, Jamaica, Haiti, Cape Verde and former Soviet countries.

As of 2011, 46.1% of Connecticut's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[131]

Majority Racial and Ethnic Groups in Connecticut, 2010

Religion[edit | edit source]

A Pew survey of Connecticut residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations: Protestant 27%, Mormonism 0.5%, Jewish 1%, Roman Catholic 43%, Orthodox 1%, Non-religious 23%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, Hinduism 0.5%, Buddhism 1% and Islam 0.5%.[132] Jewish congregations had 108,280 (3.2%) members in 2000.[133] The Jewish population is concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between Greenwich and New Haven, in Greater New Haven and in Greater Hartford, especially the suburb of West Hartford. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the largest Christian denominations, by number of adherents, in 2010 were: the Catholic Church, with 1,252,936; the United Church of Christ, with 96,506; and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants, with 72,863.[133]

Recent immigration has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low. Connecticut is also home to New England's largest Protestant Church: The First Cathedral in Bloomfield, Connecticut located in Hartford County. Hartford is seat to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hartford, which is sovereign over the Diocese of Bridgeport and the Diocese of Norwich.

Economy[edit | edit source]

File:Welcome Connecticut.jpg

Connecticut state welcome sign in Enfield, Connecticut

File:Merritt Parkway.jpg

Entering the Merritt Parkway from New York in Greenwich, Connecticut

The total gross state product for 2012 was $229.3 billion, up from $225.4 billion in 2011.[134]

Connecticut's per capita personal income in 2013 was estimated at $60,847, the highest of any state.[135] There is, however, a great disparity in incomes throughout the state; after New York, Connecticut had the second largest gap nationwide between the average incomes of the top 1 percent and the average incomes of the bottom 99 percent.[136] According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Connecticut had the third-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 7.32 percent.[137] New Canaan is the wealthiest town in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $85,459. Darien, Greenwich, Weston, Westport and Wilton also have per capita incomes over $65,000. Hartford is the poorest municipality in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 in 2000.[138]

The state's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in March 2014 was 7.0 percent, the 39th highest in the nation.[139]

Taxation[edit | edit source]

Prior to 1991, Connecticut had an investment-only income tax system. Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at 13%, the highest rate in the U.S., with no deductions allowed for costs of producing the investment income, such as interest on borrowing.

In 1991, under Governor Lowell P. Weicker, Jr., an Independent, the system was changed to one in which the taxes on employment income and investment income were equalized at a maximum rate of 4%. The new tax policy drew investment firms to Connecticut; as of 2014, Fairfield County was home to the headquarters for 14 of the 200 largest hedge funds in the world.[140]

As of 2014, the income tax rates on Connecticut individuals are divided into six tax brackets of 3% (on income up to $10,000); 5% ($10,000-$50,000); 5.5% ($50,000-$100,000); 6% ($100,000-$200,000); 6.5% ($200,000-$250,000); and 6.7% (more than $250,000), with additional amounts owed depending on the bracket.[141]

All wages of Connecticut residents are subject to the state's income tax, even if earned outside the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Since New York and Massachusetts have higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents that work in those states have no Connecticut income tax withheld. Connecticut permits a credit for taxes paid to other jurisdictions, but since residents who work in other states are still subject to Connecticut income taxation, they may owe taxes if the jurisdictional credit does not fully offset the Connecticut tax amount.

Connecticut levies a 6.35% state sales tax on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods.[142] Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by statute. A provision excluding clothing under $50 from sales tax was repealed as of July 1, 2011.[142] There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. In August 2013, Connecticut authorized a sales tax "holiday" for one week during which retailers did not have to remit sales tax on certain items and quantities of clothing.[143]

All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of fair market value. Another 20% of the value may be taxed by the local government though. The maximum property tax credit is $500 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward.[144] Connecticut does not levy an intangible personal property tax. According to the Tax Foundation, the 2010 Census data shows Connecticut residents paying the 2nd highest average property taxes in the nation with only New Jersey ahead of them.[145]

The Tax Foundation determined Connecticut residents had the third highest burden in the nation for state and local taxes at 11.86%, or $7,150, compared to the national average of 9.8%.[146]

As of 2014, the gasoline tax in Connecticut is 49.3 cents per gallon (the third highest in the nation) and the diesel tax is 54.9 cents per gallon (the highest in the nation).[147]

Real estate[edit | edit source]

Of home-sale transactions that closed in March 2014, the median home in Connecticut sold for $225,000, up 3.2% from March 2013.[148] Connecticut ranked ninth nationally in foreclosure activity as of April 2014, with one of every 887 residential units involved in a foreclosure proceeding, or 0.11% of the total housing stock.[149]

Industries[edit | edit source]

Finance and insurance is Connecticut's largest industry, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, generating 16.4% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2009. Major financial industry employers include The Hartford, Travelers, Cigna, Aetna, Mass Mutual, People's United Financial,[150] Royal Bank of Scotland,[151] UBS[152] Bridgewater Associates[153] and GE Capital. Separately, the real estate industry accounted for an additional 15% of economic activity in 2009, with major employers including Realogy;[154] and William Raveis Real Estate.[155]

Manufacturing, the third biggest industry at 11.9% of GDP, is dominated by Hartford-based United Technologies Corporation or UTC, which employs more than 22,000 people in Connecticut.[156] UTC subsidiary Sikorsky Aircraft operates Connecticut's single largest manufacturing plant in Stratford,[155] where it makes helicopters. Other UTC divisions include UTC Propulsion and Aerospace Systems, including the jet-engine maker Pratt & Whitney, and UTC Building and Industrial Systems.[157]

Other major manufacturers include the Electric Boat subsidiary of General Dynamics, which makes submarines in Groton;[158] and Boehringer Ingelheim, a pharmaceuticals manufacturer with its U.S. headquarters in Ridgefield.[155]

Connecticut was an historical center of gun manufacturing, and, as of December 2012, four gun-manufacturing firms, Colt, Stag, Ruger, and Mossberg, employing 2,000 employees, continued to operate in the state.[159] Marlin, by then owned by Remington, closed in April 2011.[160]

A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006, demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides $9 billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7 billion in state and local revenue.[161] Two casinos, Foxwoods Resort Casino and Mohegan Sun, number among the state's largest employers;[162] both are located on Native American reservations in the eastern part of Connecticut.

Non-profit organizations register in Connecticut under the local statutory provisions and therefore affect taxation and governance mechanisms. For instance, the headquarters of the Connecticut Food Bank are located in East Hampton since early 1980s when the non-profit was established.[163]

Connecticut's agricultural sector employed about 12,000 people as of 2010; with more than a quarter of that number involved in nursery stock production. Other agricultural products include dairy products and eggs; tobacco; fish and shellfish; and fruit.[164]

Oyster harvesting was historically an important source of income to towns along the Connecticut coastline. In the 19th century, oystering boomed in New Haven, Bridgeport and Norwalk and achieved modest success in neighboring towns. In 1911, Connecticut's oyster production reached its peak at nearly 25 million pounds of oyster meats. This was, at the time, higher than production in New York, Rhode Island, or Massachusetts.[165] During this time, the Connecticut coast was known, in the shellfishing industry, as the oyster capital of the world. Until 1969, Connecticut laws enacted before World War I restricted the harvesting of oysters in state-owned beds to vessels under sail. These laws prompted the construction of the oyster sloop style vessel to last well into the 20th century.[166] Hope, completed in Greenwich in 1948, is believed to be the last oyster sloop built in Connecticut.

Transportation[edit | edit source]

Map of Connecticut showing major highways

Roads[edit | edit source]

The Interstate highways in the state are Interstate 95 (I-95; the Connecticut Turnpike) traveling southwest to northeast along the coast, I-84 traveling southwest to northeast in the center of the state, I-91 traveling north to south in the center of the state, and I-395 traveling north to south near the eastern border of the state. The other major highways in Connecticut are the Merritt Parkway and Wilbur Cross Parkway, which together form Connecticut Route 15 (Route 15), traveling from the Hutchinson River Parkway in New York parallel to I-95 before turning north of New Haven and traveling parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in Berlin. I-95 and Route 15 were originally toll roads; they relied on a system of toll plazas at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988.[167] Other major arteries in the state include U.S. Route 7 (US 7) in the west traveling parallel to the New York state line, Route 8 farther east near the industrial city of Waterbury and traveling north–south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with US 7, and Route 9 in the east. See List of State Routes in Connecticut for an overview of the state's highway system.

Between New Haven and New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Many people now drive longer distances to work in the New York City area. This strains the three lanes of traffic capacity, resulting in lengthy rush hour delays. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway. The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and ride-sharing.[168]

Connecticut also has a very active bicycling community, with one of the highest rates of bicycle ownership and use in the United States. New Haven's cycling community, organized in a local advocacy group called ElmCityCycling, is particularly active. According to the US Census 2006 American Community Survey, New Haven has the highest percentage of commuters who bicycle to work of any major metropolitan center on the East Coast.

A Metro-North Railroad New Haven Line train leaving Stamford Station

Rail[edit | edit source]

Southwestern Connecticut is served by the Metro-North Railroad's New Haven Line, operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and providing commuter service to New York City and New Haven, with branches servicing New Canaan, Danbury, and Waterbury. Connecticut lies along Amtrak's Northeast Corridor which features frequent Northeast Regional and Acela Express service. Towns between New Haven and New London are also served by the Shore Line East commuter line. A commuter rail service called the Hartford Line between New Haven and Springfield on Amtrak's New Haven-Springfield Line is scheduled to begin operating in 2016. Amtrak also operates a shuttle service between New Haven and Springfield, Massachusetts, serving Wallingford, Meriden, Berlin, Hartford, Windsor Locks, and Springfield, MA and the Vermonter runs from Washington to St. Albans, Vermont via the same line.

Bus[edit | edit source]

Statewide bus service is supplied by Connecticut Transit, owned by the Connecticut Department of Transportation, with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. A three-year construction project to build a BRT busway from New Britain to Hartford began in August 2009.[169][170]

Air[edit | edit source]

Bradley International Airport is located in Windsor Locks, 15 miles (24 km) north of Hartford. Regional air service is provided at Tweed New Haven Regional Airport. Larger civil airports include Danbury Municipal Airport and Waterbury-Oxford Airport in western Connecticut, and Groton-New London Airport in eastern Connecticut. Sikorsky Memorial Airport is located in Stratford and mostly services cargo, helicopter and private aviation.

Ferry[edit | edit source]

The Rocky Hill – Glastonbury Ferry and the Chester–Hadlyme Ferry cross the Connecticut River. The Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Ferry travels between Bridgeport, Connecticut and Port Jefferson, New York by crossing Long Island Sound. Ferry service also operates out of New London to Orient, New York; Fishers Island, New York; and Block Island, Rhode Island.

Law and government[edit | edit source]

The Connecticut State Capitol in downtown Hartford

Hartford has been the sole capital of Connecticut since 1875. Before then, New Haven and Hartford alternated as capitals.[171]

Constitutional history[edit | edit source]

Connecticut is known as the "Constitution State." While the origin of this title is uncertain, the nickname may either refer to the Fundamental Orders of 1638–39 or possibly the "Great Compromise" ("Connecticut Compromise") of the 1787 Constitutional convention. These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal government written by a representative body in Connecticut. The government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of Connecticut Constitutional History. After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut was granted governmental authority by King Charles II of England through the Connecticut Charter of 1662.

Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority. A constitution similar to the modern U.S. Constitution was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965. The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications.

The more likely source of the nickname "Constitution State" comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, during which Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth helped to orchestrate what became known as the Connecticut Compromise, or the Great Compromise. This plan combined the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan to form a bicameral legislature, a form copied by almost every state constitution since the adoption of the federal constitution. Although variations of the bicameral legislature had been proposed by Virginia and New Jersey, Connecticut's plan is the one that was in effect until the early 20th century, when Senators ceased to be selected by their state legislatures and were instead directly elected. Otherwise, it is still the design of Congress.

Executive[edit | edit source]

The governor heads the executive branch. Dan Malloy is the current Governor and Nancy Wyman is the Lieutenant Governor, both are Democrats. Malloy, the former mayor of Stamford, won the 2010 general election for Governor, and was sworn in on January 5, 2011. From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. In 1974, Ella Grasso was elected as the governor of Connecticut. This was the first time in United States history when a woman was a governor without her husband being governor first.

There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, Developmental Services, Construction Services, Education, Emergency Management and Public Protection, Energy & Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Insurance, Labor, Mental Health and Addiction Services, Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Utility Regulatory Authority, Public Works, Revenue Services, Social Services, Transportation, and Veterans Affairs. In addition to these departments, there are other independent bureaus, offices and commissions.[172]

In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, there are four other executive officers named in the state constitution that are elected directly by voters: Secretary of the State, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General. All executive officers are elected to four-year terms.[171]

Legislative[edit | edit source]

The legislature is the General Assembly. The General Assembly is a bicameral body consisting of an upper body, the State Senate (36 senators); and a lower body, the House of Representatives (151 representatives).[171] Bills must pass each house in order to become law. The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Per Article XV of the state constitution, Senators and Representatives must be at least 18 years of age and are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. There also must always be between 30 and 50 senators and 125 to 225 representatives. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the President pro tempore presides. The Speaker of the House presides over the House.[173] As of 2012, Christopher G. Donovan is the current Speaker of the House of Connecticut.

Connecticut's current United States Senators are Richard Blumenthal (Democrat) and Chris Murphy (Democrat). Connecticut currently has five representatives in the U.S. House, all of whom are Democrats.

Locally elected representatives also develop Local ordinances to govern cities and towns.[174] The town ordinances often include noise control and zoning guidelines.[175] However, the State of Connecticut does also provide state-wide ordinances for noise control as well.[176]

Judicial[edit | edit source]

The highest court of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Connecticut Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. The current Chief Justice is Chase T. Rogers.

In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches.[177] The Appellate Court is a lesser state-wide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states.

The State of Connecticut also offers access to Arrest warrant enforcement statistics through the Office of Policy and Management.[178]

Local government[edit | edit source]

and several lists: List of municipalities of Connecticut by population, List of towns in Connecticut, List of cities in Connecticut, Borough (Connecticut), List of counties in Connecticut

Unlike all but one other state (Rhode Island), Connecticut does not have county government. Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of sheriffs elected in each county.[179] In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the state marshal system, which has districts that follow the old county territories. The judicial system is divided, at the trial court level, into judicial districts which largely follow the old county lines.[180] The eight counties are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as weather reports, and census reporting.

Connecticut shares with the rest of New England a governmental institution called the New England town. The state is divided into 169 towns, which serve as the fundamental political jurisdictions.[171] There are also 21 cities,[171] most of which are coterminous with their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. There are two exceptions: City of Groton, which is a subsection of the Town of Groton, and the City of Winsted in the Town of Winchester. There are also nine incorporated boroughs which may provide additional services to a section of town.[171][181] One, Naugatuck, is a consolidated town and borough.

The state (with the exception of the Town of Stafford in Tolland County) is also divided into 15 planning regions defined by the state Office of Planning and Management.[182] The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations."[182]

Politics[edit | edit source]

Connecticut political party registration 1958–2012 marked with presidential influence

Registered voters[edit | edit source]

Connecticut residents who register to vote have the option of declaring an affiliation to a political party, may become unaffiliated at will, and may change affiliations subject to certain waiting periods. As of 2013 about 58% of registered voters are enrolled (about 1% total in 18 third parties minor parties), and ratios among unaffiliated voters and the two major parties are about 8 unaffiliated for every 7 in the Democratic Party of Connecticut and for every 4 in the Connecticut Republican Party.

(Among the minor parties, the Libertarian Party and Independent Party appeared in the Presidential-electors column in 2012, and drew, respectively, 0.81% and 0.35% of the vote.)

Many Connecticut towns show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party.[2]

Connecticut voter registration and party enrollment as of October 30, 2012[183]
Party Active voters Inactive voters Total voters Percentage
  Republican 430,564 19,084 449,648 20.27%
  Democratic 768,176 47,537 815,713 36.77%
  Unaffiliated 872,839 60,440 933,279 42.06%
  Minor parties 18,960 1,063 20,023 0.90%
Total 2,090,539 128,123 2,218,662 100%

Political office[edit | edit source]

Elections in Connecticut take place mostly at the levels of town and/or city, state legislative districts for both houses, Congressional districts, and state-wide. In almost all races, the two major parties have some practical advantages granted on the basis of their respective performances in the most recent election covering the same constituency. Several processes, to varying degrees internal to either a major or minor party, are in practice nearly prerequisites to being permitted mention on the provided ballots, and even more so to winning office.

More specifically, the status of "major party" is usually reconfirmed every four years, as belonging to the two parties that polled best, statewide, in the gubernatorial column; this status includes the benefit of appearing in one of the top two rows on the ballot provided the party has at least one candidate on the ballot. Minor parties appear below major parties, and their performance in recent elections determines whether a candidates who wins in their nomination process must also meet a petitioning threshold in order to appear.

In a major party, a party convention for the office's constituency must be held; in practice, at the town level, a major party convention of voters of the town who are enrolled in the party usually is attended almost exclusively by members of the town party committee. The convention may choose to endorse a candidate, who will appear on the ballot unless additional candidates meet a petition threshold for a primary election; if at least one candidate meets the petition threshold, the endorsed candidate and all who meet the threshold appear on the primary ballot, and the winner of the primary election appears on the party line for that office.

A candidate wishing to run on the ballot line of a minor-party which has recently enough met a general-election vote threshold follows similar steps; candidates of other minor parties must meet petition thresholds, and if other candidates of the same party, for the same office, do so as well, only the winner of a resulting primary will appear on the ballot.

Campaigns by candidates not on the ballot generally are entirely symbolic, and while any voter can cast a write-in ballot, write-in ballots are not even tallied by election officials, except for candidates who have submitted a formal request that the tally be made.

In short, most winning candidates have won the endorsement of the applicable major-party convention; nearly all of the rest have won with a professionally managed primary-election campaign; and successful minor-party candidates are almost without exception major-party figures like Lowell Weicker whose minor parties disappear after that success. (A Connecticut Party, which Weicker founded, became nominally the leading major party, and state law was changed during his administration to provide that in a situation such as his win, the top three parties in the governor's race all became major parties.)

Republican areas[edit | edit source]

Presidential election results[184]
Year Republican Democratic
Percent Absolute Percent Absolute
2012 40.73% 634,892 58.06% 905,083
2008 38.22% 629,428 60.59% 997,773
2004 43.95% 693,826 54.31% 857,488
2000 38.44% 561,094 55.91% 816,015
1996 34.69% 483,109 52.83% 735,740
1992 35.78% 578,313 42.21% 682,318
1988 51.98% 750,241 46.87% 676,584
1984 60.73% 890,877 38.83% 569,597
1980 48.16% 677,210 38.52% 541,732
1976 52.06% 719,261 46.90% 647,895
1972 58.57% 810,763 40.13% 555,498
1968 44.32% 556,721 49.48% 621,561
1964 32.09% 390,996 67.81% 826,269
1960 46.27% 565,813 53.73% 657,055

The suburban towns of New Canaan and Darien in Fairfield County are considered the most Republican areas in the state. Westport, a wealthy town a few miles to the east, is often considered one of the most loyally Democratic, liberal towns in Fairfield County. The historically Republican-leaning wealthy town of Wilton voted in the majority for Barack Obama in the 2008 Presidential Election. Norwalk and Stamford, two larger, mixed-income communities in Fairfield County, have in many elections favored moderate Republicans including former Governor John G. Rowland and former Congressman Chris Shays, however they have favored Democrats in recent US presidential election years, with Shays being defeated by Democrat Jim Himes in the 2008 election.

The state's Republican-leaning areas are the rural Litchfield County and adjoining towns in the west of Hartford County, the industrial towns of the Naugatuck River Valley, and some of the affluent Fairfield County towns near the New York border.

Joe Lieberman's predecessor, Lowell P. Weicker, Jr., was the last Connecticut Republican to serve as Senator. Weicker was known as a liberal Republican. He broke with President Richard Nixon during Watergate and successfully ran for governor in 1990 as an independent, creating A Connecticut Party as his election vehicle. Before Weicker, the last Republican to represent Connecticut in the Senate was Prescott Bush, the father of former President George H.W. Bush and the grandfather of former President George W. Bush. He served 1953–63.

Democratic areas[edit | edit source]

Waterbury has a Democratic registration edge, but usually favors conservative candidates of both traditional parties. In Danbury unaffiliated voters outnumber voters registered with either major party. Other smaller cities including Meriden, New Britain, Norwich and Middletown favor Democratic candidates.

As of 2011, Democrats controlled all five federal congressional seats. The remaining Republican, Chris Shays, lost his seat to Democrat Jim Himes in the Congressional Election in 2008.

Senators[edit | edit source]

Chris Murphy and Richard Blumenthal are Connecticut's U.S. senators. Both senators from Connecticut are Democrats.

Voting[edit | edit source]

In April 2012 both houses of the Connecticut state legislature passed a bill (20 to 16 and 86 to 62) that abolished the capital punishment for all future crimes, while 11 inmates who were waiting on the death row at the time could still be executed.[185]

In July 2009 the Connecticut legislature overrode a veto by Governor M. Jodi Rell to pass SustiNet, the first significant public-option health care reform legislation in the nation.[186]

Education[edit | edit source]

K-12[edit | edit source]

The Connecticut State Board of Education manages the public school system for children in grades K-12. Board of Education members are appointed by the Governor of Connecticut. Statistics for each school are made available to the public through an online database system called "CEDAR."[187] The CEDAR database also provides statistics for "ACES" or "RESC" schools for children with behavioral disorders.[188]

Private schools[edit | edit source]

Colleges and universities[edit | edit source]

Connecticut was home to the nation's first law school, Litchfield Law School, which operated from 1773 to 1833 in Litchfield. Hartford Public High School (1638) is the third-oldest secondary school in the nation after the Collegiate School (1628) in Manhattan and the Boston Latin School (1635).

Private[edit | edit source]

Public universities[edit | edit source]

Public community colleges[edit | edit source]

The state also has many noted private day schools, and its boarding schools draw students from around the world.

Sports[edit | edit source]

Lime Rock – a home of the American Le Mans tournament

Professional sports[edit | edit source]

Connecticut has been the home of multiple teams in the big four sports leagues, though currently hosts none.

NHL[edit | edit source]

Connecticut's longest-tenured and only modern full-time "big four" franchise were the Hartford Whalers of the National Hockey League, who played in Hartford from 1975 to 1997 at the Hartford Civic Center. Their departure to Raleigh, North Carolina, over disputes with the state over the construction of a new arena, caused great controversy and resentment. The former Whalers are now known as the Carolina Hurricanes.

Presently, there are two Connecticut teams in the American Hockey League: the Bridgeport Sound Tigers, a farm team for the New York Islanders, compete at the Webster Bank Arena in Bridgeport and the Hartford Wolf Pack, the affiliate of the New York Rangers, play in the XL Center in Hartford.

MLB[edit | edit source]

The Hartford Dark Blues joined the National League for one season in 1876, making them the state's only major league baseball franchise, before moving to Brooklyn, New York and then disbanding one season later.

Connecticut is a battleground between fans of the New York Yankees, Boston Red Sox, and New York Mets.[203] For the Mets and Red Sox, split allegiances among fans of both teams in the state during the 1986 World Series led to an article in The Boston Globe to coin the phrase "Red Sox Nation."[204]

NFL[edit | edit source]

In 1926, Hartford had a franchise in the National Football League known as the Hartford Blues. The NFL would return to Connecticut from 1973 to 1974 when New Haven hosted the New York Giants at Yale Bowl while Giants Stadium was under construction.[205]

NBA[edit | edit source]

From 1975 to 1995, the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association played a number of home games at the Hartford Civic Center.

Yale Bowl during "The Game" between Yale and Harvard. The Bowl was also the home of the NFL's New York Giants in 1973–74.

PGA[edit | edit source]

The state hosts several major sporting events. Since 1952, a PGA Tour golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area. Originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open," the event is now known as the Travelers Championship. The Pilot Pen Tennis tournament is held annually in the Cullman-Heyman Tennis Center at Yale University in New Haven.

Motorsports[edit | edit source]

Lime Rock Park in Salisbury is a 1.5-mile road racing course, home to American Le Mans Series, Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series, SCCA and NASCAR Camping World East Series races. Thompson International Speedway, Stafford Motor Speedway and Waterford Speedbowl are oval tracks holding weekly races for NASCAR Modifieds and other classes, including the NASCAR Whelen Modified Tour.

WNBA[edit | edit source]

The Connecticut Sun of the WNBA currently play at the Mohegan Sun Arena in Uncasville. From 1996 to 1998, Connecticut was home to another professional woman's basketball team, American Basketball League franchise the New England Blizzard, who played at the XL Center.

Non-professional sports[edit | edit source]

High school[edit | edit source]

The Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference (CIAC) is the state's sanctioning body for high school sports.

College sports[edit | edit source]

The UConn Huskies play NCAA Division I sports and are popular in the state. Both the men's basketball and women's basketball teams have won multiple national championships, including in 2004, when UConn became the first school in NCAA Division I history to have its men's and women's basketball programs win the national title in the same year. In 2014, UConn repeated its feat of being the only school in NCAA Division I to win men's and women's basketball tournaments in the same year. The UConn women's basketball team holds the record for the longest consecutive winning streak in NCAA college basketball at 90 games, a streak that ended in 2008. The UConn Huskies football team has played in the Football Bowl Subdivision since 2002, and has played in four bowl games since. Other Connecticut universities which feature Division I sports teams are Yale University, Quinnipiac University, Fairfield University, Central Connecticut State University, Sacred Heart University, and the University of Hartford.

Yale v. Harvard[edit | edit source]

New Haven biennially hosts "The Game" between Yale and Harvard, the country's second-oldest college football rivalry. Yale alum Walter Camp, deemed the "Father of American Football," helped develop modern football while living in New Haven.[206]

Arena Football[edit | edit source]

Hartford has hosted two Arena Football League franchises, in the Connecticut Coyotes from 1995 to 1996 and the New England Sea Wolves from 1999 to 2000, both playing at the Civic Center. Hartford was home to the Hartford Colonials of the United Football League for one season in 2010.

Current professional sports teams[edit | edit source]

Club Sport League
Bridgeport Sound Tigers Ice hockey American Hockey League
Hartford Wolf Pack Ice hockey American Hockey League
Danbury Whalers Ice hockey Federal Hockey League
New Britain Rock Cats Baseball Eastern League (AA)
Connecticut Tigers Baseball New York-Penn League (A)
Bridgeport Bluefish Baseball Atlantic League
Connecticut Sun Basketball Women's National Basketball Association
AC Connecticut Soccer USL PDL

Etymology and symbols[edit | edit source]

Connecticut State Symbols
Flag of Connecticut.svg
The Flag of Connecticut.

Seal of Connecticut.svg
The Seal of Connecticut.

Animate insignia
Bird(s) American robin
Fish American shad
Flower(s) Mountain Laurel
Insect European mantis
Mammal(s) Sperm whale
Tree Charter White oak

Inanimate insignia
Dance Square dance
Fossil Dinosaur tracks
Mineral Garnet
Shell Eastern Oyster
Ship(s) USS Nautilus (SSN-571), Freedom Schooner Amistad
Slogan(s) Full of Surprises
Song(s) "Yankee Doodle",
"The Nutmeg"
Tartan Connecticut State Tartan

Route marker(s)
Connecticut Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of Connecticut
Released in 1999

Lists of United States state insignia

The name "Connecticut" originates from the Mohegan word quonehtacut, meaning "place of long tidal river."[171] Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–39 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world.[1] Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as "The Nutmeg State."[1] The origins of the nutmeg connection to Connecticut are unknown. It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice). It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers. It is also facetiously said to come from Yankee peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers.[2] George Washington gave Connecticut the title of "The Provisions State"[1] because of the material aid the state rendered to the American Revolutionary War effort. Connecticut is also known as "The Land of Steady Habits."[1]

The Charter Oak

The USS Nautilus (SSN-571)

According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter." There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "Connecticotian" – Cotton Mather in 1702. "Connecticutensian" – Samuel Peters in 1781. "Nutmegger" is sometimes used,[2] as is "Yankee" (the official state song is "Yankee Doodle"), though this usually refers someone from the wider New England region (and in the Southern United States, to anyone who lives north of the Mason-Dixon Line). Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn.;" the official postal abbreviation is CT.

Commemorative stamps issued by the United States Postal Service with Connecticut themes include Nathan Hale, Eugene O'Neill, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Noah Webster, Eli Whitney, the whaling ship the Charles W. Morgan which is docked in Mystic Seaport, and a decoy of a broadbill duck.

Connecticut state insignia and historical figures[1]
except where noted
State aircraft Vought F4U Corsair[207]
State hero Nathan Hale
State heroine Prudence Crandall
State composer Charles Edward Ives
State statues in Statuary Hall Roger Sherman and Jonathan Trumbull
State poet laureate Dick Allen
Connecticut State Troubadour Kristen Graves[208]
State composer laureate Jacob Druckman

Famous residents[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

Seal of Connecticut.svg Connecticut

References[edit | edit source]

Template:Format footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Sites, Seals & Symbols". SOTS. The Government of Connecticut. http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/cwp/view.asp?A=3188&QUESTION_ID=392608. Retrieved June 12, 2008. 
  2. ^ a b c "Connecticut's Nicknames". Connecticut State Library. http://www.cslib.org/nicknamesCT.htm. Retrieved September 15, 2011. 
  3. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/28/nyregion/the-nutmeg-state-battles-the-stigma-of-corrupticut.html
  4. ^ (2000) "Style Manual". 
  5. ^ "connect". Merriam-Webster Online. http://nws.merriam-webster.com/opendictionary/newword_search.php?word=Connecticutian. 
  6. ^ "Resources". 
  7. ^ Population Estimates for All Places: 2000 to 2006: Connecticut SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 16, 2007.
  8. ^ State Data from the State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 16, 2007.
  9. ^ a b c d "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. January 4, 2015. http://www.census.gov/popest/data/state/totals/2014/tables/NST-EST2014-01.csv. Retrieved January 4, 2015. 
  10. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html. Retrieved October 21, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  12. ^ "Connecticut - Definitions from Dictionary.com". Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/connecticut. Retrieved September 17, 2007. 
  13. ^ Trumbull, James Hammond (1881). Indian Names of Places, Etc., in and on the Borders of Connecticut: With Interpretations of Some of Them. Press of the Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company. p. 60. 
  14. ^ a b http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/cph-2-1.pdf "Table 18. Area Measurements: 2010; and Population and Housing Unit Density: 1990 to 2010," U.S. Census Bureau, September 2012, United States Summary 41. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  15. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/cph-2-1.pdf "Table 19. Population by Urban and Rural and Type of Urban Area: 2010," U.S. Census Bureau, September 2012, United States Summary 42. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  16. ^ "State of Connecticut Center of Population - From ngs.noaa.gov". Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/INFO/COP/ct_links.htm. Retrieved January 30, 2009. 
  17. ^ Ohlemacher, Stephen (November 29, 2005). "Highest wages in East, lowest in South". USA Today. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkvtVNF. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  18. ^ "Census 2000". United States Census Bureau. March 18, 2000. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-_box_head_nbr=GCT-P14&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-format=US-9. 
  19. ^ "US slips down development index". BBC. July 17, 2008. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkxLjnC. 
  20. ^ "Income Gap in Connecticut Is Growing Fastest, Study Finds". The New York Times. April 9, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/09/nyregion/09income.html. 
  21. ^ "Mount Frissell-South Slope, Connecticut/Massachusetts". Peakbagger.com. http://www.peakbagger.com/peak.aspx?pid=7083. 
  22. ^ a b Olson (2001). "Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth". BioScience 51 (11): 933–938. DOI:[0933:TEOTWA2.0.CO;2 10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0933:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2]. ISSN 0006-3568. 
  23. ^ "The Southwick Jog" (PDF). Archived from the original on April 16, 2010. http://www.southwickma.org/Public_Documents/F000102F9/S00476B50-00476B5B.0/The%20Southwick%20Jog.pdf. 
  24. ^ "Connecticut's Southwick Jog". Connecticut State Library. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. http://www.cslib.org/jog.htm. 
  25. ^ "Connecticut's "Panhandle"". Connecticut State Library. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. http://www.cslib.org/panhandle.htm. 
  26. ^ "Connecticut". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/state/ct/index.htm. Retrieved July 15, 2008. 
  27. ^ "United States annual sunshine map". HowStuffWorks. http://maps.howstuffworks.com/united-states-annual-sunshine-map.htm. Retrieved March 15, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Annual average number of tornadoes" (GIF). NOAA National Climatic Data Center. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/research/tornado/small/avgt5304.gif. Retrieved October 24, 2006. 
  29. ^ "All-Time Climate Extremes for CT". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/extremes/scec/getextreme.php?elem=ALL&state=CT. Retrieved March 18, 2011. 
  30. ^ "Monthly Averages for Bridgeport, CT". The Weather Channel. http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/06604. Retrieved September 15, 2011. 
  31. ^ "Monthly Averages for Hartford, CT". The Weather Channel. http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/06604. Retrieved September 15, 2011. 
  32. ^ Federal Writers' Project. Connecticut: A Guide to Its Roads, Lore and People. US History Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-60354-007-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=CPYfSsQ-WE4C&pg=PA3. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  33. ^ http://www.cslib.org/tribes.htm "Connecticut Native American Tribes," Connecticut State Library. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  34. ^ http://www.wesleyan.edu/ees/JCV/block.pdf Varekamp, Johan and Daphne, "Adriaen Block, the discovery of Long Island Sound and the New Netherlands colony: what drove the course of history?" Wesleyan University. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  35. ^ http://colonialwarsct.org/1614.htm "1614 Adriaen," The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  36. ^ http://www.saybrookhistory.org/web_page.php?id=13 "Brief History of Old Saybrook," Old Saybrook Historical Society. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  37. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=jeAXAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA74&lpg=PA74&dq=%22saybrook+colony%22+%22connecticut+colony%22&source=bl&ots=eegJqMVB43&sig=acUbl7XWe8zEWNqN_uRevPaUZag&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Nnt2U_z2GObisASrpoHACg&ved=0CNYBEOgBMBQ#v=onepage&q=%22saybrook%20colony%22%20%22connecticut%20colony%22&f=false Swinton, William, A school history of the United States, New York: American Book Co., 1893, page 74. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  38. ^ "Early Settlers of Connecticut". Connecticut State Library. http://www.cslib.org/earlysettlers.htm. Retrieved July 25, 2010. 
  39. ^ http://colonialwarsct.org/1636.htm "1636-Hartford," The Society of Colonial Wars in Connecticut. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  40. ^ Edward Royall Tyler, William Lathrop Kingsley, George Park Fisher, Timothy Dwight, ed. (January 1, 1887), New Englander and Yale Review,, 47, W.L. Kingsley, pp. 176–177, http://books.google.com/books?id=wmdJAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA176&lpg=PA176&dq=%22Quinnipiack+Colony%22&source=bl&ots=qlhXg47WX5&sig=uRj95lwKPHciDkRu6pv33drPd6Q&hl=en&sa=X&ei=F-JKUoWlCIe14AO5ioGQBg&ved=0CEoQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=%22Quinnipiack%20Colony%22&f=false 
  41. ^ http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/ct01.asp Thorpe, Francis Newton, The Federal and State Constitutions Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming the United States of America, 1906; as posted online as "Fundamental Agreement, or Original Constitution of the Colony of New Haven, June 4, 1639," The Avalon Project, Yale Law School. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  42. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=mDPF4ILESaUC&pg=RA1-PA10&lpg=RA1-PA10&dq=hartford+1654+dutch+abandon+fort&source=bl&ots=XFW45VeZAK&sig=lVtItnobXST63RFCSTVS-Ut7FLk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=K5Z2U_3VEevMsQTMmIHgBg&ved=0CE4Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=hartford%201654%20dutch%20abandon%20fort&f=false Davenport, Frances G., European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies to 1648, The Lawbook Exchange, 2004, page 10. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  43. ^ http://www.colonialwarsct.org/1638_new_haven.htm "1638 - New Haven - The Independent Colony," The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  44. ^ 1662-Charter for Connecticut "1662-Charter for Connecticut." The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  45. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=8gk7AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA150&lpg=PA150&dq=%22new+haven%22+%22hartford%22+%22seat+of+government%22+colony&source=bl&ots=lbw7xngRvH&sig=ywptPWK__zH4Uq751zbfBAEzfOY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=V6N2U5-BIs2SyASLkYLoCA&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%22new%20haven%22%20%22hartford%22%20%22seat%20of%20government%22%20colony&f=false Haskel, Daniel and Smith, Calvin, A Complete Descriptive and Statistical Gazetteer of the United States of America, New York: Sherman & Smith, 1843, page 150. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  46. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=YHVwmVKjhaoC&pg=PA31&lpg=PA31&dq=pequot+raid+wethersfield+mystic&source=bl&ots=o8SoT2AuEx&sig=ZFthvEqnuMIwofgEh-doouI3u38&hl=en&sa=X&ei=k7J2U6ajI8mnyATLsILQCw&ved=0CGMQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=pequot%20raid%20wethersfield%20mystic&f=false Williams, Tony, America's Beginnings: The Dramatic Events that Shaped a Nation's Character, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010, pages 32-34.
  47. ^ Joseph A. Conforti (2003). Imagining New England: Explorations of Regional Identity from the Pilgrims to the Mid-Twentieth Century: Explorations of Regional Identity from the Pilgrims to the Mid-twentieth Century. U of North Carolina Press. p. 111. http://books.google.com/books?id=UzyR6xZQXYAC&pg=PA111. 
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