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{{two other uses|the U.S. state of Connecticut|the river|Connecticut River|other uses}}
{{bdm}}
 
 
{{Infobox U.S. state
 
{{Infobox U.S. state
|Name = Connecticut
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|Name = Connecticut
|Fullname = State of Connecticut
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|Fullname = State of Connecticut
|Flag = Flag of Connecticut.svg
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|Flag = Flag of Connecticut.svg
|Seal = Seal of Connecticut.svg
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|Seal = Seal of Connecticut.svg
|Flaglink = [[Flag of Connecticut|Flag]]
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|Flower = Mountain Laurel<ref name=SOTS/>
|Map = Connecticut in United States.svg
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|Tree = White Oak<ref name=SOTS/>
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|Flaglink = [[Flag of Connecticut|Flag]]
|Nickname = The Constitution State (official)<br />The Nutmeg State<br />The Provisions State<br />The Land of Steady Habits<ref name=SOTS/><ref name=cslib/><br /> Corrupticut <ref>http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/28/nyregion/the-nutmeg-state-battles-the-stigma-of-corrupticut.html</ref>
 
  +
|Animal = Sperm Whale
|Motto = [[Qui transtulit sustinet]].<ref name=SOTS/> ([[Latin]])<br />He who transplanted sustains.
 
|StateAnthem = [[Yankee Doodle]]
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|Map = Connecticut in United States.svg
  +
|Nickname = The Constitution State<br />The Nutmeg State<br />The Provisions State<br />The Land of Steady Habits<ref name=SOTS/><ref name=cslib/>
|Former = Connecticut Colony
 
|Capital = [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]
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|Motto = [[Qui transtulit sustinet]].<ref name=SOTS/> ([[Latin]])
  +
|MottoEnglish = He who transplanted sustains.
|LargestMetro = [[Greater Hartford]]<ref name=metrocompare>[http://www.census.gov/compendia/smadb/SMADBmetro.html State Data from the State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006]. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 16, 2007.</ref> |
 
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|Former = Connecticut Colony
|LargestCity = [[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]]<ref name = popcompare>[http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls Population Estimates for All Places: 2000 to 2006: Connecticut SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls]. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 16, 2007.</ref>
 
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|Capital = [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]
|Demonym = Connecticuter,<ref>{{Cite journal | publisher = U.S. Government Printing Office | title = Style Manual | year = 2000 | at = §5.23 | url = http://www.gpoaccess.gov/stylemanual/}}</ref> Connecticutian,<ref>{{cite web|title= connect | work = Merriam-Webster Online|url=http://nws.merriam-webster.com/opendictionary/newword_search.php?word=Connecticutian}}</ref><br />[[Nutmegger]]<ref>{{Cite journal | publisher = SHG Resources | title = Resources | url = http://www.shgresources.com/resources/symbols/names/residentnames/ | contribution = Resident names}}</ref>
 
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|LargestMetro = [[Greater Hartford]]<ref name=metrocompare>[http://www.census.gov/compendia/smadb/SMADBmetro.html State Data from the State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006]. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 16, 2007.</ref> |
|Governor = [[Dannel P. Malloy]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])
 
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|LargestCity = [[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]]<ref name=popcompare>[http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls Population Estimates for All Places: 2000 to 2006: Connecticut SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls]. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 16, 2007.</ref>
|Lieutenant Governor = [[Nancy Wyman]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])
 
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|Demonym = Connecticuter,<ref>United States Government Printing Office Style Manual (2000), §5.23, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/stylemanual/index.html</ref> Connecticutian,<ref>{{cite web|title=Merriam-Webster Online|url=http://www3.merriam-webster.com/opendictionary/newword_search.php?word=connect}}</ref> [[Nutmegger]]<ref>SHG Resources, http://www.shgresources.com/resources/symbols/names/residentnames/</ref>
|Legislature = [[Connecticut General Assembly|General Assembly]]
 
|Upperhouse = [[Connecticut Senate|Senate]]
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|Governor = [[Dannel Malloy]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])
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|Lieutenant Governor = [[Nancy Wyman]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])
|Lowerhouse = [[Connecticut House of Representatives|House of Representatives]]
 
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|Legislature = [[Connecticut General Assembly|General Assembly]]
|Senators = [[Richard Blumenthal]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])
 
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|Upperhouse = [[Connecticut Senate|Senate]]
[[Chris Murphy (politician)|Christopher S. Murphy]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])
 
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|Lowerhouse = [[Connecticut House of Representatives|House of Representatives]]
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|Senators = [[Richard Blumenthal]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])
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[[Chris Murphy (politician)|Chris Murphy]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]])
 
|Representative=5 Democrats
 
|Representative=5 Democrats
|PostalAbbreviation = CT
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|PostalAbbreviation = CT
|OfficialLang = None
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|OfficialLang = None
|AreaRank = 48th
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|AreaRank = 48th
|TotalArea = 14,357
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|TotalArea = 14,357
|TotalAreaUS = 5,543
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|TotalAreaUS = 5,543
|LandArea = 12,559
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|LandArea = 12,559
|LandAreaUS = 4,849
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|LandAreaUS = 4,849
|WaterArea = 1,809
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|WaterArea = 1,809
|WaterAreaUS = 698
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|WaterAreaUS = 698
|PCWater = 12.6
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|PCWater = 12.6
|PopRank = 29th
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|PopRank = 29th
|2010Pop = 3,596,677 (2014 est)<ref name=PopEstUS />
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|2010Pop = 3,590,347 (2012 est)<ref name=PopEstUS/>
|DensityRank = 4th
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|DensityRank = 4th
|2000Density = 285
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|2000Density = 285
|2000DensityUS = 739
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|2000DensityUS = 739
 
|MedianHouseholdIncome = $68,595
 
|MedianHouseholdIncome = $68,595
 
|IncomeRank = 3rd
 
|IncomeRank = 3rd
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|HumanDevelopmentIndex = 0.962
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|HDIRank = 1st
 
|AdmittanceOrder = 5th
 
|AdmittanceOrder = 5th
 
|AdmittanceDate = January 9, 1788
 
|AdmittanceDate = January 9, 1788
|TimeZone = [[Eastern Time Zone (North America)|Eastern]]: [[Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]] [[Eastern Time Zone|−5]]/[[Eastern Daylight Time|−4]]
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|TimeZone = [[Eastern Time Zone (North America)|Eastern]]: [[Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]] [[Eastern Time Zone|-5]]/[[Eastern Daylight Time|-4]]
 
|Longitude = 71°47′ W to 73°44′ W
 
|Longitude = 71°47′ W to 73°44′ W
 
|Latitude = 40°58′ N to 42°03′ N
 
|Latitude = 40°58′ N to 42°03′ N
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|Length = 177
 
|Length = 177
 
|LengthUS = 110
 
|LengthUS = 110
|HighestPoint = [[Massachusetts]] border on south slope of [[Mount Frissell]]<ref name=USGS>{{cite web|url = http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html |title=Elevations and Distances in the United States | publisher =[[United States Geological Survey]]|year=2001|accessdate=October 21, 2011}}</ref><ref name= NAVD88>Elevation adjusted to [[North American Vertical Datum of 1988]].</ref>
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|HighestPoint = [[Massachusetts]] border on south slope of [[Mount Frissell]]<ref name=USGS>{{cite web|url=http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html|title=Elevations and Distances in the United States|publisher=[[United States Geological Survey]]|year=2001|accessdate=October 21, 2011}}</ref><ref name=NAVD88>Elevation adjusted to [[North American Vertical Datum of 1988]].</ref>
 
|HighestElev = 725
 
|HighestElev = 725
 
|HighestElevUS = 2,379
 
|HighestElevUS = 2,379
 
|MeanElev = 150
 
|MeanElev = 150
 
|MeanElevUS = 500
 
|MeanElevUS = 500
|LowestPoint = [[Long Island Sound]]<ref name=USGS/><ref name=NAVD88 />
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|LowestPoint = [[Long Island Sound]]<ref name=USGS/><ref name=NAVD88/>
 
|LowestElev = 0
 
|LowestElev = 0
 
|LowestElevUS = 0
 
|LowestElevUS = 0
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|Website = www.ct.gov
 
|Website = www.ct.gov
 
}}
 
}}
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'''Connecticut''' ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Connecticut.ogg|k|ə|ˈ|n|ɛ|t|ɨ|k|ə|t}})<ref>{{cite web |url= http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/connecticut|title= Connecticut - Definitions from Dictionary.com |accessdate=September 17, 2007 |archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkvMGho |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref> is the southernmost [[U.S. state]] in the [[New England]] region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by [[Rhode Island]] to the east, [[Massachusetts]] to the north, and the U.S. state of [[New York]] to the west and the south (with which it shares a water boundary in [[Long Island Sound]]).
   
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Connecticut is named for the [[Connecticut River]], a major U.S. river that approximately bisects the state. Its capital city is [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]. Much of southern and western Connecticut (along with the majority of the state's population) is part of the [[New York metropolitan area]]; three of Connecticut's eight counties are statistically included in the [[New York metropolitan area#Components of the metropolitan area|New York City combined statistical area]], the same area is widely referred to as the [[Tri-State area (NY-NJ-CT)|Tri-State area]]. Connecticut's center of population is in [[Cheshire, Connecticut|Cheshire]], [[New Haven County, Connecticut|New Haven County]],<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/INFO/COP/ct_links.htm|title= State of Connecticut Center of Population - From ngs.noaa.gov|accessdate=January 30, 2009 |archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkvhYPB |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref> which is also located within the Tri-State area.
'''Connecticut''' ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Connecticut.ogg|k|ə|ˈ|n|ɛ|ɹ|ɨ|k|ə|t}}, {{Respell|kə|NET|i-kət}})<ref>{{cite web |url= http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/connecticut |title= Connecticut - Definitions from Dictionary.com |accessdate=September 17, 2007 |archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkvMGho |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref> is the southernmost state in the region of the [[United States]] known as [[New England]]. Connecticut is also often grouped into the area known as the Tri-State area (New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut). It is bordered by [[Rhode Island]] to the east, [[Massachusetts]] to the north, [[New York]] to the west, and [[Long Island Sound]] to the south. Its capital city is [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]], and its most populous city is [[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]]. The state is named after the [[Connecticut River]], a major U.S. river that approximately bisects the state. The word is derived from various anglicized spellings of an [[Algonquian languages|Algonquian]] word for "long tidal river."<ref>{{cite book|last=Trumbull|first=James Hammond|title=Indian Names of Places, Etc., in and on the Borders of Connecticut: With Interpretations of Some of Them|year=1881|publisher=Press of the Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company|page=60}}</ref>
 
   
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Connecticut is the [[List of U.S. states and territories by area|3rd least extensive]], the [[List of U.S. states and territories by population|29th most populous]] and [[List of U.S. states by population density|4th most densely populated]] of the [[50 United States]]. Called the ''[[Connecticut#Constitutional history|Constitution State]]'', ''[[Nutmeg]] State'', and "The Land of Steady Habits",<ref name=SOTS/> Connecticut was influential in the development of the [[Federal government of the United States|federal government]] of the United States.
Connecticut is the [[List of U.S. states and territories by area|third smallest]] state by area,<ref name="census.gov">http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/cph-2-1.pdf "Table 18.
 
Area Measurements: 2010; and Population and Housing Unit Density: 1990 to 2010," U.S. Census Bureau, September 2012, United States Summary 41. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> the [[List of U.S. states and territories by population|29th most populous]],<ref>http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/cph-2-1.pdf "Table 19.
 
Population by Urban and Rural and Type of Urban Area: 2010," U.S. Census Bureau, September 2012, United States Summary 42. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> and the [[List of U.S. states by population density|fourth most densely populated]]<ref name="census.gov"/> of the [[50 United States]]. Called the ''[[Connecticut#Constitutional history|Constitution State]]'', the ''[[Nutmeg]] State'', the ''Provisions State'', and the ''Land of Steady Habits''.<ref name=SOTS/> It was influential in the development of the [[federal government of the United States]]. Much of southern and western Connecticut (along with the majority of the state's population) is part of the [[New York metropolitan area]]: three of Connecticut's eight counties are statistically included in the [[New York metropolitan area#Components of the metropolitan area|New York City combined statistical area]], which is widely referred to as the [[Tri-State area (NY-NJ-CT)|Tri-State area]]. Connecticut's center of population is in [[Cheshire, Connecticut|Cheshire]], [[New Haven County, Connecticut|New Haven County]],<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/INFO/COP/ct_links.htm|title= State of Connecticut Center of Population - From ngs.noaa.gov|accessdate=January 30, 2009 |archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkvhYPB |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref> which is also located within the Tri-State area.
 
   
Connecticut's first European settlers were [[Dutch (ethnic group)|Dutch]]. They established a small, short-lived settlement in present-day Hartford at the confluence of the [[Park River (Connecticut)|Park]] and [[Connecticut River|Connecticut]] rivers, called ''[[Fort Hoop|Huys de Goede Hoop]]''. Initially, half of Connecticut was a part of the Dutch colony, [[New Netherland]], which included much of the land between the Connecticut and [[Delaware River|Delaware]] rivers. The first major settlements were established in the 1630s by England. [[Thomas Hooker]] led a band of followers overland from the [[Massachusetts Bay Colony]] and founded what would become the [[Connecticut Colony]]; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the [[Saybrook Colony]] and the [[New Haven Colony]]. The Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of [[Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders]], considered the first constitutions in North America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a [[royal charter]], making Connecticut a [[crown colony]]. This colony was one of the [[Thirteen Colonies]] that revolted against British rule in the [[American Revolution]].
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Connecticut's first European settlers were [[Dutch (ethnic group)|Dutch]] and established a small, short-lived settlement in present-day Hartford at the confluence of the [[Park River (Connecticut)|Park]] and [[Connecticut River|Connecticut]] rivers, called ''[[Fort Hoop|Huys de Goede Hoop]]''. Initially, half of Connecticut was a part of the Dutch colony, [[New Netherland]], which included much of the land between the Connecticut and [[Delaware River|Delaware]] rivers.
   
  +
The first major settlements were established in the 1630s by England. [[Thomas Hooker]] led a band of followers overland from the [[Massachusetts Bay Colony]] and founded what would become the [[Connecticut Colony]]; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the [[Saybrook Colony]] and the [[New Haven Colony]]. Both the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of [[Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders]], considered the first constitutions in North America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a [[royal charter]], making Connecticut a [[crown colony]]. This colony was one of the [[Thirteen Colonies]] that revolted against British rule in the [[American Revolution]].
The Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong [[wikt:Maritime|maritime]] tradition, which continues today. The state also has a long history of hosting the financial-services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and [[hedge fund]]s in [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]]. As of the 2010 Census, Connecticut features the highest per-capita income, [[Human Development Index]] (0.962), and [[Household income in the United States|median household income]] in the United States.<ref>{{cite news| date=November 29, 2005| title=Highest wages in East, lowest in South|work=USA Today| url=http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2005-11-29-wage_x.htm | first1=Stephen | last1=Ohlemacher | accessdate=April 30, 2010|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkvtVNF |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web| date=March 18, 2000| title=Census 2000| publisher=United States Census Bureau| url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-_box_head_nbr=GCT-P14&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-format=US-9|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkweQ74 |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite news| date=July 17, 2008| title=US slips down development index|publisher=BBC | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7511426.stm|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkxLjnC |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
   
  +
The Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along Long Island Sound have given the state a strong [[wiktionary:Maritime|maritime]] tradition, which continues today. Connecticut's other traditional industry is financial services; for example, insurance companies in Hartford and [[hedge fund]]s in [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]]. As of the 2010 Census, Connecticut features the highest per capita income, [[Human Development Index]] (0.962), and [[Household income in the United States|median household income]] in the United States.<ref>{{cite news| date=November 29, 2005| title=Highest wages in East, lowest in South|work=USA Today| url=http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2005-11-29-wage_x.htm | first1=Stephen | last1=Ohlemacher | accessdate=April 30, 2010|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkvtVNF |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web| date=March 18, 2000| title=Census 2000| publisher=United States Census Bureau| url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-_box_head_nbr=GCT-P14&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-format=US-9|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkweQ74 |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite news| date=July 17, 2008| title=US slips down development index|publisher=BBC | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7511426.stm|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkxLjnC |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref> Although Connecticut is a wealthy state by most measures, the income gap between its urban and suburban areas is striking, with several of Connecticut's cities ranking among the nation's poorest and most dangerous.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/09/nyregion/09income.html | work=The New York Times | title=Income Gap in Connecticut Is Growing Fastest, Study Finds | date=April 9, 2008}}</ref><ref>http://os.cqpress.com/citycrime/2010/City_crime_rate_2010-2011_hightolow.pdf</ref>
Although it is one of the [[List of U.S. states by income|wealthiest states in the US]] by most economic measures, the income gap between its urban and suburban areas is unusually wide.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/09/nyregion/09income.html | work=The New York Times | title=Income Gap in Connecticut Is Growing Fastest, Study Finds | date=April 9, 2008}}</ref>
 
   
 
==Geography==
 
==Geography==
{{further2|[[Geology of Connecticut]]|[[Geology of New England]]}}
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{{further2|[[Geology of Connecticut]]}}
 
{{stack begin|clear=true}}
 
{{stack begin|clear=true}}
[[File:Approaching Summit Again.JPG|thumb|Bear Mountain, highest peak in Connecticut]]
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[[File:Nhskyline eastshore.jpg|thumb|[[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]]]]
[[File:LakeMcdonoughFromTunxisTrail.jpg|thumb|Lake Mcdonough reservoir as seen from the Tunxis Trail Overlook Spur trail, Barkhamsted]]
 
[[File:New Haven from East Rock.jpg|thumb|[[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]]]]
 
 
[[File:View of City of New London.jpg|thumb|[[New London, Connecticut|New London]]]]
 
[[File:View of City of New London.jpg|thumb|[[New London, Connecticut|New London]]]]
 
[[File:Hartford Connecticut Skyline.JPG|thumb|[[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]]]
 
[[File:Hartford Connecticut Skyline.JPG|thumb|[[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]]]
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{{stack end}}
 
{{stack end}}
   
Connecticut is bordered on the south by [[Long Island Sound]], on the west by [[New York]], on the north by [[Massachusetts]], and on the east by [[Rhode Island]]. The state capital and third largest city is [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]], and other major cities and towns (by population) include [[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]], [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]], [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], [[Waterbury, Connecticut|Waterbury]], [[Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk]], [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]], [[New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]], [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]] and [[Bristol, Connecticut|Bristol]]. There are 169 [[New England town|incorporated towns]] in Connecticut.
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Connecticut is bordered on the south by [[Long Island Sound]], on the west by [[New York State]], on the north by [[Massachusetts]], and on the east by [[Rhode Island]]. The state capital and third largest city is [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]], and other major cities and towns (by population) include [[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]], [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]], [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], [[Waterbury, Connecticut|Waterbury]], [[Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk]], [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]], [[New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]], [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]] and [[Bristol, Connecticut|Bristol]]. There are 169 [[New England town|incorporated towns]] in Connecticut.
  +
[[File:Approaching Summit Again.JPG|left|thumb|155px|Bear Mountain, highest peak in Connecticut]]
   
 
The highest peak in Connecticut is [[Bear Mountain (Connecticut)|Bear Mountain]] in [[Salisbury, Connecticut|Salisbury]] in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, [[Massachusetts]], and New York meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of [[Mount Frissell]], whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts.<ref>{{cite peakbagger |pid=7083 |name=Mount Frissell-South Slope, Connecticut/Massachusetts}}</ref>
 
The highest peak in Connecticut is [[Bear Mountain (Connecticut)|Bear Mountain]] in [[Salisbury, Connecticut|Salisbury]] in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, [[Massachusetts]], and New York meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of [[Mount Frissell]], whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts.<ref>{{cite peakbagger |pid=7083 |name=Mount Frissell-South Slope, Connecticut/Massachusetts}}</ref>
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{{further2|[[List of Connecticut rivers]]}}
 
{{further2|[[List of Connecticut rivers]]}}
  +
[[File:Highest Point here.JPG|left|thumb|155px|Highest point in Connecticut on slope of Mount Frissell, as seen from Bear Mountain]]
   
Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London, then northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns center around a "[[village green|green]]," such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green (the largest in the state), and Wethersfield Green (the oldest in the state). Near the green typically stand historical visual symbols of [[New England]] towns, such as a white church, a [[colonial meeting house]], a colonial [[tavern]] or "[[inn]]e," several [[colonial house]]s, and so on, establishing a scenic historic appearance maintained for both [[historic preservation]] and tourism.
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Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London, then northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns center around a "[[village green|green]]", such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green (the largest in the state), and Wethersfield Green (the oldest in the state). Near the green typically stand historical visual symbols of [[New England]] towns, such as a white church, a [[colonial meeting house]], a colonial [[tavern]] or "[[inn]]e", several [[colonial house]]s, and so on, establishing a scenic historic appearance maintained for both [[historic preservation]] and tourism.
   
Connecticut consists of [[temperate broadleaf and mixed forests]]. [[Northeastern coastal forests]] of [[Quercus|oaks]], [[Carya|hickories]], and [[Acer (genus)|maple]] cover much of the state.<ref name = "ecoregions">{{cite journal |author=Olson |title = Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth |journal=[[BioScience]] |year = 2001 |volume=51 |issue=11 |pages= 933–938 |url = http://gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder/ |doi = 10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0933:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2 |archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkyhbI6 |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no |author2 = D. M |author3 = E. Dinerstein |display-authors = 3 |issn = 0006-3568 |last4 = Burgess |first4 = Neil D. |last5 = Powell |first5 = George V. N. |last6 = Underwood |first6 = Emma C. |last7 = d'Amico |first7 = Jennifer A. |last8 = Itoua |first8 = Illanga |last9 = Strand |first9 = Holly E.}}</ref> In the northwest, these give way to [[New England-Acadian forests]] of the [[Taconic Mountains]].<ref name = "ecoregions"/>
+
Connecticut consists of [[temperate broadleaf and mixed forests]]. [[Northeastern coastal forests]] of [[Quercus|oaks]], [[Carya|hickories]], and [[Acer (genus)|maple]] cover much of the state.<ref name = "ecoregions">{{cite journal |author=Olson |title = Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth |journal=[[BioScience]] |year = 2001 |volume=51 |issue=11 |pages= 933–938 |url = http://gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder/ |doi = 10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0933:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2 |archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkyhbI6 |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no |author-separator = , |author2 = D. M |author3 = E. Dinerstein |display-authors = 3 |issn = 0006-3568 |last4 = Burgess |first4 = Neil D. |last5 = Powell |first5 = George V. N. |last6 = Underwood |first6 = Emma C. |last7 = d'Amico |first7 = Jennifer A. |last8 = Itoua |first8 = Illanga |last9 = Strand |first9 = Holly E.}}</ref> In the northwest, these give way to [[New England-Acadian forests]] of the [[Taconic Mountains]].<ref name = "ecoregions"/>
   
 
{{further2|[[List of Connecticut state forests]]}}
 
{{further2|[[List of Connecticut state forests]]}}
Line 103: Line 107:
 
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5&nbsp;mile (4.0&nbsp;km) square detour into Connecticut. The actual origin of this anomaly is clearly established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which was finally concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick, (whose residents sought to leave Massachusetts), was split in half.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.southwickma.org/Public_Documents/F000102F9/S00476B50-00476B5B.0/The%20Southwick%20Jog.pdf | title=The Southwick Jog|format=PDF|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5p1plFeFC |archivedate = April 16, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/jog.htm|title=Connecticut's Southwick Jog| publisher=Connecticut State Library|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkzcI4A |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5&nbsp;mile (4.0&nbsp;km) square detour into Connecticut. The actual origin of this anomaly is clearly established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which was finally concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick, (whose residents sought to leave Massachusetts), was split in half.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.southwickma.org/Public_Documents/F000102F9/S00476B50-00476B5B.0/The%20Southwick%20Jog.pdf | title=The Southwick Jog|format=PDF|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5p1plFeFC |archivedate = April 16, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/jog.htm|title=Connecticut's Southwick Jog| publisher=Connecticut State Library|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKkzcI4A |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref>
   
The southwestern border of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State, is marked by a [[panhandle]] in [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]], containing the towns of [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]], [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], [[New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan]], [[Darien, Connecticut|Darien]], and parts of [[Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk]] and [[Wilton, Connecticut|Wilton]].This irregularity in the boundary is the result of [[History of Connecticut#Territorial disputes|territorial disputes]] in the late 17th century, culminating with New York giving up its claim to the area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from [[Ridgefield, Connecticut|Ridgefield]] to the Massachusetts border as well as undisputed claim to [[Rye (town), New York|Rye, New York]].<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/panhandle.htm| title=Connecticut's "Panhandle"| publisher=Connecticut State Library|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKl03gYx |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref>
+
The southwestern border of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State, is marked by a [[panhandle]] in [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]], containing the towns of [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]], [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], [[New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan]], [[Darien, Connecticut|Darien]] and part of [[Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk]]. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of [[History of Connecticut#Territorial disputes|territorial disputes]] in the late 17th century, culminating with New York giving up its claim to the area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from [[Ridgefield, Connecticut|Ridgefield]] to the Massachusetts border as well as undisputed claim to [[Rye (town), New York|Rye, New York]].<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/panhandle.htm| title=Connecticut's "Panhandle"| publisher=Connecticut State Library|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uKl03gYx |archivedate = November 18, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
{{further2|[[Connecticut panhandle]]}}
 
{{further2|[[Connecticut panhandle]]}}
   
Areas maintained by the [[National Park Service]] include [[Appalachian National Scenic Trail]], [[Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor]], and [[Weir Farm National Historic Site]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Connecticut | publisher=National Park Service | accessdate =July 15, 2008 | url = http://www.nps.gov/state/ct/index.htm}}</ref>
+
Areas maintained by the [[National Park Service]] include: [[Appalachian National Scenic Trail]]; [[Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor]]; and [[Weir Farm National Historic Site]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Connecticut | publisher=National Park Service | accessdate =July 15, 2008 | url = http://www.nps.gov/state/ct/index.htm}}</ref>
   
===Climate===
 
[[File:Barndoor Hills original.JPG|thumb|Scenery upon [[Barndoor Hills]] in [[Granby, Connecticut|Granby]] in autumn]]
 
Much of Connecticut has a [[humid continental climate]], with cold winters and hot summers. Far southern and coastal Connecticut has a more mild [[humid temperate/subtropical climate]] with seasonal extremes tempered by proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, warmer winters, and longer frost - free seasons. Most of Connecticut sees a fairly even precipitation pattern with rainfall/snowfall spread throughout the 12 months. Connecticut averages 56% of possible sunshine (higher than the USA average), averaging 2,400 hours of [[sunshine]] annually.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://maps.howstuffworks.com/united-states-annual-sunshine-map.htm |title= United States annual sunshine map|publisher=HowStuffWorks |accessdate=March 15, 2011}}</ref>
 
   
  +
===Climate===
Summer is hot and often humid throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81&nbsp;°F (27&nbsp;°C) and 87&nbsp;°F (31&nbsp;°C) in Windsor Locks. Although summers are sunny in Connecticut, summer thunderstorms often bring quick downpours and thunder and lighting. Winters are generally cool to cold from south to north in Connecticut, with average January temperatures ranging from 38&nbsp;°F (3&nbsp;°C) in the coastal lowlands to 29&nbsp;°F (−2&nbsp;°C) in the inland and northern portions on the state. The average yearly snowfall ranges from about 50–60" in the higher elevations of the northern portion of the state to only 20-25" along the southeast coast of Connecticut. Generally, any locale north or west of [[Interstate 84 (Pennsylvania–Massachusetts)|Interstate 84]] receives the most snow, during a storm, and throughout the season.
 
  +
Interior portions of Connecticut have a [[humid continental climate]], while the Connecticut shoreline (the state's southern four counties) has a borderline [[humid subtropical climate]] (sometimes statistically meeting this climate's criteria, sometimes not) with seasonal extremes tempered by proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. The city of Bridgeport (on Long Island Sound), like most other areas in [[Tri-State Region|metropolitan New York]], typically falls within the humid subtropical climate zone under the [[Köppen Climate Classification]] system. Hartford (35&nbsp;miles inland) has a humid continental climate. Consistent with its coastal reputation, Connecticut is a moderately sunny state, averaging between 2,400 and 2,800 hours of [[sunshine]] annually.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://maps.howstuffworks.com/united-states-annual-sunshine-map.htm|title=united states annual sunshine map|publisher=HowStuffWorks, Inc|accessdate=March 15, 2011}}</ref>
   
Early spring (April) is can range from coolish to warm, while mid and late spring (May/early June) is warm to hot. Fall months are mild and bring colorful foliage across northern parts of the state (the southern and coastal areas have more oak and hickory trees and fewer maples) in October and November. During hurricane season, tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the summer, occurring on average 30 times annually. These storms can be severe, and the state usually averages one tornado per year.<ref name="tornadoes">{{cite web| url= http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/research/tornado/small/avgt5304.gif | title=Annual average number of tornadoes| publisher=NOAA National Climatic Data Center | format = [[GIF]] | accessdate =October 24, 2006}}</ref> Connecticut's warmest temperature is {{convert|106|F|C}} which occurred in [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]] on July 15, 1995; the coldest temperature is {{convert|-32|F|C}} which occurred in [[Falls Village, Connecticut|Falls Village]] on February 16, 1943, and [[Coventry, Connecticut|Coventry]] on January 22, 1961.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/extremes/scec/getextreme.php?elem=ALL&state=CT| title = All-Time Climate Extremes for CT|publisher=[[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]]|accessdate=March 18, 2011}}</ref>
+
Summer is hot and humid throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81&nbsp;°F (27&nbsp;°C) and 87&nbsp;°F (31&nbsp;°C) in Windsor Locks. Although summers are quite sunny in Connecticut, summer thunderstorms often bring quick downpours and thunder and lighting. Winters are generally cool to cold from south to north in Connecticut, with average temperatures ranging from 38&nbsp;°F (3&nbsp;°C) in the maritime influenced southeast to 29&nbsp;°F (−2&nbsp;°C) in the northwest in January. The average yearly snowfall ranges from about 50–60" in the higher elevations of the northern portion of the state to only 20-25" along the southeast coast of Connecticut. Early Spring (April) is coolish and mid and late Spring (May/early June) is warm to hot. Fall months are mild and bring colorful foliage across northern parts of the state (the southern and coastal areas have more oak and hickory trees and fewer maples) in October and November. During hurricane season, tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the summer, occurring on average 30 times annually. These storms can be severe, and the state usually averages one tornado per year.<ref name="tornadoes">{{cite web| url=http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/research/tornado/small/avgt5304.gif| title=Annual average number of tornadoes| publisher=NOAA National Climatic Data Center| accessdate=October 24, 2006}}</ref> Connecticut's warmest temperature is {{convert|106|F|C}} which occurred in [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]] on July 15, 1995; the coldest temperature is {{convert|-32|F|C}} which occurred in [[Falls Village, Connecticut|Falls Village]] on February 16, 1943 and [[Coventry, Connecticut|Coventry]] on January 22, 1961.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/extremes/scec/getextreme.php?elem=ALL&state=CT|title=All-Time Climate Extremes for CT|publisher=[[NOAA]]|accessdate=March 18, 2011}}</ref>
 
{| class="wikitable" "text-align:center;font-size:90%;"|
 
{| class="wikitable" "text-align:center;font-size:90%;"|
| colspan="13" style="text-align:center;font-size:120%;background:#E8EAFA;"|Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures for Various Connecticut Cities
+
| colspan="13" style="text-align:center;font-size:120%;background:#E8EAFA;"|Monthly Normal High and Median Temperatures for Various Connecticut Cities
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000; height:17px;"| City
 
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000; height:17px;"| City
Line 133: Line 135:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000; height:16px;"| Bridgeport
 
! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000; height:16px;"| Bridgeport
| style="text-align:center; background:#0ff; color:#000;"| 37/23
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ffff; color:#000;"| 37/23
| style="text-align:center; background:#0fe; color:#000;"| 39/25
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ffee; color:#000;"| 39/25
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ffae; color:#000;"| 47/32
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ffae; color:#000;"| 47/32
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff5e; color:#000;"| 57/41
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff5e; color:#000;"| 57/41
| style="text-align:center; background:#0f1; color:#000;"| 67/51
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff11; color:#000;"| 67/51
| style="text-align:center; background:#4f0; color:#000;"| 76/60
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#44ff00; color:#000;"| 76/60
| style="text-align:center; background:#7f0; color:#000;"| 82/66
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#77ff00; color:#000;"| 82/66
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#6eff00; color:#000;"| 81/65
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#6eff00; color:#000;"| 81/65
| style="text-align:center; background:#3f0; color:#000;"| 74/58
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#33ff00; color:#000;"| 74/58
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff2f; color:#000;"| 63/46
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff2f; color:#000;"| 63/46
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff7b; color:#000;"| 53/38
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff7b; color:#000;"| 53/38
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| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff62; color:#000;"| 59/38
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff62; color:#000;"| 59/38
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff08; color:#000;"| 70/48
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff08; color:#000;"| 70/48
| style="text-align:center; background:#4f0; color:#000;"| 79/57
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#44ff00; color:#000;"| 79/57
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#73ff00; color:#000;"| 84/63
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#73ff00; color:#000;"| 84/63
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#62ff00; color:#000;"| 82/61
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#62ff00; color:#000;"| 82/61
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#1aff00; color:#000;"| 74/51
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#1aff00; color:#000;"| 74/51
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff48; color:#000;"| 63/40
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff48; color:#000;"| 63/40
| style="text-align:center; background:#0f9; color:#000;"| 52/32
+
| style="text-align:center; background:#00ff99; color:#000;"| 52/32
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#00fff7; color:#000;"| 40/22
 
| style="text-align:center; background:#00fff7; color:#000;"| 40/22
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="13" style="text-align:center;font-size:90%;background:#E8EAFA;"|''<ref>{{cite web |url = http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/06604 |title=Monthly Averages for Bridgeport, CT |publisher = [[The Weather Channel]] |accessdate=September 15, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/06604 |title=Monthly Averages for Hartford, CT |publisher=[[The Weather Channel]] |accessdate=September 15, 2011}}</ref>''
+
| colspan="13" style="text-align:center;font-size:90%;background:#E8EAFA;"|''<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/06604 |title=Monthly Averages for Bridgeport, CT |publisher=[[The Weather Channel]] |accessdate=September 15, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/06604 |title=Monthly Averages for Hartford, CT |publisher=[[The Weather Channel]] |accessdate=September 15, 2011}}</ref>''
 
|}
 
|}
   
 
==History==
 
==History==
{{multiple issues|section=yes|
 
 
{{Refimprove section|date=September 2007}}
 
{{Refimprove section|date=September 2007}}
 
{{Expand section|date=July 2010}}
 
{{Expand section|date=July 2010}}
}}
 
 
{{Main|History of Connecticut}}
 
{{Main|History of Connecticut}}
 
[[File:Ctcolony.png|thumb|right|400px|A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies]]
 
[[File:Ctcolony.png|thumb|right|400px|A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies]]
   
  +
The name of the state is an Anglicized version of the [[Algonquian languages|Algonquian]] word "quinatucquet", meaning "upon the long river".<ref name="Project">{{cite book|author=Federal Writers' Project|title=Connecticut: A Guide to Its Roads, Lore and People|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=CPYfSsQ-WE4C&pg=PA3|accessdate=September 23, 2010|publisher=US History Publishers|isbn=978-1-60354-007-0|page=3}}</ref> The Connecticut region was inhabited by the [[Mohegan]] tribe prior to European colonization. The first European explorer in Connecticut was the Dutch explorer [[Adriaen Block]]. After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (then known by the Dutch as Versche Rivier – "Fresh River") and built a fort at Dutch Point in what is present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" ({{lang-nl|Huis van Hoop}}).
===Exploration and early settlement===
 
The name Connecticut is derived from anglicized versions of the [[Algonquian languages|Algonquian]] word that has been translated as "long tidal river" and "upon the long river."<ref name="Project">{{cite book|author=Federal Writers' Project|title=Connecticut: A Guide to Its Roads, Lore and People|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=CPYfSsQ-WE4C&pg=PA3|accessdate=September 23, 2010 | publisher =US History Publishers|isbn=978-1-60354-007-0|page=3}}</ref> The Connecticut region was inhabited by multiple [[Native Americans in the United States|Native American]] tribes prior to European settlement and colonization, including the [[Mohegan people|Mohegans]], the [[Pequot people|Pequots]], and the [[Golden Hill Paugussett Indian Nation|Paugusetts]].<ref>http://www.cslib.org/tribes.htm "Connecticut Native American Tribes," Connecticut State Library. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> The first European explorer in Connecticut was the Dutch explorer [[Adriaen Block]].<ref>http://www.wesleyan.edu/ees/JCV/block.pdf Varekamp, Johan and Daphne, "Adriaen Block, the discovery of Long Island Sound and the New Netherlands colony: what drove the course of history?" Wesleyan University. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (then known by the Dutch as Versche Rivier – "Fresh River") and built a fort at Dutch Point in what is present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" ({{lang-nl|Huis van Hoop}}).<ref>http://colonialwarsct.org/1614.htm "1614 Adriaen," The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
 
   
[[John Winthrop the Younger|John Winthrop]], then of Massachusetts, received a commission to create a new colony at [[Saybrook Colony|Old Saybrook]] at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635.<ref>http://www.saybrookhistory.org/web_page.php?id=13 "Brief History of Old Saybrook," Old Saybrook Historical Society. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> This was the first of three distinct colonies that later would be combined to make up Connecticut. Saybrook Colony was a direct challenge to Dutch claims. The colony was not more than a small outpost and never matured. In 1644, the Saybrook Colony merged itself into the Connecticut Colony.<ref>http://books.google.com/books?id=jeAXAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA74&lpg=PA74&dq=%22saybrook+colony%22+%22connecticut+colony%22&source=bl&ots=eegJqMVB43&sig=acUbl7XWe8zEWNqN_uRevPaUZag&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Nnt2U_z2GObisASrpoHACg&ved=0CNYBEOgBMBQ#v=onepage&q=%22saybrook%20colony%22%20%22connecticut%20colony%22&f=false Swinton, William, ''A school history of the United States,'' New York: American Book Co., 1893, page 74. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
+
[[John Winthrop the Younger|John Winthrop]], then of Massachusetts, received permission to create a new colony at [[Saybrook Colony|Old Saybrook]] at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635. This was the first of three distinct colonies that later would be combined to make up Connecticut. Saybrook Colony was a direct challenge to Dutch claims. The colony was not more than a small outpost and never matured. In 1644, the Saybrook Colony merged itself into the Connecticut Colony.
   
The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled at Windsor, and then at Wethersfield the following year.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.cslib.org/earlysettlers.htm |title=Early Settlers of Connecticut | publisher = Connecticut State Library |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref> However, the main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. The settlers were [[Puritan]]s from Massachusetts, led by [[Thomas Hooker]]. Hooker had been prominent in England and was a professor of theology at Cambridge. He was also an important political writer and made a significant contribution to Constitutional theory. He broke with the political leadership in Massachusetts, and, just as [[Roger Williams (theologian)|Roger Williams]] created a new polity in [[Rhode Island]], Hooker and his cohort did the same and established the [[Connecticut Colony]] at Hartford in 1636.<ref>http://colonialwarsct.org/1636.htm "1636-Hartford," The Society of Colonial Wars in Connecticut. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> This was the second of the three colonies.
+
The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled at Windsor, and then at Wethersfield the following year.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cslib.org/earlysettlers.htm |title=Early Settlers of Connecticut Connecticut State Library |publisher=Cslib.org |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref> However, the main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. The settlers were [[Puritan]]s from Massachusetts, led by [[Thomas Hooker]]. Hooker had been prominent in England and was a professor of theology at Cambridge. He was also an important political writer and made a significant contribution to Constitutional theory. He broke with the political leadership in Massachusetts, and, just as [[Roger Williams (theologian)|Roger Williams]] created a new polity in [[Rhode Island]], Hooker and his cohort did the same and established the [[Connecticut Colony]] at Hartford in 1636. This was the second of the three colonies.
The third colony was founded in March 1638. [[New Haven Colony]] (originally known as the Quinnipiack Colony<ref>{{citation |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=wmdJAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA176&lpg=PA176&dq=%22Quinnipiack+Colony%22&source=bl&ots=qlhXg47WX5&sig=uRj95lwKPHciDkRu6pv33drPd6Q&hl=en&sa=X&ei=F-JKUoWlCIe14AO5ioGQBg&ved=0CEoQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=%22Quinnipiack%20Colony%22&f=false |title=New Englander and Yale Review, |volume=47 |pages=176–177 |editors=Edward Royall Tyler, William Lathrop Kingsley, George Park Fisher, Timothy Dwight |publisher=W.L. Kingsley |date=January 1, 1887 }}</ref>) was established by [[John Davenport (clergyman)|John Davenport]], [[Theophilus Eaton]], and others at New Haven. The New Haven Colony had its own constitution, "The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony," which was signed on June 4, 1639.<ref>http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/ct01.asp Thorpe, Francis Newton, ''The Federal and State Constitutions Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming the United States of America,'' 1906; as posted online as "Fundamental Agreement, or Original Constitution of the Colony of New Haven, June 4, 1639," The Avalon Project, Yale Law School. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
 
   
  +
The third colony was founded in March 1638. [[New Haven Colony]] (originally known as the Quinnipiack Colony) was established by [[John Davenport (clergyman)|John Davenport]], [[Theophilus Eaton]], and others at New Haven. The New Haven Colony had its own constitution, "The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony", which was signed on June 4, 1639.
Because the Dutch were outnumbered by the flood of English settlers from Massachusetts, they left their fort in 1654.<ref>http://books.google.com/books?id=mDPF4ILESaUC&pg=RA1-PA10&lpg=RA1-PA10&dq=hartford+1654+dutch+abandon+fort&source=bl&ots=XFW45VeZAK&sig=lVtItnobXST63RFCSTVS-Ut7FLk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=K5Z2U_3VEevMsQTMmIHgBg&ved=0CE4Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=hartford%201654%20dutch%20abandon%20fort&f=false Davenport, Frances G., ''European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies to 1648,'' The Lawbook Exchange, 2004, page 10. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
 
   
  +
Because the Dutch were outnumbered by the flood of English settlers from Massachusetts, they left their fort in 1654.
Neither the establishment of the Connecticut Colony or the Quinnipiack Colony was carried out with the sanction of the English Crown, and they were independent political entities.<ref>http://www.colonialwarsct.org/1638_new_haven.htm "1638 - New Haven - The Independent Colony," The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> They naturally were presumptively English, but in a legal sense, they were only secessionist outposts of Massachusetts Bay. In 1662, Winthrop took advantage of this void in political affairs and obtained in England the charter by which the colonies of Connecticut and Quinnipiack were united from the newly restored [[Charles II of England|Charles II]], who granted liberal political terms.<ref>1662-Charter for Connecticut "1662-Charter for Connecticut." The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> Although Winthrop's charter favored the Connecticut colony, New Haven remained a seat of government with Hartford until after the American Revolution.<ref>http://books.google.com/books?id=8gk7AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA150&lpg=PA150&dq=%22new+haven%22+%22hartford%22+%22seat+of+government%22+colony&source=bl&ots=lbw7xngRvH&sig=ywptPWK__zH4Uq751zbfBAEzfOY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=V6N2U5-BIs2SyASLkYLoCA&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%22new%20haven%22%20%22hartford%22%20%22seat%20of%20government%22%20colony&f=false Haskel, Daniel and Smith, Calvin, ''A Complete Descriptive and Statistical Gazetteer of the United States of America,'' New York: Sherman & Smith, 1843, page 150. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
 
   
  +
Neither the establishment of the Connecticut Colony or the Quinnipiack Colony was carried out with the sanction of the English Crown, and they were independent political entities. They naturally were presumptively English, but in a legal sense, they were only secessionist outposts of Massachusetts Bay. In 1662, Winthrop took advantage of this void in political affairs and obtained in England the charter by which the colonies of Connecticut and Quinnipiack were united. Although Winthrop's charter favored the Connecticut colony, New Haven remained a seat of government with Hartford until after the American Revolution.
[[File:LowsCTmap.jpeg|thumb|right|250px|A 1799 map of Connecticut which shows [[The Oblong]]. From [[Low's Encyclopaedia]].]]
 
Historically important colonial settlements included [[Windsor, Connecticut|Windsor]] (1633), [[Wethersfield, Connecticut|Wethersfield]] (1634), [[Deep River, Connecticut|Saybrook]] (1635), [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] (1636), [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]] (1638), [[Fairfield, Connecticut|Fairfield]] (1639), [[Guilford, Connecticut|Guilford]] (1639), [[Milford, Connecticut|Milford]] (1639), [[Stratford, Connecticut|Stratford]] (1639), [[Farmington, Connecticut|Farmington]] (1640), [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]] (1641), and [[New London, Connecticut|New London]] (1646).
 
   
  +
Winthrop was very politically astute and secured the charter from the newly restored [[Charles II of England|Charles II]], who granted the most liberal political terms.
The Pequot War marked the first major clash between European settlers and Native Americans in New England. With the [[Pequot people]] reacting with increasing aggression to European settlers encroaching on their territory, settlers responded in 1636 with a raid on a Pequot village on [[Block Island]]. The Pequots laid siege to Saybrook Colony's garrison that autumn, then in the spring of 1637 raided Wethersfield. Colonists there declared war on the Pequots, organized a band of militia and Native Americans, and attacked a Pequot village on the [[Mystic River (Connecticut)|Mystic River]], with death toll estimates ranging between 300 and 700 Pequots. After suffering another major loss at a battle in [[Fairfield, Connecticut|Fairfield]], the Pequots asked for a truce and peace terms.<ref>http://books.google.com/books?id=YHVwmVKjhaoC&pg=PA31&lpg=PA31&dq=pequot+raid+wethersfield+mystic&source=bl&ots=o8SoT2AuEx&sig=ZFthvEqnuMIwofgEh-doouI3u38&hl=en&sa=X&ei=k7J2U6ajI8mnyATLsILQCw&ved=0CGMQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=pequot%20raid%20wethersfield%20mystic&f=false Williams, Tony, ''America's Beginnings: The Dramatic Events that Shaped a Nation's Character,'' Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010, pages 32-34.</ref>
 
   
  +
Historically important colonial settlements included:
  +
:[[Windsor, Connecticut|Windsor]] (1633)
  +
:[[Wethersfield, Connecticut|Wethersfield]] (1634)
  +
:[[Deep River, Connecticut|Saybrook]] (1635)
  +
:[[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] (1636)
  +
:[[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]] (1638)
  +
:[[Fairfield, Connecticut|Fairfield]] (1639)
  +
:[[Guilford, Connecticut|Guilford]] (1639)
  +
:[[Milford, Connecticut|Milford]] (1639)
  +
:[[Stratford, Connecticut|Stratford]] (1639)
  +
:[[Farmington, Connecticut|Farmington]] (1640)
  +
:[[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]] (1641)
  +
:[[New London, Connecticut|New London]] (1646)
  +
  +
Its first constitution, the "[[Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders]]", was adopted on January 14, 1639, while its [[Connecticut Constitution|current constitution]], the third for Connecticut, was adopted in 1965. Connecticut is the fifth of the original 13 states. The original constitutions influenced the US Constitution as one of the leading authors was [[Roger Sherman]] of New Haven.
 
[[Image:View of New London, Connecticut, from the Shore Road.jpg|thumb|View of New London in 1854]]
 
[[Image:View of New London, Connecticut, from the Shore Road.jpg|thumb|View of New London in 1854]]
  +
The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. According to the Hartford Treaty with the Dutch, signed on September 19, 1650, but never ratified by the British, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich Bay]] for a distance of 20&nbsp;miles<ref name="BOWEN">Bowen, Clarence Winthrop: ''Boundary Disputes of Connecticut'': Boston, Massachusetts: 1882. P. 17–18.</ref><ref name="FLICK">Flick, Alexander C., Editor: ''History of the State of New York. Volume 2'': New York City: [[Columbia University]] Press, 1933–1937: P. 50–57.</ref> "provided the said line come not within {{convert|10|mi|km}} [16&nbsp;km] of Hudson River. This agreement was observed by both sides until war erupted between England and The Netherlands in 1652. No other limits were found. Conflict over uncertain colonial limits continued until the [[Duke of York]] captured [[New Netherland]] in 1664."<ref name="BOWEN"/><ref name="FLICK"/> On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea", i.e. the Pacific Ocean.<ref>{{cite web|author=James Callison, LCITS |url=http://www.law.ou.edu/ushistory/colony.shtml |title=Connecticut Colony Charter of 1662 |publisher=Law.ou.edu |date=March 14, 2006 |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref><ref>[http://www.ctheritage.org/encyclopedia/topicalsurveys/migration.htm Migration from Connecticut] By Barbara Lacey, Connecticut's Heritage Gateway website.</ref> Most colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut took its grant seriously, and established a ninth county between the [[Susquehanna River|Susquehanna]] and [[Delaware River]]s, named [[Westmoreland County, Connecticut|Westmoreland County]]. This resulted in the brief [[Pennamite Wars]] with [[Pennsylvania]].
   
  +
Connecticut's lands also extended across northern Ohio, called the [[Western Reserve]] lands. The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio. Agreements with Pennsylvania and New York extinguished the land claims by Connecticut within its neighbors, creating the [[Connecticut Panhandle]]. The Western Reserve lands were relinquished to the federal government, which brought the state to its present boundaries other than minor adjustments with Massachusetts.
===Colonial Connecticut===
 
Connecticut developed a conservative elite that would dominate colonial affairs in the years leading up to the American Revolution.<ref>{{cite book|author=Joseph A. Conforti|title=Imagining New England: Explorations of Regional Identity from the Pilgrims to the Mid-Twentieth Century: Explorations of Regional Identity from the Pilgrims to the Mid-twentieth Century|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=UzyR6xZQXYAC&pg=PA111|year=2003|publisher=U of North Carolina Press|page=111}}</ref> The forces of liberalism and democracy emerged slowly, encouraged by the entrepreneurship of the business community, and the new religious freedom stimulated by the [[First Great Awakening]].<ref>{{cite book|author=Richard L. Bushman|title=From Puritan to Yankee: Character and the Social Order in Connecticut, 1690–1765|year=1970|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=tMgHkGUo_8IC|publisher=Harvard University Press}}</ref>
 
 
With the establishment of Yale College in 1701, Connecticut had an important institution to educate clergy and civil leaders.<ref>http://www.yale.edu/about/history.html "About-History," Yale University. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> Just as Yale dominated Connecticut's intellectual life, the Congregational church dominated religious life in the colony, and by extension, town affairs in many parts.<ref>Roth, David M., ''Connecticut A History,'' New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1979, pages 40-41.</ref>
 
 
The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. According to the Hartford Treaty with the Dutch, signed on September 19, 1650, but never ratified by the British, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich Bay]] for a distance of 20&nbsp;miles<ref name="BOWEN">{{Citation | last = Bowen | first = Clarence Winthrop | title = Boundary Disputes of Connecticut | place = Boston, [[Massachusetts|MA]] | year = 1882 | pages = 17–18}}.</ref><ref name="FLICK">{{Citation | editor-last = Flick | editor-first = Alexander C | title = History of the State of New York | volume = 2 | place = New York City | publisher = [[Columbia University]] Press | year = 1933–37 | pages = 50–57}}.</ref> "provided the said line come not within {{convert |10|mi|km}} [16&nbsp;km] of Hudson River. This agreement was observed by both sides until war erupted between England and The Netherlands in 1652. No other limits were found. Conflict over uncertain colonial limits continued until the [[James II of England|Duke of York]] captured [[New Netherland]] in 1664."<ref name="BOWEN"/><ref name="FLICK"/> On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea," i.e. the Pacific Ocean.<ref>{{cite web| work = US history | first = James | last = Callison |url=http://www.law.ou.edu/ushistory/colony.shtml |title=Connecticut Colony Charter of 1662 | publisher = OU |date=March 14, 2006 |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{Citation | type = topical survey | url = http://www.ctheritage.org/encyclopedia/topicalsurveys/migration.htm | title = Encyclopedia | contribution = Migration from Connecticut | first = Barbara | last = Lacey | publisher = Connecticut's Heritage Gateway}}.</ref> Most colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut took its grant seriously, and established a ninth county between the [[Susquehanna River|Susquehanna]] and [[Delaware River]]s, named [[Westmoreland County, Connecticut|Westmoreland County]]. This resulted in the brief [[Pennamite Wars]] with [[Pennsylvania]].<ref>http://colonialwarsct.org/1769.htm "1769- The Pennamite Wars," The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
 
 
===The American Revolution===
 
Connecticut designated four delegates to the [[Second Continental Congress]] who would sign the [[United States Declaration of Independence|Declaration of Independence]]: [[Samuel Huntington (statesman)|Samuel Huntington]], [[Roger Sherman]], [[William Williams (Continental Congress)|William Williams]], and [[Oliver Wolcott]].<ref>http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration_signers_gallery_facts.pdf "Signers of the Declaration of Independence," National Archives. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
 
 
In 1775, in the wake of the clashes between British regulars and Massachusetts militia at Lexington and Concord, Connecticut's legislature authorized the outfitting of six new regiments, with some 1,200 Connecticut troops on hand at the [[Battle of Bunker Hill]] in June 1775.<ref>http://www.wpi.edu/academics/military/hillprelim.html "Battle of Bunker's Hill Preliminary Study," Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
 
Getting word in 1777 of [[Continental Army]] supplies in [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]], the British landed an expeditionary force of some 2,000 troops in [[Westport, Connecticut|Westport]], who marched to Danbury and destroyed much of the depot along with homes in Danbury. On the return march, Continental Army troops and militia led by General [[David Wooster]] and General [[Benedict Arnold]] engaged the British at [[Battle of Ridgefield|Ridgefield]] in 1777.<ref>http://archive.org/stream/accountoftryonsr00case#page/n3/mode/2up Case, James, "Tryon's Raid on Danbury in April, 1777," 1927. Retrieved May 17, 2017.</ref>
 
 
For the winter of 1778–79, General [[George Washington]] decided to split the Continental Army into three divisions encircling [[New York City]], where British General Sir [[Henry Clinton (American War of Independence)|Henry Clinton]] had taken up winter quarters.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Poirier|first1=David A.|title=Camp Reading: Logistics of a Revolutionary War Winter Encampment|journal=Northeast Historical Archaeology|date=1976|volume=5|issue=1|url=http://digitalcommons.buffalostate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1326&context=neha&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.com%2Fscholar%3Fq%3D%2522redding%252C%2Bconnecticut%2522%26btnG%3D%26hl%3Den%26as_sdt%3D1%252C7%26as_vis%3D1#search=%22redding%2C%20connecticut%22|accessdate=February 17, 2015}}</ref> Major General [[Israel Putnam]] chose Redding as the winter encampment quarters for some 3,000 regulars and militia under his command. The Redding encampment allowed Putnam's soldiers to guard the replenished supply depot in [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]] and support any operations along Long Island Sound and the [[Hudson River]] Valley.<ref>http://putnampark.org/putnam-park-history-1778.htm "Park History - Putnam's 1778–1779 encampment," Friends and Neighbors of Putnam Park. Retrieved April 27, 2014.</ref> Some of the men were veterans of the winter encampment at [[Valley Forge]], [[Pennsylvania]] the previous winter. Soldiers at the Redding camp endured supply shortages, cold temperatures and significant snow, with some historians dubbing the encampment "Connecticut's Valley Forge."<ref>{{cite book|last1=O'Keefe|first1=Thomas C.|editor1-last=Johnson|editor1-first=James M.|editor2-last=Pryslopski|editor2-first=Christopher|editor3-last=Villani|editor3-first=Andrew|title=Key to the Northern Country: The Hudson River Valley in the American Revolution|date=August 1, 2013|publisher=[[SUNY Press]]|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=NfADAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA241&lpg=PA241&dq=%22putnam+park%22+%22valley+forge%22+encampment&source=bl&ots=u7vJRcF7jH&sig=dYS5a9I-Y1X_vskhxBBu4Fyt6Y0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=eSBdU8zKPJTKsATk-oDgBQ&ved=0CFcQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=%22putnam%20park%22%20%22valley%20forge%22%20encampment&f=false|accessdate=February 17, 2015|chapter=George Washington and the Redding Encampments}}</ref>
 
 
The state was also the launching site for a number of raids against Long Island orchestrated by [[Samuel Holden Parsons]] and [[Benjamin Tallmadge]],<ref>{{cite book|last1=Hall|first1=Charles Samuel|title=Life and Letters of Samuel Holden Parsons: Major-general in the Continental Army and Chief Judge of the Northwestern Territory, 1737-1789|year=1905|publisher=Otseningo Publishing|location=Binghamton, New York|page=110|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=llssAAAAMAAJ&pg=PR10&lpg=PR10&dq=battle+of+setauket+parsons&source=bl&ots=CUUBlo1MGX&sig=x73BLP50vjZupOYKvcP9Q9w4h8g&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8E53U8inDI_isATVwIKQAw&ved=0CGcQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=battle%20of%20setauket%20parsons&f=false|accessdate=February 17, 2015}}</ref> and provided men and material for the war effort, especially to Washington's army outside New York City. General [[William Tryon]] [[Tryon's raid|raided the Connecticut coast]] in July 1779, focusing on New Haven, Norwalk, and Fairfield.<ref>http://archive.org/stream/britishinvasiono00towniala/britishinvasiono00towniala_djvu.txt Townshend, Charles H., "British Invasion of New Haven, Connecticut," 1879. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> New London and Groton Heights [[Battle of Groton Heights|were raided]] in September 1781 by Arnold, who at that point had turned to the British.<ref>http://www.hogriver.org/issues/v04n04/benedictarnold.htm Baker, Edward, "Benedict Arnold Turns and Burns New London," Hog River Journal, Fall 2006. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
 
 
===Early National Period and Industrial Revolution===
 
On January 9, 1788, Connecticut ratified the U.S. Constitution, becoming the fifth state.<ref>"About Connecticut," CT.gov. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
 
 
Connecticut prospered during the era following the American Revolution, as mills and textile factories were built and seaports flourished from trade<ref>{{cite book|last1=La Bella|first1=Laura|title=Connecticut: Past and Present|date=August 15, 2010|publisher=[[Rosen Publishing]]|location=New York|page=17|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=ZYJtf6CoCs4C&pg=PA17&dq=industrial+revolution+in+connecticut&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Umd3U_3gDuzLsASHkIKgBQ&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=industrial%20revolution%20in%20connecticut&f=false|accessdate=February 17, 2015}}</ref> and fisheries.
 
 
In 1786, Connecticut ceded territory to the U.S. government that became part of the [[Northwest Territory]]. Connecticut retained land
 
extending across the northern part of present-day Ohio, called the [[Connecticut Western Reserve]].<ref name="United States Summary 2010, page V-5">http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/cph-2-1.pdf "United States Summary: 2010," U.S. Census Bureau, September 2010, page V-5. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio. Agreements with Pennsylvania and New York extinguished the land claims by Connecticut within its neighbors, creating the [[Connecticut Panhandle]]. Connecticut ceded the Western Reserve in 1800 to the federal government,<ref name="United States Summary 2010, page V-5"/> which brought the state to its present boundaries other than minor adjustments with Massachusetts.
 
 
The British blockade during the [[War of 1812]] hurt exports, and bolstered the influence of Federalists who opposed the war.<ref>Glenn S. Gordinier, ''The Rockets' Red Glare: The War of 1812 and Connecticut'' (2012)</ref> The cessation of imports from Britain stimulated the construction of factories to manufacture textiles and machinery. Due in part to the inventions of [[Eli Whitney]] and other early innovators of the [[Industrial Revolution]], Connecticut would come to be recognized as a major center for manufacturing.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Morris|first1=Charles R.|title=The Dawn of Innovation: The First American Industrial Revolution|date=January 1, 2012|publisher=[[PublicAffairs]]|page=136|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=n97K02J6eQgC&pg=PA338&dq=industrial+revolution+in+connecticut+whitney&hl=en&sa=X&ei=_md3U8HIFtGxsASvoYDACw&ved=0CHwQ6AEwCw#v=onepage&q=connecticut&f=false|accessdate=February 17, 2015}}</ref>
 
 
The state was known for its political conservatism, typified by its Federalist party and the Yale College of [[Timothy Dwight IV|Timothy Dwight]]. The foremost intellectuals were Dwight and [[Noah Webster]],<ref>{{cite book|last1=Elliott|first1=Emory|title=Revolutionary Writers: Literature and Authority in the New Republic, 1725-1810|year=1982|publisher=[[Oxford University Press]]|page=14|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=WmI6avgH0GoC&pg=PA14&dq=timothy+dwight+noah+webster+connecticut+intellectuals&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wWp3U4CMM47IsATNn4DADQ&ved=0CD0Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=timothy%20dwight%20noah%20webster%20connecticut%20intellectuals&f=false|accessdate=February 17, 2015}}</ref> who compiled his great dictionary in New Haven. Religious tensions polarized the state, as the established Congregational Church, in alliance with the Federalists, tried to maintain its grip on power. The failure of the [[Hartford Convention]] in 1814 hurt the Federalist cause, with the Republican Party gaining control in 1817.<ref>https://archive.org/details/shortaccountofha00lyma Lyman, Theodore, "A short account of the Hartford Convention," 1823. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
 
 
Having been governed under the "[[Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders]]" since 1639, Connecticut adopted in 1818 a new constitution.<ref>http://www.cga.ct.gov/asp/Content/constitutions/1818Constitution.htm "The Constitution of Connecticut (1818)," Connecticut General Assembly. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
 
 
===Civil War era===
 
{{Main|Connecticut in the American Civil War}}
 
[[Image:Connecticut1895.jpg|thumb|600px|1895 map from [[Rand McNally]]]]
 
 
Connecticut manufacturers played a major role in supplying the Union forces with weapons and supplies during the [[Union (American Civil War)|Civil War]]. The state furnished 55,000 men. They were formed into thirty full regiments of infantry, including two in the [[U.S. Colored Troops]], with several Connecticut men becoming generals. The Navy attracted 250 officers and 2100 men, and [[Gideon Welles]] was Secretary of the Navy. [[James H. Ward]] of Hartford was the first U.S. Naval Officer killed in the Civil War.<ref>http://norwich.typepad.com/museum/2012/08/james-h-ward-first-us-navy-officer-killed-in-the-civil-war.html</ref> Connecticut casualties included 2088 killed in combat, 2801 dying from disease, and 689 dying in Confederate prison camps.<ref>Van Dusen, ''Connecticut'' pp 224-38</ref><ref>Matthew Warshauer, ''Connecticut in the American Civil War: Slavery, Sacrifice, and Survival'' (Wesleyan University Press, 2011)</ref><ref>{{cite book|author1=William Augustus Croffut|author2=John Moses Morris|title=The Military and Civil History of Connecticut During the War of 1861–65: Comprising a Detailed Account of the Various Regiments and Batteries, Through March, Encampment, Bivouac, and Battle; Also Instances of Distinguished Personal Gallantry, and Biographical Sketches of Many Heroic Soldiers: Together with a Record of the Patriotic Action of Citizens at Home, and of the Liberal Support Furnished by the State in Its Executive and Legislative Departments|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=3TUyuhpp9zoC|year=1869}}</ref>
 
 
A surge of national unity in 1861 brought thousands flocking to the colors from every town and city. However as the war became a crusade to end slavery, many Democrats (especially Irish Catholics) pulled back. The Democrats took a peace position and included many [[Copperhead (politics)|Copperheads]] willing to let the South secede. The intensely fought 1863 election for governor was narrowly won by the Republicans.<ref>Joanna D. Cowden, "The Politics of Dissent: Civil War Democrats in Connecticut," ''New England Quarterly'' (1983) 56#4 pp. 538-554 DOI: 10.2307/365104 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/365104 in JSTOR]</ref><ref>Jarlath Robert Lane, ''A Political History of Connecticut During the Civil War'' (1941)</ref>
 
 
===Second Industrial Revolution===
 
Connecticut's extensive industry, dense population, flat terrain, and wealth encouraged the construction of railroads, starting in 1839. By 1840, 102 miles of line were in operation, growing to 402 in 1850 and 601 in 1860.<ref>Edward Chase Kirkland, ''Men, Cities and Transportation, A Study of New England History 1820–1900'' (1948), vol 2 pp 72-110, 288-306</ref>
 
 
The [[New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad]], called the ''New Haven'' or "The Consolidated," became the dominant Connecticut railroad company after 1872. Starting in the 1890s [[J. P. Morgan]] began financing the major New England railroads, and dividing territory so they would not compete. The New Haven purchased 50 smaller companies, including steamship lines, and built a network of light rails (electrified trolleys) that provided inter-urban transportation for all of southern New England. By 1912, the New Haven operated over 2000 miles of track, and 120,000 employees.<ref>http://doddcenter.uconn.edu/asc/findaids/NHRR_Smallformat/MSS19910133.html "New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Small Format Photograph and Postcard Collection," University of Connecticut, 2005. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
 
 
In 1875, the first telephone exchange in the world was established in New Haven.<ref>http://connecticuthistory.org/the-first-commercial-telephone-exchange-today-in-history/ "First Commercial Telephone Exchange," ConnecticutHistory.org. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
 
===World War I===
 
When World War I broke out in 1914, Connecticut became a major supplier of weaponry to the U.S. military; by 1918, 80% of the state's industries were producing goods for the war effort.<ref>{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=EP7bDoZcGTIC&pg=PA107&dq=connecticut+%22world+war+I%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5Q2HU8_eKorKsQTXpoHgDg&ved=0CHEQ6AEwCg#v=onepage&q=connecticut%20%22world%20war%20I%22&f=false |author=Breen, William |title=''Labor Market Politics and the Great War: The Department of Labor, the States and the First U.S. Employment Service, 1907-1933'' |publisher=Kent State University Press |date=1997 |page=107 |ref=Breen |accessdate=May 29, 2014}}</ref> [[Remington Arms]] in Bridgeport produced half the small-arms cartridges used by the U.S. Army;<ref>{{cite web|url=http://connecticuthistory.org/topics-page/world-war-i/ |title=World War I |publisher=ConnecticutHistory.org |accessdate=May 28, 2014}}</ref> with other major suppliers including [[Winchester Repeating Arms Company|Winchester]] in New Haven and [[Colt's Manufacturing Company|Colt]] in Hartford.<ref>Van Dusen, ''Connecticut'' (1961) p 266-68</ref>
 
 
Connecticut was also an important U.S. Navy supplier, with [[General Dynamics Electric Boat|Electric Boat]] receiving orders for 85 submarines,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.gdeb.com/about/history/ |title=EB History |publisher=General Dynamics Electric Boat |accessdate=May 17, 2014}}</ref> [[Lake Torpedo Boat]] building more than 20 subs,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.shipbuildinghistory.com/history/shipyards/2large/inactive/laketorpedo.htm |title=Lake Torpedo Boat Company, Bridgeport CT |publisher=Shipbuilding History |accessdate=May 28, 2014}}</ref> and the [[Groton Iron Works]] building freighters.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://connecticuthistory.org/freighter-worcester-launched-today-in-history/ |title=Freighter Worcester Launched – Today in History |publisher=ConnecticutHistory.org |accessdate=May 28, 2014}}</ref> On June 21, 1916, the U.S. Navy made Groton the site for its East Coast submarine base and school.<ref>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_Submarine_Base_New_London#History "History," CNIC Naval Submarine Base New London. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
 
 
The state enthusiastically supported the American war effort in 1917 and 1918, with large purchases of war bonds and a further expansion of war industry, and emphasis on increasing food production in the farms. Thousands of state, local, and volunteer groups mobilized for the war effort, and were coordinated by the Connecticut State Council of Defense.<ref>William J. Breen, "Mobilization and Cooperative Federalism: The Connecticut State Council of Defense, 1917‐1919." ''Historian'' (1979) 42#1 pp 58-84</ref> Manufacturers wrestled with manpower shortages; with American Brass and Manufacturing running at half capacity, the federal government agreed to furlough soldiers to join the Waterbury company.{{sfn|Breen |page=116}}
 
 
===Interwar period===
 
In 1919, Henry Roraback started the [[Northeast Utilities|Connecticut Light & Power Co.]],<ref>http://www.cl-p.com/Home/AboutCLP/CLPHistory/CL_P_History/?MenuID=4294984959 "Beginnings of the Connecticut Light and Power Company," Connecticut Light & Power. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> which would grow to become the state's dominant electric utility.
 
 
In 1925, [[Frederick Rentschler]] spurred the creation of [[Pratt & Whitney]] in Hartford to develop engines for aircraft; the company would become an important military supplier in World War II and in time one of the three major manufacturers of jet engines in the world.<ref>http://nationalaviation.org/rentschler-frederick/ "Frederick Rentschler," The National Aviation Hall of Fame. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
 
 
On September 21, 1938, the most destructive storm in New England history struck eastern Connecticut, killing hundreds of people.<ref>http://www.weather.gov/okx/1938HurricaneHome "The Great New England Hurricane of 1938," National Weather Service. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> The eye of the [[1938 New England hurricane|"Long Island Express"]] passed just west of New Haven and devastated the Connecticut shoreline between Old Saybrook and Stonington, which lacked the partial protection provided by Long Island, N.Y. to points west from the full force of wind and waves. The hurricane caused extensive damage to infrastructure, homes, and businesses. In New London, a 500-foot sailing ship was driven into a warehouse complex, causing a major fire. Heavy rainfall caused the Connecticut River to flood downtown Hartford and East Hartford. An estimated 50,000 trees fell onto roadways.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/21/nyregion/remembering-the-great-hurricane-of-38.html |title=Remembering the Great Hurricane of '38 |publisher=New York Times |date=September 21, 2003 |accessdate=May 17, 2014}}</ref>
 
 
===World War II===
 
The advent of [[Lend-Lease]] in support of Britain helped lift Connecticut from the Great Depression,<ref>http://content.library.ccsu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/ccsutheses/id/1014 Brandi, Anthony, "Lend-lease : FDR's most unheralded achievement and Connecticut's unprecedented response to it," Central Connecticut State University, May 2007. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> with the state a major production center for weaponry and supplies used in [[World War II]]. Connecticut manufactured 4.1 percent of total U.S. military armaments produced during World War II, ranking ninth among the 48 states,<ref>[[Whiz Kids (Department of Defense)|Peck, Merton J.]] & [[Frederic M. Scherer|Scherer, Frederic M.]] ''The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis'' (1962) [[Harvard Business School]] p.111</ref> with major factories including [[Colt's Manufacturing Company|Colt]]<ref>http://articles.courant.com/2012-08-19/business/hc-colt-timeline-20120817_1_colt-firearms-firearms-division-rampant-colt "Colt Manufacturing: A Timeline," Hartford Courant, August 19, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> for firearms, [[Pratt & Whitney]] for aircraft engines, [[Vought|Chance Vought]] for fighter planes, [[Hamilton Standard]] for propellers,<ref>http://connecticuthistory.org/topics-page/world-war-ii/ "World War II," ConnecticutHistory.org. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> and [[General Dynamics Electric Boat|Electric Boat]] for submarines and PT boats.<ref>http://www.gdeb.com/about/history/ "EB History," General Dynamics Electric Boat. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> In Bridgeport, General Electric would produce a significant new weapon to counter opposing tanks: the bazooka.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://connecticuthistory.org/the-bazooka-changes-war/ |title=The Bazooka Changes War – Today in History |publisher=ConnecticutHistory.org |accessdate=May 28, 2014}}</ref>
 
 
On May 13, 1940, [[Igor Sikorsky]] made an untethered flight of what was the first practical [[helicopter]].<ref>http://www.sikorskyarchives.com/VS-300_Helicopter.php "VS-300 Helicopter," Sikorsky Archives. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> While the helicopter would see only limited use in World War II, future military production would make [[Sikorsky Aircraft]]'s [[Stratford, Connecticut|Stratford]] plant Connecticut's largest single manufacturing site by the start of the 21st century.<ref>http://www1.ctdol.state.ct.us/lmi/EmpSearchTopList.asp?intSort=6 "Search Results for the 100 largest employers in Connecticut," Connecticut Department of Labor. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
 
===Post-World War II economic expansion===
 
While Connecticut saw the loss of some wartime factories following the end of hostilities, the state shared in a general post-war expansion that included the construction of highways,<ref>http://www.ct.gov/dot/cwp/view.asp?A=1380&Q=259704 "Interstate Highways Given New Life by Federal Aid Highway Acts," Connecticut Department of Transportation, September 9, 2003. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> resulting in middle-class growth in suburban areas.
 
 
[[Prescott Bush]] represented Connecticut in the U.S. Senate from 1952 to 1963; his son [[George H.W. Bush]] and grandson [[George W. Bush]] both would become presidents of the United States.<ref>http://www.georgewbushlibrary.smu.edu/The-President-and-Family/The-Bush-Family.aspx "The Bush Family," George W. Bush Library, Southern Methodist University. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
 
 
In 1965, Connecticut ratified its [[Connecticut Constitution|current constitution]], replacing the document that had served since 1818.<ref>http://www.cslib.org/constitutionalAmends/ "The Connecticut Constitution, 1965–2008: Legislative History of Amendments," Connecticut State Library. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
 
 
In 1968, commercial operation began for the Connecticut Yankee Nuclear Power Plant in [[East Haddam, Connecticut|East Haddam]]; in 1970, the [[Millstone Nuclear Power Plant|Millstone Nuclear Power Station]] would begin operations in [[Waterford, Connecticut|Waterford]].<ref>http://wnpr.org/post/connecticut-yankee-and-millstone-46-years-nuclear-power "Connecticut Yankee and Millstone: 46 Years of Nuclear Power," WNPR.org, January 31, 2014. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
 
 
In 1974 Connecticut elected as governor Democrat [[Ella T. Grasso]], who became the first woman in any state to be elected governor in her own right.<ref>Jon E. Purmont. ''Ella Grasso: Connecticut's Pioneering Governor'' (2012)</ref>
 
 
===Late 20th century===
 
Connecticut's dependence on the defense industry posed an economic challenge at the end of the [[Cold War]]. The resulting budget crisis helped elect [[Lowell Weicker]] as governor on a third-party ticket in 1990. Weicker's remedy, a state income tax, proved effective in balancing the budget but politically unpopular, and Weicker did not run for a second term.<ref>http://www.cslib.org/gov/weickerl.htm "Lowell Weicker
 
Governor of Connecticut, 1991–1995," Connecticut State Library, 2008. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
 
 
In 1992, initial construction was completed on [[Foxwoods Resort Casino|Foxwoods Casino]] at the [[Mashantucket Pequots]] reservation in eastern Connecticut, which would become the largest casino in the Western Hemisphere. [[Mohegan Sun]] would follow four years later.<ref>http://www.ct.gov/dcp/cwp/view.asp?a=4107&q=482860 "Legalized Gambling," Connecticut Department of Consumer Protection. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
 
 
===Early 21st century===
 
In August 2000, presidential candidate [[Al Gore]] chose as his running mate Senator [[Joe Lieberman]], marking the first time a major party presidential ticket included someone of the Jewish faith.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2000/08/08/news/08iht-veep.2.t.html |title=Gore's Choice for His Running Mate: Moderate Senator Who Scorned Clinton: Selecting Lieberman Is Seen as Bold Move; Religion May Be Issue |publisher=New York Times |date=August 8, 2000 |accessdate=May 21, 2014}}</ref> Gore and Lieberman fell five votes short of [[George W. Bush]] and [[Dick Cheney]] in the Electoral College.
 
 
In the terrorist [[September 11 attacks|attacks of September 11, 2001]], 65 state residents were killed. The vast majority were [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]] residents who were working in the [[World Trade Center]].<ref>Associated Press listing as it appeared in ''The Advocate'' of Stamford, September 12, 2006, page A4</ref>
 
 
In 2004, Republican Governor [[John G. Rowland]] resigned during a corruption investigation,<ref>http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/06/21/connecticut.governor/ "Connecticut governor announces resignation," CNN.com, June 21, 2004. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> later pleading guilty to federal charges.<ref>http://www.foxnews.com/story/2004/12/23/ex-gov-rowland-pleads-guilty-to-corruption/ "Ex-Gov. Rowland Pleads Guilty to Corruption," Fox News, December 23, 2004. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
 
 
In 2011 and 2012, Connecticut was hit by three major storms in the space of just over 14 months, with all three causing extensive property damage and electric outages. Hurricane Irene struck Connecticut August 28 with the storm blamed for the deaths of three residents. Damage totaled $235 million, including 20 houses that were destroyed in [[East Haven, Connecticut|East Haven]].<ref>http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/hurricane-irene-year-storm-cost-15-8-damage-florida-new-york-caribbean-article-1.1145302 "Hurricane Irene one year later: Storm cost $15.8 in damage from Florida to New York to the Caribbean," New York Daily News, August 27, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> Two months later in late October, the so-called [[2011 Halloween nor'easter|"Halloween nor'easter"]] dropped extensive snow onto trees in Connecticut that still had foliage, resulting in a significant numbers of snapped branches and trunks that damaged property and power lines, with some areas not seeing electricity restored for 11 days.<ref>https://www.ferc.gov/legal/staff-reports/05-31-2012-ne-outage-report.pdf ''Report on Transmission Facility Outages During the Northeast Snowstorm of October 29–30, 2011,'' Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and North American Electric Reliability Corporation, 2012-05-12, pages 8-16. Retrieved May 3, 2014.</ref> Hurricane Sandy had tropical storm-force winds when it reached Connecticut October 29, 2012, with four deaths blamed on the storm.<ref>http://www.cnn.com/2013/07/13/world/americas/hurricane-sandy-fast-facts/ "Hurricane Sandy Fast Facts," July 13, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref> Sandy's winds drove storm surges into coastal streets, toppled trees, and cut power to 98 percent of homes and businesses en route to more than $360 million in damage.<ref>http://www.insurancejournal.com/news/east/2012/11/16/270954.htm "Conn. Gov.: State's Damage From Superstorm Sandy $360M and Climbing," Insurance Journal, November 16, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
 
 
On December 14, 2012, [[Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting|Adam Lanza shot and killed 26 people]], including 20 children and 6 staff, at [[Sandy Hook Elementary School]] in the [[Sandy Hook, Connecticut|Sandy Hook]] village of [[Newtown, Connecticut]], and then killed himself.<ref>[http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/U/US_CONNECTICUT_SCHOOL_SHOOTING?SITE=AP&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT&CTIME=2012-12-14-13-27-48 Associated Press ''Official: 27 dead in Conn. school shooting '']</ref> The massacre would spur renewed efforts by activists for tighter laws on gun ownership nationally.<ref>http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/10/us/state-gun-laws-enacted-in-the-year-since-newtown.html "State Gun Laws Enacted in the Year Since Newtown," New York Times, December 10, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
 
   
 
==Demographics==
 
==Demographics==
Line 309: Line 230:
 
|2000= 3405565
 
|2000= 3405565
 
|2010= 3574097
 
|2010= 3574097
|estimate= 3596677
+
|estimate= 3590347
|estyear= 2014
+
|estyear= 2012
|footnote=<center>'''Sources:'''<ref name="PopEstUS"/><ref>{{Citation|url=http://www.census.gov/population/censusdata/table-16.pdf|title=Population|contribution=1790 to 1990|publisher=Census}}.</ref><ref>{{Citation|url=http://www.census.gov/population/cen2000/tab02.txt|title=Resident Population of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico|publisher=Census|year=2000}}.</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Resident Population Data|url=http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-pop-text.php|publisher=Census|year=2010|accessdate=January 23, 2011}}</ref>
+
|footnote= '''Sources:'''<ref>[http://www.census.gov/population/censusdata/table-16.pdf Population: 1790 to 1990] census.gov</ref><ref>[http://www.census.gov/population/cen2000/tab02.txt Resident Population of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: Census 2000] census.gov</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=Resident Population Data |url=http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-pop-text.php |title=Resident Population Data – Census 2010 |publisher=2010.census.gov |accessdate=January 23, 2011}}</ref>
 
}}
 
}}
 
[[File:Connecticut population map.png|right|thumb|200px|Connecticut Population Density Map]]
 
[[File:Connecticut population map.png|right|thumb|200px|Connecticut Population Density Map]]
   
The [[United States Census Bureau]] estimates that the population of Connecticut was 3,596,677 on July 1, 2014, a 0.63% increase since the [[2010 United States Census]].<ref name="PopEstUS">{{cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/popest/data/state/totals/2014/tables/NST-EST2014-01.csv|format=CSV|title=Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014|date=January 4, 2015|publisher=[[U.S. Census Bureau]]|accessdate=January 4, 2015}}</ref>
+
The [[United States Census Bureau]] estimates that the population of Connecticut was 3,590,347 on July 1, 2012, a 0.5% increase since the [[2010 United States Census]].<ref name=PopEstUS>{{cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/popest/data/national/totals/2012/index.html|title=Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012|format=[[comma-separated values|CSV]]|work=2012 Population Estimates|publisher=[[United States Census Bureau]], Population Division|date=December 2012|accessdate=December 24, 2012}}</ref>
   
As of 2014, Connecticut had an estimated population of 3,596,677,<ref name="PopEstUS"/> which is an increase of 9,638, or 0.2%, from the prior year and an increase of 16,250, or 0.5%, since the year 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. [[Immigration to the United States|Immigration]] from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and [[Human migration|migration]] within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moves from the 29th most populous state to 30th.
+
As of 2012, Connecticut has an estimated population of 3,590,347,<ref name=stateest>{{cite web|date=June 21, 2006|url=http://www.census.gov/popest/data/national/totals/2012/index.html|title=Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012|format=[[Comma-separated values|CSV]]|work=2012 Population Estimates|publisher=U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division|accessdate=December 24, 2012}}</ref> which is an increase of 9,638, or 0.2%, from the prior year and an increase of 16,250, or 0.5%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. [[Immigration to the United States|Immigration]] from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and [[Human migration|migration]] within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moves from the 29th most populous state to 30th.<ref name=stateest/>
   
 
6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.
 
6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.
   
In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut was classified as "rural." The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, it was only 12.3%. Most of western and southern Connecticut (particularly the [[Gold Coast (Connecticut)|Gold Coast]]) is strongly associated with New York City; this area is the most affluent and populous region of the state. Eastern Connecticut is more culturally influenced by the greater New England area, including the cities of Boston and Providence. The [[center of population]] of Connecticut is located in the town of [[Cheshire, Connecticut|Cheshire]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Population and Population Centers by State | year = 2000 | publisher=United States Census Bureau | accessdate = December 4, 2008 | url = http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5mqyj8Y7G |archivedate = January 17, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref>
+
In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut was classified as "rural". The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, it was only 12.3%. Most of western and southern Connecticut (particularly the [[Gold Coast (Connecticut)|Gold Coast]]) is strongly associated with New York City; this area is the most affluent and populous region of the state. Eastern Connecticut is more culturally influenced by the greater New England area, including the cities of Boston and Providence.
  +
  +
The [[center of population]] of Connecticut is located in the town of [[Cheshire, Connecticut|Cheshire]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Population and Population Centers by State – 2000 | publisher=United States Census Bureau | accessdate =December 4, 2008 | url = http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5mqyj8Y7G |archivedate = January 17, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref>
   
 
===Race, ancestry, and language===
 
===Race, ancestry, and language===
As of the [[2010 U.S. Census]], Connecticut's race and ethnic percentages were:
 
* 77.6% White (71.2% [[Non-Hispanic White]], 6.4% [[White Hispanic]])
 
* 10.1% Black or [[African American]]
 
* 0.3% [[Native Americans in the United States|American Indian]] and [[Alaska Native]]
 
* 3.8% Asian
 
* 0.0% [[Native Hawaiian]] and Other [[Pacific Islander (U.S. Census)|Pacific Islander]]
 
* 5.6% from some other race
 
* 2.6% Two or more races
 
   
In the same year Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 13.4% of the population.<ref>{{Citation | title = Fact finder | publisher = Census bureau | place = [[United States of America|US]] | url = http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_PL_QTPL&prodType=table}}.</ref>
+
According to the [[2010 U.S. Census]], Connecticut had a population of 3,574,097. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 77.6% White (71.2% Non-Hispanic [[Non-Hispanic Whites|White]] Alone), 10.1% [[African American|Black]] or African American, 0.3% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.8% [[Asian American|Asian]], 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 5.6% from Some Other Race, and 2.6% from Two or More Races. [[Hispanic and Latino Americans|Hispanics]] and Latinos of any race made up 13.4% of the population.<ref>http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_PL_QTPL&prodType=table</ref>
   
The state's most populous ethnic group, Non-Hispanic White, has declined from 98% in 1940 to 71% in 2010.<ref>{{cite web | title =Connecticut – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990|publisher=US Census Bureau|url= http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0056/twps0056.html |accessdate=April 18, 2012}}</ref>
+
The state's most populous ethnic group, Non-Hispanic White, has declined from 98% in 1940 to 71% in 2010.<ref>{{cite web|title=Connecticut – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990|publisher=U.S. Census Bureau|url=http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0056/twps0056.html|accessdate=April 18, 2012}}</ref>
 
{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"
 
|+ '''Connecticut Racial Breakdown of Population'''
 
|-
 
! Racial composition !! 1990<ref>[http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0056/twps0056.html Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States]</ref>!! 2000<ref>[http://censusviewer.com/state/CT Population of Connecticut: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts]</ref>!! 2010<ref>[http://www.census.gov/2010census/data/ 2010 Census Data]</ref>
 
|-
 
| [[White American|White]] || 87.0% || 81.6% || 77.6%
 
|-
 
| [[African American|Black]] || 8.3% || 9.1% || 10.1%
 
|-
 
| [[Asian American|Asian]] || 1.5% || 2.4% || 3.8%
 
|-
 
| [[Native Americans in the United States|Native]] || 0.2% || 0.3% || 0.3%
 
|-
 
| [[Native Hawaiian]] and<br />[[Pacific Islander|other Pacific Islander]] || - || - || -
 
|-
 
| [[Race and ethnicity in the United States Census|Other race]] || 2.9% || 4.3% || 5.6%
 
|-
 
| [[Multiracial American|Two or more races]] || - || 2.2% || 2.6%
 
|}
 
   
 
As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born. In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.
 
As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born. In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.
   
As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke English at home and 8.42% spoke Spanish, followed by Italian at 1.59%, French at 1.31% and Polish at 1.20%.<ref>{{cite web| url = http://www.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=9&mode=state_tops&order=r | title = Most spoken languages in Connecticut| accessdate = January 16, 2007| work= Language Map| publisher=The Modern Language Association|archiveurl = //web.archive.org/web/20070930171318/http%3A//www.mla.org/map_data_results%26state_id%3D9%26mode%3Dstate_tops%26order%3Dr |archivedate = September 30, 2007|deadurl= yes}}</ref>
+
As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke English at home and 8.42% spoke Spanish, followed by Italian at 1.59%, French at 1.31% and Polish at 1.20%.<ref>{{cite web| url = http://www.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=9&mode=state_tops&order=r| title = Most spoken languages in Connecticut| accessdate =January 16, 2007| work=MLA Language Map| publisher=The Modern Language Association|archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070930171318/http%3A//www.mla.org/map_data_results%26state_id%3D9%26mode%3Dstate_tops%26order%3Dr |archivedate = September 30, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref>
  +
  +
The largest ancestry groups are:<ref>{{cite web|author=American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau |url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&-qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_DP3YR2&-ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_&-tree_id=3308&-redoLog=false&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=04000US09&-format=&-_lang=en |title=American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates |publisher=Factfinder.census.gov |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref>
   
The largest ancestry groups are:<ref>{{cite web| work =American FactFinder | location = [[United States|US]] | publisher = Census Bureau |url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&-qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_DP3YR2&-ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_&-tree_id=3308&-redoLog=false&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=04000US09&-format=&-_lang=en | title = American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref>
 
* 32% British Isles (17.9% [[Irish American|Irish]], 10.7% [[English American|English]], 2.0% [[Scottish American|Scottish]], 1.4% [[Scotch-Irish American|Scotch Irish]])
 
 
* 19.3% [[Italian American|Italian]]
 
* 19.3% [[Italian American|Italian]]
  +
* 17.9% [[Irish American|Irish]]
  +
* 10.7% [[English American|English]]
 
* 10.4% [[German American|German]]
 
* 10.4% [[German American|German]]
 
* 8.6% [[Polish American|Polish]]
 
* 8.6% [[Polish American|Polish]]
Line 374: Line 271:
 
* 2.0% [[Swedish American|Swedish]]
 
* 2.0% [[Swedish American|Swedish]]
 
* 1.6% [[Portuguese American|Portuguese]]
 
* 1.6% [[Portuguese American|Portuguese]]
  +
* 1.4% [[Scotch-Irish American|Scotch Irish]]
 
* 1.2% [[Hungarian American|Hungarian]]
 
* 1.2% [[Hungarian American|Hungarian]]
 
* 1.0% [[Lithuanian American|Lithuanian]]
 
* 1.0% [[Lithuanian American|Lithuanian]]
   
Connecticut has large [[Italian American]], [[Irish American]] and [[English American]] populations, as well as [[German American]] and [[Portuguese American]] populations, with the Italian American population having the second highest percentage of any state, behind Rhode Island (19.3%). [[Italian American|Italian]] is the largest ancestry group in five of the state's counties, while the [[Irish American|Irish]] are the largest group in Tolland county, [[French Canadians]] the largest group in Windham county. African Americans and [[Hispanics in the United States|Hispanics]] (mostly [[Puerto Ricans in the United States|Puerto Ricans]]) are numerous in the urban areas of the state. Connecticut is also known for its relatively large [[Hungarian American]] population, the majority of which live in and around [[Fairfield, Connecticut|Fairfield]], [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], [[Naugatuck, Connecticut|Naugatuck]] and [[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]]. Connecticut also has a sizable [[Polish American]] population, with [[New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]] containing the largest [[Polish American]] population in the state.
+
Connecticut has large Italian American, Irish American and [[English American]] populations, as well as [[German American]] and [[Portuguese American]] populations, second highest percentage of any state, behind Rhode Island (19.3%). [[Italian American|Italian]] is the largest ancestry group in five of the state's counties, while the [[Irish American|Irish]] are the largest group in Tolland county, [[French Canadians]] the largest group in Windham county. African Americans and [[Hispanics in the United States|Hispanics]] (mostly [[Puerto Ricans in the United States|Puerto Ricans]]) are numerous in the urban areas of the state. Connecticut is also known for its relatively large [[Hungarian American]] population, the majority of which live in and around [[Fairfield, Connecticut|Fairfield]], [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], [[Naugatuck, Connecticut|Naugatuck]] and [[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]]. Connecticut also has a sizable [[Polish American]] population, with [[New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]] containing the largest [[Polish American]] population in the state.
   
 
More recent immigrant populations include those from [[India]], [[Philippines]], Laos, [[Vietnam]], Thailand, [[Indonesia]], [[Mexico]], [[Brazil]], Guatemala, [[Panama]], Jamaica, [[Haiti]], Cape Verde and former [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] countries.
 
More recent immigrant populations include those from [[India]], [[Philippines]], Laos, [[Vietnam]], Thailand, [[Indonesia]], [[Mexico]], [[Brazil]], Guatemala, [[Panama]], Jamaica, [[Haiti]], Cape Verde and former [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] countries.
   
As of 2011, 46.1% of Connecticut's population younger than age 1 were minorities.<ref>{{cite news|url = http://www.cleveland.com/datacentral/index.ssf/2012/06/americas_under_age_1_populatio.html |title=Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot|last=Exner|first=Rich|date=June 3, 2012|work=[[The Plain Dealer]]}}</ref>
+
As of 2011, 46.1% of Connecticut's population younger than age 1 were minorities.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.cleveland.com/datacentral/index.ssf/2012/06/americas_under_age_1_populatio.html|title=Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot|last=Exner|first=Rich|date=June 3, 2012|work=[[The Plain Dealer]]}}</ref>
   
 
[[File:A map showing the majority racial or ethnic group in Connecticut by census block.png|thumbnail|Majority Racial and Ethnic Groups in Connecticut, 2010]]
 
[[File:A map showing the majority racial or ethnic group in Connecticut by census block.png|thumbnail|Majority Racial and Ethnic Groups in Connecticut, 2010]]
   
 
===Religion===
 
===Religion===
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A 2001 survey of Connecticut residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations:<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/research_briefs/aris/key_findings.htm |title=American Religious Identification Survey, Key Findings, Exhibit 15 |accessdate=January 4, 2007 |author=Mayer, Egon |coauthors=Kosmin, Barry A., Keysar, Ariela |year=2001 |publisher=[[City University of New York]]}}</ref>
A Pew survey of Connecticut residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations: Protestant 27%, [[Mormonism]] 0.5%, Jewish 1%, [[Roman Catholicism in the United States|Roman Catholic]] 43%, Orthodox 1%, [[Non-religious]] 23%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, Hinduism 0.5%, Buddhism 1% and Islam 0.5%.<ref>http://religions.pewforum.org/maps</ref> [[Jewish American|Jewish congregations]] had 108,280 (3.2%) members in 2000.<ref name="www.thearda.com">{{cite web|url=http://www.thearda.com/rcms2010/r/s/05/rcms2010_05_state_adh_2010.asp |title=The Association of Religion Data Archives &#124; State Membership Report |publisher=www.thearda.com |accessdate=November 7, 2013}}</ref> The Jewish population is concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]] and [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]], in [[Greater New Haven]] and in [[Greater Hartford]], especially the suburb of [[West Hartford, Connecticut|West Hartford]]. According to the [[Association of Religion Data Archives]], the largest Christian denominations, by number of adherents, in 2010 were: the [[Catholic Church]], with 1,252,936; the [[United Church of Christ]], with 96,506; and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants, with 72,863.<ref name="www.thearda.com" />
 
  +
* Protestant – 46%
  +
** [[Baptist]] – 10%
  +
** Other Christian – 7%
  +
** [[Episcopal Church (United States)|Episcopal]] – 6%
  +
** [[Methodism|Methodist]] – 4%
  +
** [[Lutheranism|Lutheran]] – 4%
  +
** [[Congregational church|Congregational]]/[[United Church of Christ]] – 2%
  +
** [[Churches of Christ]] – 2%
  +
** [[Presbyterian]] – 1%
  +
** [[Pentecostal]] – 1%
  +
** Other Protestant or general – 9%
  +
* [[Roman Catholicism in the United States|Roman Catholic]] – 32%
  +
* [[Non-religious]] – 12%
  +
* No answer – 6%
  +
* Other religions (Including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, and so on.) – 4%
  +
* Jewish – 3%
  +
* [[Mormonism|Latter-Day Saint]] – 2%
  +
* [[Assembly of God]] – 1%
  +
* Non-denominational – 1%
  +
* [[Islam in the United States|Muslim]] – 1%
  +
  +
[[Jewish American|Jewish congregations]] had 108,280 (3.2%) members in 2000;<ref name="thearda.com">[http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/reports/state/20_2000.asp The Association of Religion Data Archives] Maps & Reports – State Membership Report / Kansas / Denominational Groups, 2000</ref> The Jewish population is concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]] and [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]], in [[Greater New Haven]] and in [[Greater Hartford]], especially the suburb of [[West Hartford, Connecticut|West Hartford]]. According to the [[Association of Religion Data Archives]], the largest Christian denominations, by number of adherents, in 2000 were: the Catholic Church, with 1,372,562; the [[United Church of Christ]], with 124,770; and the [[Episcopal Church in the United States of America|Episcopal Church]], with 73,550.<ref name="thearda.com"/>
   
Recent immigration has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low. Connecticut is also home to New England's largest Protestant Church: [[The First Cathedral]] in [[Bloomfield, Connecticut]] located in [[Hartford County]]. Hartford is seat to the Roman Catholic [[Archdiocese of Hartford]], which is sovereign over the [[Diocese of Bridgeport]] and the [[Roman Catholic Diocese of Norwich|Diocese of Norwich]].
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Recent immigration has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low.
  +
  +
Connecticut is also home to New England's largest Protestant Church: [[The First Cathedral]] in [[Bloomfield, Connecticut]] located in [[Hartford County]].
  +
  +
Hartford is seat to the Roman Catholic [[Archdiocese of Hartford]], which is sovereign over the [[Diocese of Bridgeport]] and the [[Roman Catholic Diocese of Norwich|Diocese of Norwich]].
   
 
==Economy==
 
==Economy==
Line 394: Line 318:
 
[[File:Welcome Connecticut.jpg|thumb|Connecticut state welcome sign in [[Enfield, Connecticut]]]]
 
[[File:Welcome Connecticut.jpg|thumb|Connecticut state welcome sign in [[Enfield, Connecticut]]]]
 
[[File:Merritt Parkway.jpg|thumb|Entering the Merritt Parkway from New York in [[Greenwich, Connecticut]]]]
 
[[File:Merritt Parkway.jpg|thumb|Entering the Merritt Parkway from New York in [[Greenwich, Connecticut]]]]
  +
The total [[gross state product]] for 2010 was $237&nbsp;billion.<ref>{{cite web|title=GDP by State|url=http://greyhill.com/gdp-by-state|publisher=Greyhill Advisors|accessdate=September 23, 2011}}</ref> The per capita income for 2007 was $64,833, ranking [[List of U.S. states by GDP|fourth, behind the District of Columbia, Delaware, and Alaska]].<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.courant.com/news/custom/topnews/hcu-ctrichstate,0,6885224.story|title=CT Named Richest State| publisher=The Hartford Courant |date=March 26, 2008 }}{{dead link|date=August 2012}}</ref> There is, however, a great disparity in incomes throughout the state; although New Canaan has one of the highest per capita incomes in America, Hartford is one of the ten cities with the lowest per capita incomes in America. As with Bridgeport, New Haven and other cities in the state, Hartford is surrounded by wealthier suburbs. The state's unemployment rate in August 2011 was 9.0%.<ref>{{cite web|title=Local Area Unemployment Statistics|url=http://www.bls.gov/web/laus/laumstch.htm|publisher=BLS|accessdate=September 23, 2011}}</ref>
The total [[gross state product]] for 2012 was $229.3&nbsp;billion, up from $225.4&nbsp;billion in 2011.<ref>{{cite web|title=Total Gross Domestic Product by State for Connecticut|url = http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/CTNGSP |publisher=Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis |accessdate=May 15, 2014}}</ref>
 
   
Connecticut's per capita personal income in 2013 was estimated at $60,847, the highest of any state.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/regional/spi/2014/pdf/spi0314.pdf|title= State Personal Income 2013| publisher=U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis |date=March 25, 2014 |accessdate=May 15, 2014 }}</ref> There is, however, a great disparity in incomes throughout the state; after New York, Connecticut had the second largest gap nationwide between the average incomes of the top 1 percent and the average incomes of the bottom 99 percent.<ref>"The Increasingly Unequal States of America," The Economic Policy Institute, February 19, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-15.</ref> According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Connecticut had the third-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 7.32 percent.<ref>{{cite web|last=Frank|first=Robert|title=Top states for millionaires per capita|url=http://www.cnbc.com/id/101338309|publisher=CNBC|accessdate=January 22, 2014}}</ref> [[New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan]] is the wealthiest town in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $85,459. [[Darien, Connecticut|Darien]], [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]], [[Weston, Connecticut|Weston]], [[Westport, Connecticut|Westport]] and [[Wilton, Connecticut|Wilton]] also have per capita incomes over $65,000. [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] is the poorest municipality in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 in 2000.<ref name="CTincome2000">{{cite web | format = [[Microsoft Excel file format|XLS]] | publisher = State of Connecticut | url=http://www.ct.gov/ecd/lib/ecd/economic_data/income/2000_median_hh,_family_&_per_cap_income.xls |title=Connecticut per capita income, median household income, and median family income at State, County and Town level: Census 2000 data | type = spreadsheet | accessdate =July 25, 2010}}</ref>
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[[New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan]] is the wealthiest town in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $85,459. [[Darien, Connecticut|Darien]], [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]], [[Weston, Connecticut|Weston]], [[Westport, Connecticut|Westport]] and [[Wilton, Connecticut|Wilton]] also have per capita incomes over $65,000. [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] is the poorest municipality in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 in 2000.<ref name="CTincome2000">{{cite web|url=http://www.ct.gov/ecd/lib/ecd/economic_data/income/2000_median_hh,_family_&_per_cap_income.xls |title=Connecticut per capita income, median household income, and median family income at State, County and Town level: Census 2000 data |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref> There are other lower-income and blue-collar towns, mostly parts of towns, in the eastern part of the State.
 
The state's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in March 2014 was 7.0 percent, the 39th highest in the nation.<ref>{{cite web|title=Local Area Unemployment Statistics|url = http://www.bls.gov/web/laus/laumstrk.htm |publisher=U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics|accessdate=May 15, 2014}}</ref>
 
   
 
===Taxation===
 
===Taxation===
 
Prior to 1991, Connecticut had an investment-only [[income tax]] system. Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at 13%, the highest rate in the U.S., with no deductions allowed for costs of producing the investment income, such as interest on borrowing.
 
Prior to 1991, Connecticut had an investment-only [[income tax]] system. Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at 13%, the highest rate in the U.S., with no deductions allowed for costs of producing the investment income, such as interest on borrowing.
   
In 1991, under Governor [[Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.]], an Independent, the system was changed to one in which the taxes on employment income and investment income were equalized at a maximum rate of 4%. The new tax policy drew investment firms to Connecticut; as of 2014, [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]] was home to the headquarters for 14 of the 200 largest [[hedge fund]]s in the world.<ref>file:///Users/casoule/Downloads/FILE_aec2f15d619800a8503f9902c0b81750Top200Managers.pdf "Top 200 Hedge Fund Managers," HFAlert.com. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
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In 1991, under Governor [[Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.]], an Independent, the system was changed to one in which the taxes on employment income and investment income were equalized at a maximum rate of 4%. Since then, [[Greenwich, Connecticut]], has become the headquarters for a large number of America's largest [[hedge fund]]s. As of 2011, the income tax rates on Connecticut individuals are divided into six tax brackets of 3%, 5%, 5.5%, 6%, 6.5% and 6.7%.<ref name="2011Sect6Summary" /> All wages of Connecticut residents are subject to the state's income tax, even if earned outside the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Since New York and Massachusetts have higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents that work in those states have no Connecticut income tax withheld. Connecticut permits a credit for taxes paid to other jurisdictions, but since residents who work in other states are still subject to Connecticut income taxation, they may owe taxes if the jurisdictional credit does not fully offset the Connecticut tax amount.
   
  +
Connecticut levies a 6.35% state [[sales tax]] on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods.<ref name=2011Sect6Summary>[http://www.ct.gov/drs/cwp/view.asp?A=1514&Q=480936 "Summary of Tax Provisions Contained in 2011 Conn. Pub. Acts 6"], retrieved July 6, 2011</ref> Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by [[statute]]. A provision excluding clothing under $50 from sales tax was repealed as of July 1, 2011.<ref name=2011Sect6Summary /> There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. During the summer, there is one week during which sales tax on certain items and quantities of clothing is not imposed in order to assist those with children returning to school.{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}}
As of 2014, the income tax rates on Connecticut individuals are divided into six tax brackets of 3% (on income up to $10,000); 5% ($10,000-$50,000); 5.5% ($50,000-$100,000); 6% ($100,000-$200,000); 6.5% ($200,000-$250,000); and 6.7% (more than $250,000), with additional amounts owed depending on the bracket.<ref>http://www.tax-brackets.org/connecticuttaxtable "Connecticut Income Tax Brackets," Tax-Brackets.org. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
 
   
  +
All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of [[fair market value]]. Another 20% of the value may be taxed by the local government though. The maximum property tax credit is $500 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward.<ref name=inctax>{{cite web|url=http://www.ct.gov/drs/lib/drs/forms/2009forms/incometax/ct-1040booklet.pdf |title=Connecticut income tax instructions |format=PDF |accessdate=July 25, 2010|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uCmk84cj |archivedate = November 13, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref> Connecticut does not levy an intangible personal [[property tax]]. According to the [[Tax Foundation]], the 2010 Census data shows Connecticut residents paying the 2nd highest average property taxes in the nation with only New Jersey ahead of them.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://money.cnn.com/2010/09/30/pf/taxes/highest_property_taxes/index.htm?source=cnn_bin&hpt=Sbin|title=Highest property taxes in the nation, accessdate=2010-09-30 |publisher=CNN | first=Les|last=Christie|date=September 30, 2010}}</ref>
All wages of Connecticut residents are subject to the state's income tax, even if earned outside the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Since New York and Massachusetts have higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents that work in those states have no Connecticut income tax withheld. Connecticut permits a credit for taxes paid to other jurisdictions, but since residents who work in other states are still subject to Connecticut income taxation, they may owe taxes if the jurisdictional credit does not fully offset the Connecticut tax amount.
 
 
Connecticut levies a 6.35% state [[sales tax]] on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods.<ref name="2011Sect6Summary">{{Citation | url = http://www.ct.gov/drs/cwp/view.asp?A=1514&Q=480936 | publisher = The State of Connecticut | title = Summary of Tax Provisions Contained in 2011 Conn. Pub. Acts 6 | accessdate = July 6, 2011}}.</ref> Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by [[statute]]. A provision excluding clothing under $50 from sales tax was repealed as of July 1, 2011.<ref name =2011Sect6Summary /> There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. In August 2013, Connecticut authorized a sales tax "holiday" for one week during which retailers did not have to remit sales tax on certain items and quantities of clothing.<ref>http://www.forbes.com/sites/kellyphillipserb/2013/07/17/get-ready-to-shop-state-sales-tax-holidays-are-back/ "Get Ready To Shop: State Sales Tax Holidays Are Back!" Forbes, July 17, 2013. Retrieved May 16, 2016.</ref>
 
 
All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of [[fair market value]]. Another 20% of the value may be taxed by the local government though. The maximum property tax credit is $500 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward.<ref name="inctax">{{cite web|url=http://www.ct.gov/drs/lib/drs/forms/2009forms/incometax/ct-1040booklet.pdf | title = Connecticut income tax instructions |format=PDF |accessdate=July 25, 2010|archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5uCmk84cj |archivedate = November 13, 2010|deadurl=no}}</ref> Connecticut does not levy an intangible personal [[property tax]]. According to the [[Tax Foundation]], the 2010 Census data shows Connecticut residents paying the 2nd highest average property taxes in the nation with only New Jersey ahead of them.<ref>{{cite news |url = http://money.cnn.com/2010/09/30/pf/taxes/highest_property_taxes/index.htm?source=cnn_bin&hpt=Sbin |title = Highest property taxes in the nation | accessdate=September 30, 2010 |publisher=CNN | first=Les|last=Christie|date= September 30, 2010}}</ref>
 
 
The Tax Foundation determined Connecticut residents had the third highest burden in the nation for state and local taxes at 11.86%, or $7,150, compared to the national average of 9.8%.<ref>http://taxfoundation.org/state-tax-climate/connecticut "The Facts on Connecticut's Tax Climate," The Tax Foundation. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
 
 
As of 2014, the gasoline tax in Connecticut is 49.3 cents per gallon (the third highest in the nation) and the diesel tax is 54.9 cents per gallon (the highest in the nation).<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_taxes_in_the_United_States Fuel taxes in the United States. Retrieved September 4, 2014.</ref>
 
   
 
===Real estate===
 
===Real estate===
  +
Homes in Connecticut vary widely with a median price of approximately $226,000. By contrast, the median value for a home in [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]], for example, is about $370,000.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thewarrengroup.com/portal/Solutions/PressReleases/tabid/190/newsid751/2311/Default.aspx |title=Conn. Median Home Prices Down 18% in First quarter |publisher=Thewarrengroup.com |date=May 4, 2009 |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hartfordbusiness.com/news8814.html |title=CT house prices continue to fall |pubbcsher=Hartford Business |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref> Connecticut has the most multi-million dollar homes in the Northeast, and the second most in the nation after California, with 3.3% of homes in Connecticut priced over $1&nbsp;million in 2003.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/22/real_estate/february_million_dollar_homes/index.htm?section=money_topstories| title=Million Dollar Homes|last=Christie|first=Les|publisher=CNN | date=February 23, 2006| accessdate=January 23, 2007}}</ref>
Of home-sale transactions that closed in March 2014, the median home in Connecticut sold for $225,000, up 3.2% from March 2013.<ref>[http://www.thewarrengroup.com/2014/05/connecticut-single-family-home-sales-post-modest-increase-in-march/ "Connecticut Single-Family Home Sales Post Modest Increase In March"], The Warren Group, May 8, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> Connecticut ranked ninth nationally in foreclosure activity as of April 2014, with one of every 887 residential units involved in a foreclosure proceeding, or 0.11% of the total housing stock.<ref>http://www.realtytrac.com/Content/foreclosure-market-report/april-2014-us-foreclosure-market-report-8059 "U.S. Foreclosure Activity Decreases 1 Percent in April Despite 1 Percent Increase in Bank Repossessions," RealtyTrac, May 15, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref>
 
   
 
===Industries===
 
===Industries===
  +
The agricultural produce of the state includes [[Nursery (horticulture)|nursery stock]]; [[egg (food)|eggs]]; [[clam]]s and [[lobster]] ([[shellfish]]); [[dairy product]]s; cattle; and [[Types of tobacco#Shade tobacco|tobacco]]. Its industrial output includes transportation equipment, especially [[helicopter]]s, aircraft parts, and [[nuclear submarine]]s; heavy industrial machinery and electrical equipment; military weaponry; fabricated metal products; [[chemical]] and [[pharmaceutical]] products; and [[Measuring instrument|scientific instruments]]. Connecticut was an historical center of gun manufacturing, and, as of December, 2012, 4 gun-manufacturing firms, [[Colt's Manufacturing Company|Colt]], [[Stag Arms|Stag]], [[Sturm, Ruger & Co.|Ruger]], and [[O.F. Mossberg & Sons|Mossberg]], employing 2,000 employees, continued to operate in the state.<ref name=NYT122312>{{cite news|title=Gun Makers Use Home Leverage in Connecticut|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/24/nyregion/gun-makers-based-in-connecticut-form-a-potent-lobby.html|accessdate=December 24, 2012|newspaper=The New York Times|date=December 23, 2012|author=Ray Rivera|author2=Alison Leigh Cowan}}</ref> [[Marlin Firearms|Marlin]], by then owned by [[Remington Arms|Remington]], closed in April, 2011.<ref name=Courant010111>{{cite news|title=Marlin Firearms Closes In North Haven, Ending 141 Years Of Manufacturing In Connecticut|url=http://articles.courant.com/2011-04-01/business/hc-marlin-firearms-20110401_1_john-m-marlin-frank-kenna-remington-arms|newspaper=Hartford Courant|date=April 1, 2011|author=Matthew Sturdevant}}</ref>
Finance and insurance is Connecticut's largest industry, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, generating 16.4% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2009. Major financial industry employers include [[The Hartford]], [[The Travelers Companies|Travelers]], [[Cigna]], [[Aetna]], [[Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company|Mass Mutual]], [[People's United Bank|People's United Financial]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www1.ctdol.state.ct.us/lmi/EmpSearchTopList.asp?intSort=6 |title=Search Results for the 100 largest employers in Connecticut |publisher=Connecticut Department of Labor |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref> [[Royal Bank of Scotland]],<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ctpost.com/news/article/RBS-4-800-job-cuts-might-only-scratch-Stamford-2490307.php |title=RBS' 4,800 job cuts might only scratch Stamford operation |publisher=Connecticut Post |date=January 12, 2012 |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref> [[UBS]]<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ctpost.com/news/article/Stamford-could-gain-from-UBS-exit-of-New-York-4493312.php |title=Stamford could gain from UBS exit of New York space |publisher=Connecticut Post |date=May 6, 2013 |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref> [[Bridgewater Associates]]<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.einnews.com/pr_news/204391481/bridgewater-associates-is-the-world-s-largest-hedge-fund-firm-for-fourth-straight-year-says-institutional-investor-s-alpha |title=Bridgewater Associates is the world's largest hedge fund firm for the fourth straight year says Institutional Investor's Alpha |publisher=EIN News date=May 16, 2014 |accessdate=May 28, 2014}}</ref> and [[GE Capital]]. Separately, the real estate industry accounted for an additional 15% of economic activity in 2009, with major employers including [[Realogy]];<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.realogy.com/media/pr/show_release.cfm?id=1530 |title=Gov. Malloy: Global Leader in Corporate Relocation Management Services to Expand and Grow Jobs in Danbury |publisher=Realogy |date=April 17, 2014 |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref> and William Raveis Real Estate.<ref name="Connecticut Department of Labor">{{cite web |url=http://www1.ctdol.state.ct.us/lmi/EmpSearchTopList.asp?intSort=6 |title=Search Results for the 100 largest employers in Connecticut |publisher=Connecticut Department of Labor |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref>
 
   
  +
Due to the prominence of the aircraft industry in the state, Connecticut has an official state aircraft, the [[F4U Corsair]], and an official Connecticut Aviation Pioneer, [[Igor Sikorsky]]. The state officially recognizes aircraft designer [[Gustav Whitehead]] as "Father of Connecticut Aviation" for his research into powered flight in [[Bridgeport, Connecticut]] in 1901, two years before the [[Wright brothers]] at [[Kitty Hawk, North Carolina]].<ref>{{cite journal | last = O'Dwyer | first = Maj. William J. | title = The "Who Flew First" Debate | journal=Flight Journal | publisher=Air Age Media | month = October | year = 1998 | url =http://www.flightjournal.com/articles/wff/wff2.asp | accessdate =January 23, 2007 | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20061207155338/http://www.flightjournal.com/articles/wff/wff2.asp| archivedate = December 7, 2006}}</ref> In 1996, Governor John Dempsey declared August 15 to be "Gustave Whitehead Day".<ref>{{cite journal | last = Delear | first = Frank | title = Gustave Whitehead and the First-Flight Controversy | journal=Aviation History | month = March | year = 1996 | url =http://www.historynet.com/air_sea/aviation_history/3032816.html?page=7&c=y | accessdate =January 23, 2007 }}</ref>
Manufacturing, the third biggest industry at 11.9% of GDP, is dominated by Hartford-based [[United Technologies Corporation]] or UTC, which employs more than 22,000 people in Connecticut.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://articles.courant.com/2014-02-26/business/hc-malloy-united-technologies-east-hartford-20140226_1_united-technologies-corp-utc-aerospace-systems-connecticut-home |title=Tax Breaks Encourage United Technologies To Stay In State |publisher=Hartford Courant |date=February 26, 2014 |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref> UTC subsidiary [[Sikorsky Aircraft]] operates Connecticut's single largest manufacturing plant in [[Stratford, Connecticut|Stratford]],<ref name="Connecticut Department of Labor"/> where it makes helicopters. Other UTC divisions include UTC Propulsion and Aerospace Systems, including the jet-engine maker [[Pratt & Whitney]], and UTC Building and Industrial Systems.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.utc.com/Our-Company/Pages/Key-Facts.aspx |title=Our Businesses |publisher=United Technologies Corp |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref>
 
  +
<!-- A list of large companies might be appropriate here -->
   
  +
A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006, demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14&nbsp;billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides $9&nbsp;billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7&nbsp;billion in state and local revenue.<ref>[http://www.cultureandtourism.org/cct/lib/cct/Econ_Summary_Web2_%282%29.pdf The Economic Impact of the Arts, Film, History, and Tourism Industries in Connecticut (Highlights)]
Other major manufacturers include the [[Electric Boat]] subsidiary of [[General Dynamics]], which makes submarines in [[Groton, Connecticut|Groton]];<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gdeb.com/about/history/ |title=EB History |publisher=General Dynamics Electric Boat |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref> and [[Boehringer Ingelheim]], a pharmaceuticals manufacturer with its U.S. headquarters in [[Ridgefield, Connecticut|Ridgefield]].<ref name="Connecticut Department of Labor"/>
 
  +
Connecticut Commission on Culture and Tourism</ref>
   
  +
As of November 2010, the state's unemployment rate is 9%.<ref>[http://www.bls.gov/lau/ Bls.gov]; Local Area Unemployment Statistics</ref>
Connecticut was an historical center of gun manufacturing, and, as of December 2012, four gun-manufacturing firms, [[Colt's Manufacturing Company|Colt]], [[Stag Arms|Stag]], [[Sturm, Ruger & Co.|Ruger]], and [[O.F. Mossberg & Sons|Mossberg]], employing 2,000 employees, continued to operate in the state.<ref name="NYT122312">{{cite news|title=Gun Makers Use Home Leverage in Connecticut |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/24/nyregion/gun-makers-based-in-connecticut-form-a-potent-lobby.html | accessdate =December 24, 2012|newspaper=The New York Times|date= December 23, 2012| first1 = Ray | last1 = Rivera | first2 = Alison Leigh | last2 = Cowan}}</ref> [[Marlin Firearms|Marlin]], by then owned by [[Remington Arms|Remington]], closed in April 2011.<ref name="Courant010111">{{cite news|title= Marlin Firearms Closes In North Haven, Ending 141 Years of Manufacturing In Connecticut | url= http://articles.courant.com/2011-04-01/business/hc-marlin-firearms-20110401_1_john-m-marlin-frank-kenna-remington-arms |newspaper= The Hartford Courant|date=April 1, 2011| first = Matthew | last = Sturdevant}}</ref>
 
 
A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006, demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14&nbsp;billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides $9&nbsp;billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7&nbsp;billion in state and local revenue.<ref>{{Citation | format = [[PDF]] | url = http://www.cultureandtourism.org/cct/lib/cct/Econ_Summary_Web2_%282%29.pdf | title = The Economic Impact of the Arts, Film, History, and Tourism Industries in Connecticut (Highlights) | place = CT | publisher = Commission on Culture and Tourism}}.</ref> Two casinos, [[Foxwoods Resort Casino]] and [[Mohegan Sun]], number among the state's largest employers;<ref>http://www1.ctdol.state.ct.us/lmi/EmpSearchTopList.asp?intSort=6 "Search Results for the 100 largest employers in Connecticut," Connecticut Department of Labor. Retrieved May 16, 2014.</ref> both are located on Native American reservations in the eastern part of Connecticut.
 
 
Non-profit organizations register in Connecticut under the local statutory provisions and therefore affect taxation and governance mechanisms. For instance, the headquarters of the [[Connecticut Food Bank]] are located in East Hampton since early 1980s when the non-profit was established.<ref>{{Cite web|url = http://www.ct.gov/dss/cwp/view.asp?a=2353&q=305154|title = Department of Social Services Nutritional Assistance Programs|date = |accessdate = |website = Connecticut Department of Social Services|publisher = |last = |first = }}</ref>
 
 
Connecticut's agricultural sector employed about 12,000 people as of 2010; with more than a quarter of that number involved in [[Nursery (horticulture)|nursery stock]] production. Other agricultural products include [[dairy product]]s and [[egg (food)|eggs]]; [[tobacco]]; [[commercial fishing|fish]] and [[shellfish]]; and [[fruit]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.are.uconn.edu/documents/economicimpacts.pdf |title=Economic Impacts of Connecticut's Agricultural Industry |publisher=University of Connecticut |accessdate=May 16, 2014}}</ref>
 
 
[[Oyster]] harvesting was historically an important source of income to towns along the Connecticut coastline. In the 19th century, oystering boomed in New Haven, Bridgeport and Norwalk and achieved modest success in neighboring towns. In 1911, Connecticut's oyster production reached its peak at nearly 25 million pounds of oyster meats. This was, at the time, higher than production in New York, Rhode Island, or Massachusetts.<ref>[http://connecticuthistory.org/oystering-in-connecticut-from-colonial-times-to-today/] Ct history.org "Oystering in CT, from Colonial Times to the 21st Century"</ref> During this time, the Connecticut coast was known, in the shellfishing industry, as the oyster capital of the world. Until 1969, Connecticut laws enacted before World War I restricted the harvesting of oysters in state-owned beds to vessels under sail. These laws prompted the construction of the oyster sloop style vessel to last well into the 20th century.<ref>''This Fine Piece of Water: An Environmental History of Long Island Sound''. Tom Andersen. p.90</ref> ''[[Hope (sloop)|Hope]]'', completed in [[Greenwich, Connecticut|Greenwich]] in 1948, is believed to be the last oyster sloop built in Connecticut.
 
   
 
==Transportation==
 
==Transportation==
{{main|Transportation in Connecticut}}
 
 
[[File:Map of Connecticut NA cropped.png|300px|right|thumb|Map of Connecticut showing major highways]]
 
[[File:Map of Connecticut NA cropped.png|300px|right|thumb|Map of Connecticut showing major highways]]
   
 
===Roads===
 
===Roads===
{{main |List of State Routes in Connecticut}}
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{{main|List of State Routes in Connecticut}}
The [[Interstate highway]]s in the state are [[Interstate 95 in Connecticut|Interstate&nbsp;95]] (I-95; the [[Connecticut Turnpike]]) traveling southwest to northeast along the coast, [[Interstate 84 in Connecticut|I-84]] traveling southwest to northeast in the center of the state, [[Interstate 91 in Connecticut|I-91]] traveling north to south in the center of the state, and [[Interstate 395 in Connecticut|I-395]] traveling north to south near the eastern border of the state. The other major highways in Connecticut are the [[Merritt Parkway]] and [[Wilbur Cross Parkway]], which together form [[Connecticut Route 15]] (Route&nbsp;15), traveling from the [[Hutchinson River Parkway]] in [[New York]] parallel to I-95 before turning north of [[New Haven]] and traveling parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in [[Berlin, Connecticut|Berlin]]. I-95 and Route&nbsp;15 were originally [[toll road]]s; they relied on a system of [[toll plaza]]s at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988.<ref>{{Citation | url = http://www.nycroads.com/roads/ct-turnpike/ | title = Connecticut Turnpike (I-95) | publisher = NYC roads}}.</ref> Other major arteries in the state include [[U.S. Route 7 in Connecticut|U.S. Route&nbsp;7]] (US&nbsp;7) in the west traveling parallel to the New York state line, [[Connecticut Route 8|Route&nbsp;8]] farther east near the industrial city of Waterbury and traveling north–south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with US&nbsp;7, and [[Connecticut Route 9|Route&nbsp;9]] in the east. See [[List of State Routes in Connecticut]] for an overview of the state's highway system.
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The [[Interstate highway]]s in the state are [[Interstate 95 in Connecticut|I-95]] (the [[Connecticut Turnpike]]) running southwest to northeast along the coast, [[Interstate 84 in Connecticut|I-84]] running southwest to northeast in the center of the state, [[Interstate 91 in Connecticut|I-91]] running north to south in the center of the state, and [[Interstate 395 (Connecticut)|I-395]] running north to south near the eastern border of the state. The other major highways in Connecticut are the [[Merritt Parkway]] and [[Wilbur Cross Parkway]], which together form [[Route 15 (Connecticut)|State Route 15]], running from the [[Hutchinson River Parkway]] in [[New York State]] parallel to I-95 before turning north of [[New Haven]] and running parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in [[Berlin, Connecticut]]. Route 15 and I-95 were originally [[toll road]]s; they relied on a system of [[toll plaza]]s at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988.<ref>[http://www.nycroads.com/roads/ct-turnpike/ Connecticut Turnpike (I-95)] nycroads.com</ref> Other major arteries in the state include [[U.S. Route 7]] in the west running parallel to the NY border, [[Route 8 (Connecticut)|State Route 8]] farther east near the industrial city of Waterbury and running north-south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with U.S. 7, and [[Route 9 (Connecticut)|State Route 9]] in the east. See [[List of State Routes in Connecticut]] for an overview of the state's highway system.
   
Between New Haven and New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Many people now drive longer distances to work in the New York City area. This strains the three lanes of traffic capacity, resulting in lengthy [[rush hour]] delays. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway. The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and [[carpool|ride-sharing]].<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.ctrides.com/ | title= CT rides |date=April 15, 2010 |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref>
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Between New Haven and New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Many people now drive longer distances to work in the New York City area. This strains the three lanes of traffic capacity, resulting in lengthy [[rush hour]] delays. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway. The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and [[ride-sharing]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ctrides.com/ |title=ctrides.com |publisher=ctrides.com |date=April 15, 2010 |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref>
   
Connecticut also has a very active bicycling community, with one of the highest rates of bicycle ownership and use in the United States. New Haven's cycling community, organized in a local advocacy group called [[ElmCityCycling]], is particularly active. According to the US Census 2006 American Community Survey, New Haven has the highest percentage of commuters who bicycle to work of any major metropolitan center on the East Coast.
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Connecticut also has a very active bicycling community, with one of the highest rates of bicycling ownership and use in the United States. New Haven's cycling community, organized in a local advocacy group called [[ElmCityCycling]], is particularly active. According to the U.S. Census 2006 American Community Survey, New Haven has the highest percentage of commuters who bicycle to work of any major metropolitan center on the East Coast.
   
[[File:Metro-North train 1567 enters Stamford.jpg|250px|right|thumb|A [[Metro-North Railroad]] [[New Haven Line]] train leaving [[Stamford Transportation Center|Stamford Station]]]]
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[[File:Metro-North train 1567 enters Stamford.jpg|250px|right|thumb|A [[Metro-North Railroad]] [[New Haven Line]] train at [[Stamford Transportation Center|Stamford]]]]
   
 
===Rail===
 
===Rail===
Southwestern Connecticut is served by the [[Metro-North Railroad]]'s [[New Haven Line]], operated by the [[Metropolitan Transportation Authority (New York)|Metropolitan Transportation Authority]] and providing commuter service to New York City and New Haven, with branches servicing [[New Canaan Branch|New Canaan]], [[Danbury Branch|Danbury]], and [[Waterbury Branch|Waterbury]]. Connecticut lies along [[Amtrak]]'s [[Northeast Corridor]] which features frequent [[Northeast Regional]] and [[Acela Express]] service. Towns between New Haven and New London are also served by the [[Shore Line East]] commuter line. A commuter rail service called the [[Hartford Line]] between New Haven and Springfield on Amtrak's [[New Haven-Springfield Line]] is scheduled to begin operating in 2016. Amtrak also operates a shuttle service between New Haven and [[Springfield, Massachusetts]], serving Wallingford, Meriden, Berlin, Hartford, Windsor Locks, and Springfield, MA and the [[Vermonter]] runs from Washington to St. Albans, Vermont via the same line.
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Southwestern Connecticut is served by MTA's [[Metro-North Railroad]] [[New Haven Line]], providing commuter service to New York City and New Haven, with branches servicing [[New Canaan Branch|New Canaan]], [[Danbury Branch|Danbury]], and [[Waterbury Branch|Waterbury]]. Connecticut lies along [[Amtrak]]'s [[Northeast Corridor]] which features frequent [[Northeast Regional]] and [[Acela Express]] service. Towns between New Haven and New London are also served by the [[Shore Line East]] commuter line. Operation of commuter trains from New Haven to Springfield on Amtrak's [[New Haven-Springfield Line]] is under consideration.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nhhsrail.com/ |title=NHHS Rail |publisher=NHHS Rail |date=July 19, 2010 |accessdate=September 15, 2011}}</ref> Amtrak also operates a shuttle service between New Haven and [[Springfield, Massachusetts]], servicing Hartford and other towns on the corridor.
   
 
===Bus===
 
===Bus===
Statewide [[bus]] service is supplied by [[Connecticut Transit]], owned by the [[Connecticut Department of Transportation]], with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. A three-year construction project to build a [[bus rapid transit|BRT]] [[New Britain–Hartford Busway|busway from New Britain to Hartford]] began in August 2009.<ref>{{cite press release |title=New Britain-to-Hartford 'Busway' Receives Final Federal Design Approval |publisher=State of Connecticut |date=October 31, 2006 |url= http://www.ct.gov/governorrell/cwp/view.asp?Q=326626&A=2425 |accessdate=January 29, 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ctrapidtransit.com/ct_schedule.asp |title=New Britain-Hartford Rapid Transit Project Schedule |publisher=CT rapid transit |accessdate = July 25, 2010}}{{dead link|date=June 2011}}</ref>
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Statewide [[bus]] service is supplied by [[Connecticut Transit]], owned by the [[Connecticut Department of Transportation]], with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. A three-year construction project to build a [[bus rapid transit|BRT]] [[New Britain–Hartford Busway|busway from New Britain to Hartford]] began in August 2009.<ref>{{cite press release |title=New Britain-to-Hartford ‘Busway’ Receives Final Federal Design Approval |publisher=State of Connecticut |date=October 31, 2006 |url=http://www.ct.gov/governorrell/cwp/view.asp?Q=326626&A=2425 |accessdate=January 29, 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ctrapidtransit.com/ct_schedule.asp |title=New Britain-Hartford Rapid Transit Project Schedule |publisher=Ctrapidtransit.com |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}{{dead link|date=June 2011}}</ref>
   
 
===Air===
 
===Air===
[[Bradley International Airport]] is located in [[Windsor Locks]], 15&nbsp;miles (24&nbsp;km) north of [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]. Regional air service is provided at [[Tweed New Haven Regional Airport]]. Larger civil airports include [[Danbury Municipal Airport]] and [[Waterbury-Oxford Airport]] in western Connecticut, and [[Groton-New London Airport]] in eastern Connecticut. [[Sikorsky Memorial Airport]] is located in Stratford and mostly services cargo, helicopter and private aviation.
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[[Bradley International Airport]] is located in [[Windsor Locks]], 15&nbsp;miles (24&nbsp;km) north of [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]. Regional air service is provided at [[Tweed New Haven Regional Airport]]. Larger civil airports include [[Danbury Municipal Airport]] and [[Waterbury-Oxford Airport]] in western Connecticut, and [[Groton-New London Airport]] in eastern Connecticut. [[Sikorsky Memorial Airport]] is located in Stratford and mostly services cargo, helicopter and private aviation.
   
 
===Ferry===
 
===Ferry===
  +
The [[Rocky Hill - Glastonbury Ferry]] and the [[Chester - Hadlyme Ferry]] cross the Connecticut River.
The [[Rocky Hill – Glastonbury Ferry]] and the [[Chester–Hadlyme Ferry]] cross the Connecticut River. The [[Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Ferry]] travels between [[Bridgeport, Connecticut]] and [[Port Jefferson, New York]] by crossing [[Long Island Sound]]. Ferry service also operates out of [[New London, Connecticut|New London]] to [[Orient, New York]]; [[Fishers Island, New York]]; and [[Block Island, Rhode Island]].
 
  +
The [[Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Ferry]] travels between [[Bridgeport, CT]] and [[Port Jefferson, New York]] by crossing [[Long Island Sound]].
  +
Ferry service also operates out of [[New London, CT]] to [[Orient, NY]], [[Fishers Island, NY]] and [[Block Island, RI]].
   
 
==Law and government==
 
==Law and government==
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===Constitutional history===
 
===Constitutional history===
 
{{Main|History of the Connecticut Constitution}}
 
{{Main|History of the Connecticut Constitution}}
Connecticut is known as the "Constitution State." While the origin of this title is uncertain, the nickname may either refer to the [[Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders]] of 1638–39 or possibly the "Great Compromise" ("Connecticut Compromise") of the 1787 Constitutional convention. These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal government written by a representative body in Connecticut. The government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of [[Connecticut Constitutional History]]. After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut was granted governmental authority by King [[Charles II of England]] through the Connecticut Charter of 1662.
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Connecticut is known as the "Constitution State". While the origin on this title is uncertain, the nickname is assumed to refer to the [[Fundamental Orders of Connecticut|Fundamental Orders]] of 1638–39. These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal government written by a representative body in Connecticut. The government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of [[Connecticut Constitutional History]]. After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut was granted governmental authority by King [[Charles II of England]] through the Connecticut Charter of 1662.
   
 
Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority. A constitution similar to the modern [[U.S. Constitution]] was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965. The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications.
 
Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority. A constitution similar to the modern [[U.S. Constitution]] was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965. The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications.
  +
Another possible source of the nickname "constitution state" comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, during which [[Roger Sherman]] and [[Oliver Ellsworth]] helped to orchestrate what became known as the [[Connecticut Compromise]], or the Great Compromise. This plan combined the [[Virginia Plan]] and the [[New Jersey Plan]] to form a bicameral legislature, a form copied by almost every state constitution since the adoption of the federal constitution.
 
The more likely source of the nickname "Constitution State" comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, during which [[Roger Sherman]] and [[Oliver Ellsworth]] helped to orchestrate what became known as the [[Connecticut Compromise]], or the Great Compromise. This plan combined the [[Virginia Plan]] and the [[New Jersey Plan]] to form a bicameral legislature, a form copied by almost every state constitution since the adoption of the federal constitution. Although variations of the bicameral legislature had been proposed by Virginia and New Jersey, Connecticut's plan is the one that was in effect until the early 20th century, when Senators ceased to be selected by their state legislatures and were instead directly elected. Otherwise, it is still the design of Congress.
 
   
 
===Executive===
 
===Executive===
 
The governor heads the executive branch. [[Dan Malloy]] is the current [[List of Governors of Connecticut|Governor]] and [[Nancy Wyman]] is the [[List of Lieutenant Governors of Connecticut|Lieutenant Governor]], both are Democrats. Malloy, the former mayor of [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], won the [[Connecticut gubernatorial election, 2010|2010 general election]] for Governor, and was sworn in on January 5, 2011. From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. In 1974, [[Ella Grasso]] was elected as the governor of Connecticut. This was the first time in United States history when a woman was a governor without her husband being governor first.
 
The governor heads the executive branch. [[Dan Malloy]] is the current [[List of Governors of Connecticut|Governor]] and [[Nancy Wyman]] is the [[List of Lieutenant Governors of Connecticut|Lieutenant Governor]], both are Democrats. Malloy, the former mayor of [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], won the [[Connecticut gubernatorial election, 2010|2010 general election]] for Governor, and was sworn in on January 5, 2011. From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. In 1974, [[Ella Grasso]] was elected as the governor of Connecticut. This was the first time in United States history when a woman was a governor without her husband being governor first.
   
There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, [[Connecticut Department of Developmental Services|Developmental Services]], Construction Services, Education, Emergency Management and Public Protection, Energy & Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Insurance, Labor, Mental Health and Addiction Services, Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Utility Regulatory Authority, Public Works, Revenue Services, Social Services, [[Connecticut Department of Transportation|Transportation]], and Veterans Affairs. In addition to these departments, there are other independent bureaus, offices and commissions.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=246450| title=Connecticut's Executive Branch of Government| publisher=ct.gov}}</ref>
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There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, Developmental Services, Construction Services, Education, Emergency Management and Public Protection, Energy & Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Insurance, Labor, Mental Health and Addiction Services, Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Utility Regulatory Authority, Public Works, Revenue Services, Social Services, [[Connecticut Department of Transportation|Transportation]], and Veterans Affairs. In addition to these departments, there are other independent bureaus, offices and commissions.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=246450| title=Connecticut's Executive Branch of Government| publisher=ct.gov}}</ref>
   
 
In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, there are four other executive officers named in the state constitution that are elected directly by voters: Secretary of the State, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General. All executive officers are elected to four-year terms.<ref name="AboutCT"/>
 
In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, there are four other executive officers named in the state constitution that are elected directly by voters: Secretary of the State, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General. All executive officers are elected to four-year terms.<ref name="AboutCT"/>
   
 
===Legislative===
 
===Legislative===
The legislature is the [[Connecticut General Assembly|General Assembly]]. The General Assembly is a [[bicameral]] body consisting of an upper body, the [[Connecticut Senate|State Senate]] (36 senators); and a lower body, the [[Connecticut House of Representatives|House of Representatives]] (151 representatives).<ref name="AboutCT"/> Bills must pass each house in order to become law. The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Per Article XV of the state constitution, Senators and Representatives must be at least 18 years of age and are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. There also must always be between 30 and 50 senators and 125 to 225 representatives. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the [[President pro tempore]] presides. The [[Speaker (politics)|Speaker of the House]] presides over the House.<ref name ="CT_CONST">{{Citation | url = http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/cwp/view.asp?a=3188&q=392288/ | title = Constitution of the State of Connecticut | place = CT | publisher = Secretary of State | accessdate = April 30, 2012}}.</ref> As of 2012, [[Christopher G. Donovan]] is the current Speaker of the House of Connecticut.
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The legislature is the [[Connecticut General Assembly|General Assembly]]. The General Assembly is a [[bicameral]] body consisting of an upper body, the [[Connecticut Senate|State Senate]] (36 senators); and a lower body, the [[Connecticut House of Representatives|House of Representatives]] (151 representatives).<ref name="AboutCT"/> Bills must pass each house in order to become law. The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Per Article XV of the state constitution, Senators and Representatives must be at least 18 years of age and are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. There also must always be between 30 and 50 senators and 125 to 225 representatives. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the [[President pro tempore]] presides. The [[Speaker (politics)|Speaker of the House]] presides over the House.<ref name="CT_CONST">[http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/cwp/view.asp?a=3188&q=392288/ "CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT"]. ''Connecticut Secretary of State''. Accessed April 30, 2012.</ref>
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As of 2012, [[Christopher G. Donovan]] is the current Speaker of the House of Connecticut.
   
 
Connecticut's current [[United States Senators]] are [[Richard Blumenthal]] (Democrat) and [[Chris Murphy (politician)|Chris Murphy]] (Democrat). Connecticut currently has five [[U.S. Congressional Delegations from Connecticut|representatives in the U.S. House]], all of whom are Democrats.
 
Connecticut's current [[United States Senators]] are [[Richard Blumenthal]] (Democrat) and [[Chris Murphy (politician)|Chris Murphy]] (Democrat). Connecticut currently has five [[U.S. Congressional Delegations from Connecticut|representatives in the U.S. House]], all of whom are Democrats.
   
Locally elected representatives also develop [[Local ordinance]]s to govern cities and towns.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.jud.ct.gov/lawlib/ordinances.htm |title= Ordinances and Charters by Town – Judicial Branch Law Libraries | publisher = Judiciary | location = CT |accessdate=June 10, 2013}}</ref> The town ordinances often include [[noise pollution#Human|noise control]] and [[zoning]] guidelines.<ref>{{cite web|author=Town of Newtown, CT |url = http://www.newtown-ct.gov/Public_Documents/NewtownCT_Police/Ord%20Folder/Ordinances/262 |title= Noise Control Ordinance | publisher = The Government of Newtown |date=August 20, 2010 |accessdate=June 10, 2013}}</ref> However, the State of Connecticut does also provide state-wide ordinances for noise control as well.<ref>{{Citation | format = [[PDF]] | publisher = The Government of Connecticut | url = http://www.ct.gov/dep/lib/dep/regulations/22a/22a-69-1through7.pdf | title = Regulations}}{{dead link|date=June 2013}}</ref>
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Locally elected representatives also develop [[Local ordinance]]s to govern cities and towns.<ref>http://www.jud.ct.gov/lawlib/ordinances.htm</ref> The town ordinances often include [[noise pollution#Human|noise control]] and [[zoning]] guidelines.<ref>http://www.newtown-ct.gov/Public_Documents/NewtownCT_Police/Ord%20Folder/Ordinances/262</ref> However, the State of Connecticut does also provide state-wide ordinances for noise control as well.<ref>http://www.ct.gov/dep/lib/dep/regulations/22a/22a-69-1through7.pdf</ref>
   
 
===Judicial===
 
===Judicial===
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In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches.<ref>[http://www.jud.state.ct.us/ystday/history.html History of the Connecticut Courts]. Last retrieved February 20, 2007.</ref> The Appellate Court is a lesser state-wide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states.
 
In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches.<ref>[http://www.jud.state.ct.us/ystday/history.html History of the Connecticut Courts]. Last retrieved February 20, 2007.</ref> The Appellate Court is a lesser state-wide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states.
   
The State of Connecticut also offers access to [[Arrest warrant]] enforcement statistics through the Office of Policy and Management.<ref>{{cite web|author=Enter your Company or Top-Level Office |url=http://www.ct.gov/opm/cwp/view.asp?a=2969&Q=383588&opm_Nav_GID=1797 |title=OPM: Arrest Warrant Data |publisher=Ct.gov |date=May 15, 2013 |accessdate=June 10, 2013}}</ref>
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The State of Connecticut also offers access to [[Arrest warrant]] enforcement statistics through the Office of Policy and Management.<ref>http://www.ct.gov/opm/cwp/view.asp?a=2969&Q=383588&opm_Nav_GID=1797</ref>
   
 
===Local government===
 
===Local government===
 
{{See also| Administrative divisions of Connecticut}}
 
{{See also| Administrative divisions of Connecticut}}
 
::''and several lists:'' [[List of municipalities of Connecticut by population]], [[List of towns in Connecticut]], [[List of cities in Connecticut]], [[Borough (Connecticut)]], [[List of counties in Connecticut]]
 
::''and several lists:'' [[List of municipalities of Connecticut by population]], [[List of towns in Connecticut]], [[List of cities in Connecticut]], [[Borough (Connecticut)]], [[List of counties in Connecticut]]
Unlike all but one other state (Rhode Island), Connecticut does not have [[County (United States)|county]] government. Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of [[Sheriffs in the United States|sheriffs]] elected in each county.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/SectionVI/SecVICounty.htm |title= Connecticut State Register and Manual: Counties |accessdate=November 7, 2006| archiveurl = //web.archive.org/web/20061010172922/http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/SectionVI/SecVICounty.htm| archivedate = October 10, 2006}}</ref> In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the [[Connecticut State Marshal|state marshal]] system, which has districts that follow the old county territories. The judicial system is divided, at the trial court level, into judicial districts which largely follow the old county lines.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.jud.ct.gov/directory/directory/location/Default.htm |title=State of Connecticut Judicial Branch |publisher=Jud.ct.gov |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref> The [[list of Connecticut counties|eight counties]] are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as [[Weather forecasting|weather reports]], and census reporting.
+
Unlike all but one other state (Rhode Island), Connecticut does not have [[County (United States)|county]] government. Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of [[Sheriffs in the United States|sheriffs]] elected in each county.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/SectionVI/SecVICounty.htm |title= Connecticut State Register and Manual: Counties |accessdate=November 7, 2006| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20061010172922/http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/SectionVI/SecVICounty.htm| archivedate = October 10, 2006}}</ref> In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the [[Connecticut State Marshal|state marshal]] system, which has districts that follow the old county territories. The judicial system is divided, at the trial court level, into judicial districts which largely follow the old county lines.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.jud.ct.gov/directory/directory/location/Default.htm |title=State of Connecticut Judicial Branch |publisher=Jud.ct.gov |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref> The [[list of Connecticut counties|eight counties]] are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as [[Weather forecasting|weather reports]], and census reporting.
   
Connecticut shares with the rest of [[New England]] a governmental institution called the [[New England town]]. The state is divided into 169 towns, which serve as the fundamental political jurisdictions.<ref name="AboutCT"/> There are also 21 cities,<ref name="AboutCT"/> most of which are coterminous with their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. There are two exceptions: [[Groton (city), Connecticut|City of Groton]], which is a subsection of the [[Groton (town), Connecticut|Town of Groton]], and the City of [[Winsted, Connecticut|Winsted]] in the Town of [[Winchester, Connecticut|Winchester]]. There are also nine incorporated [[Borough (Connecticut)|boroughs]] which may provide additional services to a section of town.<ref name="AboutCT"/><ref>[http://www.cslib.org/boroughcity.htm Connecticut's Boroughs and Cities]. Connecticut State Library. Retrieved January 20, 2007.</ref> One, [[Naugatuck]], is a consolidated town and borough.
+
Connecticut shares a local form of government with the rest of [[New England]] called the [[New England town]]. The state is divided into 169 towns, which serve as the fundamental political jurisdictions.<ref name="AboutCT"/> There are also 21 cities,<ref name="AboutCT"/> most of which are coterminous with their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. There are two exceptions: [[Groton (city), Connecticut|City of Groton]], which is a subsection of the [[Groton (town), Connecticut|Town of Groton]], and the City of [[Winsted, Connecticut|Winsted]] in the Town of [[Winchester, Connecticut|Winchester]]. There are also nine incorporated [[Borough (Connecticut)|boroughs]] which may provide additional services to a section of town.<ref name="AboutCT"/><ref>[http://www.cslib.org/boroughcity.htm Connecticut's Boroughs and Cities]. Connecticut State Library. Retrieved January 20, 2007.</ref> One, [[Naugatuck]], is a consolidated town and borough.
   
The state (with the exception of the Town of Stafford in Tolland County) is also divided into 15 [[Administrative divisions of Connecticut#Regions|planning regions]] defined by the state Office of Planning and Management.<ref name="OPM">{{cite web|author=Enter your Company or Top-Level Office |url=http://www.ct.gov/opm/cwp/view.asp?a=2985&q=383124 |title=Regional Planning Coordination at the CT Office of Planning and Management |publisher=Ct.gov |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref> The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations."<ref name="OPM"/>
+
The state is also divided into 15 [[Administrative divisions of Connecticut#Regions|planning regions]] defined by the state Office of Planning and Management.<ref name="OPM">{{cite web|author=Enter your Company or Top-Level Office |url=http://www.ct.gov/opm/cwp/view.asp?a=2985&q=383124 |title=Regional Planning Coordination at the CT Office of Planning and Management |publisher=Ct.gov |accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref> The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations."<ref name="OPM"/>
  +
  +
===Same-sex marriage===
  +
{{See also|Same-sex marriage in Connecticut}}
  +
On November 12, 2008, Connecticut became the second state (after Massachusetts) to allow marriages of same-sex couples. Connecticut was the third state to do so, but only the second where the decision was not repealed.
   
 
==Politics==
 
==Politics==
{{Further |Political party strength in Connecticut|Elections in Connecticut}}
+
{{Further|Political party strength in Connecticut|Elections in Connecticut}}
[[File:Connecticut Political Party Registration 1958 - 2012.png|thumb|Connecticut political party registration 1958–2012 marked with presidential influence]]
 
 
===Registered voters===
 
Connecticut residents who register to vote have the option of declaring an affiliation to a political party, may become unaffiliated at will, and may change affiliations subject to certain waiting periods. {{as of|2013}} about 58% of registered voters are enrolled (about 1% total in 18 [[Third party (politics)|third parties]] minor parties), and ratios among unaffiliated voters and the two major parties are about 8 unaffiliated for every 7 in the [[Democratic Party of Connecticut]] and for every 4 in the [[Connecticut Republican Party]].
 
 
(Among the minor parties, the [[Libertarian Party of Connecticut|Libertarian Party]] and [[Independent Party of Connecticut|Independent Party]] appeared in the Presidential-electors column in 2012, and drew, respectively, 0.81% and 0.35% of the vote.)
 
 
Many Connecticut towns show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party.{{Ref}}
 
 
{| class=wikitable
 
! colspan = 6 | Connecticut voter registration and party enrollment as of October 30, 2012<ref>{{cite web|title = Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of October 30, 2012 | publisher = Connecticut Secretary of State | format = PDF | accessdate = May 10, 2013 | url = http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/lib/sots/electionservices/registration_and_enrollment_stats/nov12re.pdf}}</ref>
 
|-
 
! colspan = 2 | Party
 
! Active voters
 
! Inactive voters
 
! Total voters
 
! Percentage
 
{{American politics/party colors/Republican/row}}
 
| [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]]
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 430,564
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 19,084
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 449,648
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 20.27%
 
{{American politics/party colors/Democratic/row}}
 
| [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic]]
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 768,176
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 47,537
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 815,713
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 36.77%
 
{{American politics/party colors/Independent/row}}
 
| Unaffiliated
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 872,839
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 60,440
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 933,279
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 42.06%
 
{{American politics/party colors/Libertarian/row}}
 
| Minor parties
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 18,960
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 1,063
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 20,023
 
| style="text-align:center;"| 0.90%
 
|-
 
! colspan = 2 | Total
 
! style="text-align:center;"| 2,090,539
 
! style="text-align:center;"| 128,123
 
! style="text-align:center;"| 2,218,662
 
! style="text-align:center;"| 100%
 
|}
 
 
===Political office===
 
Elections in Connecticut take place mostly at the levels of town and/or city, state legislative districts for both houses, Congressional districts, and state-wide. In almost all races, the two major parties have some practical advantages granted on the basis of their respective performances in the most recent election covering the same constituency. Several processes, to varying degrees internal to either a major or minor party, are in practice nearly prerequisites to being permitted mention on the provided ballots, and even more so to winning office.
 
 
More specifically, the status of "major party" is usually reconfirmed every four years, as belonging to the two parties that polled best, statewide, in the gubernatorial column; this status includes the benefit of appearing in one of the top two rows on the ballot provided the party has at least one candidate on the ballot. Minor parties appear below major parties, and their performance in recent elections determines whether a candidates who wins in their nomination process must also meet a petitioning threshold in order to appear.
 
 
In a major party, a party convention for the office's constituency must be held; in practice, at the town level, a major party convention of voters of the town who are enrolled in the party usually is attended almost exclusively by members of the town party committee. The convention may choose to endorse a candidate, who will appear on the ballot unless additional candidates meet a petition threshold for a primary election; if at least one candidate meets the petition threshold, the endorsed candidate and all who meet the threshold appear on the primary ballot, and the winner of the primary election appears on the party line for that office.
 
 
A candidate wishing to run on the ballot line of a minor-party which has recently enough met a general-election vote threshold follows similar steps; candidates of other minor parties must meet petition thresholds, and if other candidates of the same party, for the same office, do so as well, only the winner of a resulting primary will appear on the ballot.
 
 
Campaigns by candidates not on the ballot generally are entirely symbolic, and while any voter can cast a write-in ballot, write-in ballots are not even tallied by election officials, except for candidates who have submitted a formal request that the tally be made.
 
 
In short, most winning candidates have won the endorsement of the applicable ''major''-party convention; nearly all of the rest have won with a ''professionally managed'' primary-election campaign; and successful minor-party candidates are almost without exception major-party figures like [[Lowell Weicker]] whose minor parties disappear after that success. ([[A Connecticut Party]], which Weicker founded, became nominally the leading major party, and state law was changed during his administration to provide that in a situation such as his win, the top ''three ''parties in the governor's race all became major parties.<!-- Alert readers will notice that i have no idea whether that change remains in effect! -->)
 
   
===Republican areas===
 
 
{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; margin:2em; text-align: center;"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; margin:2em; text-align: center;"
|+ Presidential election results<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/compare.php?year=2004&fips=9&f=0&off=0&elect=0&type=state |title = Presidential General Election Results Comparison – Connecticut| publisher = Dave Leip's Atlas of United States Presidential Elections|year=2005|accessdate=January 20, 2007}}</ref>
+
|+ Presidential election results<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/compare.php?year=2004&fips=9&f=0&off=0&elect=0&type=state|title = Presidential General Election Results Comparison – Connecticut|publisher=Dave Leip's Atlas of United States Presidential Elections|year=2005|accessdate=January 20, 2007}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Year
 
! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Year
Line 582: Line 433:
 
! scope="col" | Percent !! scope="col" | Absolute
 
! scope="col" | Percent !! scope="col" | Absolute
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 2012|2012]]
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[U.S. presidential election, 2012|2012]]
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 40.73%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 40.73%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 634,892
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 634,892
Line 588: Line 439:
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 905,083
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 905,083
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 2008|2008]]
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[U.S. presidential election, 2008|2008]]
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 38.22%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 38.22%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 629,428
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 629,428
Line 594: Line 445:
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 997,773
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 997,773
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 2004|2004]]
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[U.S. presidential election, 2004|2004]]
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 43.95%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 43.95%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 693,826
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 693,826
Line 600: Line 451:
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 857,488
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 857,488
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 2000|2000]]
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[U.S. presidential election, 2000|2000]]
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 38.44%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 38.44%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 561,094
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 561,094
Line 606: Line 457:
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 816,015
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 816,015
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 1996|1996]]
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[U.S. presidential election, 1996|1996]]
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 34.69%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 34.69%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 483,109
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 483,109
Line 612: Line 463:
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 735,740
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 735,740
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 1992|1992]]
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[U.S. presidential election, 1992|1992]]
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 35.78%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 35.78%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 578,313
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 578,313
Line 618: Line 469:
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 682,318
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 682,318
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | [[United States presidential election, 1988|1988]]
+
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | [[U.S. presidential election, 1988|1988]]
 
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 51.98%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 51.98%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 750,241
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 750,241
Line 624: Line 475:
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 676,584
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 676,584
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | [[United States presidential election, 1984|1984]]
+
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | [[U.S. presidential election, 1984|1984]]
 
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 60.73%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 60.73%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 890,877
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 890,877
Line 630: Line 481:
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 569,597
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 569,597
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | [[United States presidential election, 1980|1980]]
+
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | [[U.S. presidential election, 1980|1980]]
 
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 48.16%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 48.16%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 677,210
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 677,210
Line 636: Line 487:
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 541,732
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 541,732
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | [[United States presidential election, 1976|1976]]
+
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | [[U.S. presidential election, 1976|1976]]
 
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 52.06%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 52.06%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 719,261
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 719,261
Line 642: Line 493:
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 647,895
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 647,895
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | [[United States presidential election, 1972|1972]]
+
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | [[U.S. presidential election, 1972|1972]]
 
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 58.57%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 58.57%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 810,763
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 810,763
Line 648: Line 499:
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 555,498
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 555,498
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 1968|1968]]
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[U.S. presidential election, 1968|1968]]
| ''' #fff3f3; font-weight:| 44.32%
+
| style="background: #fff3f3; font-weight: bold;" | 44.32%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 556,721
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 556,721
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | '''49.48%'''
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 49.48%
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 621,561
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 621,561
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 1964|1964]]
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[U.S. presidential election, 1964|1964]]
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 32.09%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 32.09%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 390,996
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 390,996
Line 660: Line 511:
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 826,269
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 826,269
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[United States presidential election, 1960|1960]]
+
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | [[U.S. presidential election, 1960|1960]]
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 46.27%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 46.27%
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 565,813
 
| style="background: #fff3f3;" | 565,813
Line 666: Line 517:
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 657,055
 
| style="background: #f0f0ff;" | 657,055
 
|}
 
|}
  +
The suburban towns of [[New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan]] and [[Darien, Connecticut|Darien]] in Fairfield County are considered the most Republican areas in the state. [[Westport, Connecticut|Westport]], a wealthy town a few miles to the east, is often considered one of the most loyally Democratic, liberal towns in Fairfield County. The historically Republican-leaning wealthy town of [[Wilton, Connecticut|Wilton]] voted in the majority for [[Barack Obama]] in the 2008 Presidential Election. [[Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk]] and [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], two larger, mixed-income communities in Fairfield County, have in many elections favored moderate Republicans including former Governor [[John G. Rowland]] and former Congressman [[Chris Shays]], however they have favored Democrats in recent US presidential election years, with Shays being defeated by Democrat [[Jim Himes]] in the 2008 election.
 
  +
===Registered Voters===
  +
  +
The largest population of Connecticut voters are registered as Unaffiliated with any political party (842,335). The majority of Connecticut voters that affiliate with a political party are registered with The [[Democratic Party of Connecticut]] (744,729). The [[Connecticut Republican Party]] is the second largest political party in Connecticut (422,312).<ref>http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/lib/sots/releases/2012/10.16.12_voter_registration_deadlines_approaching.pdf</ref> There are also '''[[Third party (politics)|Third Parties]]''' such as the [[Independent Party of Connecticut]]. Many Connecticut towns show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party.
  +
  +
===Political Office===
  +
The Democratic Town Committees and Republican Town Committees within each Connecticut city or town decide upon which candidates may seek a position in any public office. If selected, the candidate will become a nominee for that political party and will serve in the office if they receive the majority of votes in an election.
  +
  +
===Republican Areas===
  +
  +
The suburban towns of [[New Canaan, Connecticut|New Canaan]] and [[Darien, Connecticut|Darien]] in Fairfield County are considered the most Republican areas in the state. [[Westport, Connecticut|Westport]], a wealthy town a few miles to the east, is often considered one of the most loyally Democratic, liberal towns in Fairfield County. The historically Republican-leaning wealthy town of [[Wilton, Connecticut|Wilton]] voted in the majority for [[Barack Obama]] in the 2008 Presidential Election. [[Norwalk, Connecticut|Norwalk]] and [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]], two larger, affluent communities in Fairfield County, have in many elections favored moderate Republicans including former Governor [[John G. Rowland]] and former Congressman [[Chris Shays]], however they have favored Democrats in recent US presidential election years, with Shays being defeated by Democrat [[Jim Himes]] in the 2008 election.
   
 
The state's Republican-leaning areas are the rural [[Litchfield County, Connecticut|Litchfield County]] and adjoining towns in the west of [[Hartford County, Connecticut|Hartford County]], the industrial towns of the [[Naugatuck River Valley]], and some of the affluent [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]] towns near the New York border.
 
The state's Republican-leaning areas are the rural [[Litchfield County, Connecticut|Litchfield County]] and adjoining towns in the west of [[Hartford County, Connecticut|Hartford County]], the industrial towns of the [[Naugatuck River Valley]], and some of the affluent [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]] towns near the New York border.
   
Joe Lieberman's predecessor, [[Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.]], was the last Connecticut Republican to serve as Senator. Weicker was known as a liberal Republican. He broke with President [[Richard Nixon]] during [[Watergate Scandal|Watergate]] and successfully ran for governor in 1990 as an independent, creating [[A Connecticut Party]] as his election vehicle. Before Weicker, the last [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]] to represent Connecticut in the Senate was [[Prescott Bush]], the father of former President [[George H.W. Bush]] and the grandfather of former President [[George W. Bush]]. He served 1953–63.
+
Lieberman's predecessor, [[Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.]], was the last Connecticut Republican to serve as Senator. Weicker was known as a liberal Republican. He broke with President [[Richard Nixon]] during [[Watergate Scandal|Watergate]] and successfully ran for governor in 1990 as an independent, creating [[A Connecticut Party]] as his election vehicle. Before Weicker, the last [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]] to represent Connecticut in the Senate was [[Prescott Bush]], the father of former President [[George H.W. Bush]] and the grandfather of former President [[George W. Bush]]. He served from 1953–1963.
   
===Democratic areas===
+
===Democratic Areas===
  +
[[Waterbury, Connecticut|Waterbury]] has a Democratic registration edge, but usually favors conservative candidates of both traditional parties. In [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]] unaffiliated voters outnumber voters registered with either major party. Other smaller cities including [[Meriden, Connecticut|Meriden]], [[New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]], [[Norwich, Connecticut|Norwich]] and [[Middletown, Connecticut|Middletown]] favor Democratic candidates.
 
  +
[[Waterbury, Connecticut|Waterbury]] has a Democratic registration edge, but usually favors conservative candidates in both parties. In [[Danbury, Connecticut|Danbury]] unaffiliated voters outnumber voters registered with either major party. Other smaller cities including [[Meriden, Connecticut|Meriden]], [[New Britain, Connecticut|New Britain]], [[Norwich, Connecticut|Norwich]] and [[Middletown, Connecticut|Middletown]] favor Democratic candidates.
   
 
As of 2011, Democrats controlled all five federal congressional seats. The remaining Republican, [[Chris Shays]], lost his seat to Democrat Jim Himes in the Congressional Election in 2008.
 
As of 2011, Democrats controlled all five federal congressional seats. The remaining Republican, [[Chris Shays]], lost his seat to Democrat Jim Himes in the Congressional Election in 2008.
   
 
===Senators===
 
===Senators===
  +
[[Chris Murphy (politician)|Chris Murphy]] and [[Richard Blumenthal]] are Connecticut's [[United States Senate|U.S. senators]]. Both senators from Connecticut are Democrats.
 
  +
[[Chris Murphy]] and [[Richard Blumenthal]] are Connecticut's [[United States Senate|U.S. senators]]. Both senators from Connecticut are Democrats.
   
 
===Voting===
 
===Voting===
In April 2012 both houses of the Connecticut state legislature passed a bill (20&nbsp;to&nbsp;16 and 86&nbsp;to&nbsp;62) that abolished the [[Capital punishment in the United States|capital punishment]] for all future crimes, while 11 inmates who were waiting on the [[death row]] at the time could still be executed.<ref>{{cite news | url =http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2012/04/25/connecticut-governor-signs-bill-to-repeal-death-penalty/|title = Connecticut governor signs bill to repeal death penalty|date=April 25, 2012|publisher=FOX News Network |accessdate = April 25, 2012}}</ref>
 
   
  +
In April 2012 both houses of the Connecticut state legislature passed a bill (20&nbsp;to&nbsp;16 and 86&nbsp;to&nbsp;62) that abolished the [[Capital punishment in the United States|capital punishment]] for all future crimes, while 11 inmates who were waiting on the [[death row]] at the time could still be executed.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2012/04/25/connecticut-governor-signs-bill-to-repeal-death-penalty/|title=Connecticut governor signs bill to repeal death penalty|date=April 25, 2012|publisher=FOX News Network, LLC.|accessdate=April 25, 2012}}</ref>
In July 2009 the Connecticut legislature overrode a veto by Governor [[M. Jodi Rell]] to pass [[SustiNet]], the first significant public-option health care reform legislation in the nation.<ref>{{Citation | title = Advocac | publisher = Aarp | url = http://www.aarp.org/states/ct/advocacy/articles/in_historic_vote_legislature_overrides_sustinet_veto.html | type = article | contribution = In historic vote, legislature overrides SustiNet veto}}{{dead link|date=July 2010}}</ref>
 
  +
  +
In July, 2009 the Connecticut legislature overrode a veto by Governor [[M. Jodi Rell]] to pass [[SustiNet]], the first significant public-option health care reform legislation in the nation.<ref>[http://www.aarp.org/states/ct/advocacy/articles/in_historic_vote_legislature_overrides_sustinet_veto.html ]{{dead link|date=July 2010}}</ref>
  +
  +
{| class=wikitable
  +
! colspan = 6 | Connecticut voter registration and party enrollment as of October 25, 2011<ref>{{cite web|title = Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of October 25, 2011 | publisher = Connecticut Secretary of State | format = PDF | accessdate = 2012-11-05 | url = http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/lib/sots/electionservices/registration_and_enrollment_stats/2011_registration_and_enrollment_statistics.pdf}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
! colspan = 2 | Party
  +
! Active voters
  +
! Inactive voters
  +
! Total voters
  +
! Percentage
  +
{{American politics/party colors/Republican/row}}
  +
| [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]]
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 411,866
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 19,855
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 431,721
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 20.35%
  +
{{American politics/party colors/Democratic/row}}
  +
| [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic]]
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 736,082
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 48,198
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 784,280
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 36.97%
  +
{{American politics/party colors/Independent/row}}
  +
| Unaffiliated
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 827,983
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 62,934
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 890,917
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 42.00%
  +
{{American politics/party colors/Libertarian/row}}
  +
| Minor parties
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 13,531
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 993
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 14,524
  +
| style="text-align:center;"| 0.68%
  +
|-
  +
! colspan = 2 | Total
  +
! style="text-align:center;"| 1,989,462
  +
! style="text-align:center;"| 131,980
  +
! style="text-align:center;"| 2,121,442
  +
! style="text-align:center;"| 100%
  +
|}
   
 
==Education==
 
==Education==
Line 689: Line 593:
 
===K-12===
 
===K-12===
 
{{See also|Connecticut State Board of Education}}
 
{{See also|Connecticut State Board of Education}}
The [[Connecticut State Board of Education]] manages the public school system for children in grades K-12. Board of Education members are [[cronyism|appointed]] by the [[List of Governors of Connecticut|Governor of Connecticut]]. Statistics for each school are made available to the public through an online database system called "CEDAR."<ref>{{cite web |url=http://sdeportal.ct.gov/Cedar/WEB/ct_report/CedarHome.aspx | work =State Department of Education | title = CEDaR | publisher= Government of Connecticut | accessdate=June 10, 2013}}</ref> The CEDAR database also provides statistics for "ACES" or "RESC" schools for children with behavioral disorders.<ref>{{Citation | url = http://www.aces.org/uploads/files/2011RESCAllianceBrochure.pdf | title = Resc Alliance | type = brochure | format = [[PDF]] | publisher = Aces | year = 2011}}</ref>
+
The [[Connecticut State Board of Education]] manages the public school system for children in grades K-12. Board of Education members are [[cronyism|appointed]] by the [[List of Governors of Connecticut|Governor of Connecticut]]. Statistics for each school are made available to the public through an online database system called "CEDAR."<ref>http://sdeportal.ct.gov/Cedar/WEB/ct_report/CedarHome.aspx</ref> The CEDAR database also provides statistics for "ACES" or "RESC" schools for children with behavioral disorders.<ref>http://www.aces.org/uploads/files/2011RESCAllianceBrochure.pdf</ref>
   
===Private schools===
+
===Private Schools===
{{example farm|section|date=December 2013}}
 
 
{{See also|Country Day School movement}}
 
{{See also|Country Day School movement}}
  +
* [[Greenwich Country Day School]]
* [[Academy of Our Lady of Mercy, Lauralton Hall]] (1905)
 
  +
* [[Fairfield Country Day School]]
* [[Bridgeport International Academy]] (1997)
 
  +
* [[Notre Dame Catholic High School (Connecticut)|Notre Dame Catholic High School]]
* [[Brunswick School]] (1902)
 
* [[Cheshire Academy]] (1794)
+
* [[Hopkins School]]
* [[Choate Rosemary Hall]] (1890)
+
*[[Choate Rosemary Hall]]
* [[East Catholic High School]] (1961)
+
*[[Miss Porter's School]]
* [[Fairfield Country Day School]] (1936)
+
*[[Northwest Catholic High School]]
* [[Fairfield College Preparatory School]] (1942)
 
* [[Greens Farms Academy]] (1925)
 
* [[Greenwich Country Day School]] (1926)
 
* [[Hopkins School]] (1660)
 
* [[Kingswood-Oxford School]] (1909)
 
* [[Miss Porter's School]] (1843)
 
* [[New Canaan Country School]] (1916)
 
* [[Northwest Catholic High School]] (1961)
 
* [[Norwich Free Academy]] (1854)
 
* [[Notre Dame Catholic High School (Connecticut)|Notre Dame Catholic High School]] (1955)
 
* [[Notre Dame High School (West Haven, Connecticut)|Notre Dame High School]] (1946)
 
* [[Pomfret School]] (1894)
 
* [[Saint Bernard School]] (1956)
 
* [[The Taft School]] (1890)
 
* [[Westover School]] (1909)
 
* [[Xavier High School (Connecticut)|Xavier High School]] (1963)
 
   
===Colleges and universities===
+
===Colleges and Universities===
 
Connecticut was home to the nation's first law school, [[Litchfield Law School]], which operated from 1773 to 1833 in [[Litchfield, Connecticut|Litchfield]]. [[Hartford Public High School]] (1638) is the third-oldest secondary school in the nation after the [[Collegiate School (New York)|Collegiate School]] (1628) in [[Manhattan]] and the [[Boston Latin School]] (1635).
 
Connecticut was home to the nation's first law school, [[Litchfield Law School]], which operated from 1773 to 1833 in [[Litchfield, Connecticut|Litchfield]]. [[Hartford Public High School]] (1638) is the third-oldest secondary school in the nation after the [[Collegiate School (New York)|Collegiate School]] (1628) in [[Manhattan]] and the [[Boston Latin School]] (1635).
   
Line 733: Line 620:
 
* [[Albertus Magnus College]] (1925)
 
* [[Albertus Magnus College]] (1925)
 
* [[Quinnipiac University]] (1929)
 
* [[Quinnipiac University]] (1929)
* [[Mitchell College]] (1938)
+
*[[Fairfield University]] (1942)
* [[Fairfield University]] (1942)
 
* [[Sacred Heart University]] (1963)
 
   
====Public universities====
+
====Public====
 
{{See also|Connecticut State University System}}
 
{{See also|Connecticut State University System}}
 
* [[Central Connecticut State University]] (1849)
 
* [[Central Connecticut State University]] (1849)
* [[University of Connecticut]] (1881)<ref>{{Citation | url = http://www.uconn.edu/rankings.php | title = Rankings | publisher = U Conn}}.</ref>
+
* [[University of Connecticut]] (1881)<ref>[http://www.uconn.edu/rankings.php] (Note: US News and World Report is a subscription website.)</ref>
 
* [[Eastern Connecticut State University]] (1889)
 
* [[Eastern Connecticut State University]] (1889)
 
* [[Southern Connecticut State University]] (1893)
 
* [[Southern Connecticut State University]] (1893)
 
* [[Western Connecticut State University]] (1903)
 
* [[Western Connecticut State University]] (1903)
* [http://www.charteroak.edu/ Charter Oak State College] (1973)
 
 
====Public community colleges====
 
* [[Capital Community College]] (1946)<ref>http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/history.htm "A Capital History," Capital Community College. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
* [[Norwalk Community College]] (1961)<ref>http://www.ncc.commnet.edu/about/history.asp "History of Norwalk Community College," Norwalk Community College. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
* [[Manchester Community College]] (1963)<ref>https://www.manchestercc.edu/ Manchester Community College, Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
* [[Naugatuck Valley Community College]] (1964)<ref>http://www.nv.edu/About-NVCC/College-Facts/itemId/2055/History "History," Naugatuck Valley Community College. Retrieved May 17, 2014.</ref>
 
* [[Northwestern Connecticut Community College]] (1965)<ref>http://www.nwcc.commnet.edu/research/pdfs/NCCC_NEASC_Report_2013.pdf "Institutional Self-Study Report," Northwestern Connecticut Community College, February 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
* [[Middlesex Community College (Connecticut)|Middlesex Community College]] (1966)<ref>http://mxcc.edu/news/mxcc-named-a-2013-great-college-to-work-for/?print=print "MxCC Named a '2013 Great College to Work For'", Middlesex Community College. Retrieved May 18, 2014.{{dead link|date=February 2015}}</ref>
 
* [[Housatonic Community College]] (1967)<ref>http://www.hcc.commnet.edu/info/NEASC/2012-10year/Self_Study_Report_2-22-12.pdf "NEASC Self-Study Report," Housatonic Community College, March 4–7, 2012. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
* [[Gateway Community College]] (1968)<ref>http://www.gatewaycc.edu/history "Gateway History," Gateway Community College. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
* [[Asnuntuck Community College]] (1969)<ref>http://www.asnuntuck.edu/about/history-college "History of the College," Asnuntuck Community College. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
* [[Tunxis Community College]] (1969)<ref>http://www.tunxis.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/NEASC-Self-Study-2011.pdf "Tunxis Community College Institutional Self-Study," Tunxis Community College, Fall 2011, page i. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
* [[Quinebaug Valley Community College]] (1971)<ref>http://www.qvcc.edu/search/QVCC-President-Prospectus.pdf "Presidential Search Prospectus," Quinebaug Valley Community College, February 6, 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
* [[Three Rivers Community College (Connecticut)|Three Rivers Community College]] (1992)<ref>http://www.trcc.commnet.edu/President/about/ "About Our Learning Community," Three Rivers Community College. Retrieved May 18. 2014.</ref>
 
   
 
The state also has many noted private day schools, and its [[boarding school]]s draw students from around the world.
 
The state also has many noted private day schools, and its [[boarding school]]s draw students from around the world.
Line 765: Line 635:
   
 
==Sports==
 
==Sports==
[[File:American Le Mans Series at Road America 2007.jpg|thumb|right|300px|[[Lime Rock Park|Lime Rock]] a home of the [[American Le Mans Series|American Le Mans]] tournament]]
+
[[File:American Le Mans Series at Road America 2007.jpg|thumb|right|300px|[[Lime Rock]] - a home of the [[American Le Mans Series|American Le Mans]] tournament]]
 
{{See also|Professional ice hockey in Connecticut}}
 
{{See also|Professional ice hockey in Connecticut}}
   
===Professional sports===
+
===Professional Sports===
 
Connecticut has been the home of multiple teams in the [[Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada|big four sports leagues]], though currently hosts none.
 
Connecticut has been the home of multiple teams in the [[Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada|big four sports leagues]], though currently hosts none.
   
 
====NHL====
 
====NHL====
Connecticut's longest-tenured and only modern full-time "big four" franchise were the [[Hartford Whalers]] of the [[National Hockey League]], who played in Hartford from 1975 to 1997 at the [[Hartford Civic Center]]. Their departure to [[Raleigh, North Carolina]], over disputes with the state over the construction of a new arena, caused great controversy and resentment. The former Whalers are now known as the [[Carolina Hurricanes]].
+
Connecticut's longest-tenured and only modern full-time "big four" franchise were the [[Hartford Whalers]] of the [[National Hockey League]], who played in Hartford from 1979 to 1997 at the [[Hartford Civic Center]]. Their departure to [[Raleigh, North Carolina]], over disputes with the state over the construction of a new arena, caused great controversy and resentment. The former Whalers are now known as the [[Carolina Hurricanes]]. Presently, the [[Bridgeport Sound Tigers]], a farm team for the [[New York Islanders]], compete at the [[Webster Bank Arena]] in [[Bridgeport, CT]] and the [[Connecticut Whale]], the affiliate of the [[New York Rangers]], play in the [[XL Center]] in Hartford.
 
Presently, there are two Connecticut teams in the [[American Hockey League]]: the [[Bridgeport Sound Tigers]], a farm team for the [[New York Islanders]], compete at the [[Webster Bank Arena]] in [[Bridgeport, CT|Bridgeport]] and the [[Hartford Wolf Pack]], the affiliate of the [[New York Rangers]], play in the [[XL Center]] in Hartford.
 
   
 
====MLB====
 
====MLB====
  +
Connecticut has hosted teams from the other big four leagues at various times. The [[Hartford Dark Blues]] joined the [[National League]] for one season in 1876, becoming the state's only [[major league baseball]] franchise. Connecticut is a battleground between fans of the [[New York Yankees]], [[Boston Red Sox]], and [[New York Mets]].<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/18/sports/baseball/18fans.html?ei=5088&en=6f3f651e40bd2179&ex=1313553600&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&pagewanted=print | work=The New York Times | title=Where Do Rivals Draw the Line? | first=John | last=Branch | date=August 18, 2006 | accessdate=April 30, 2010}}</ref> For the Mets and Red Sox, split allegiances among fans of both teams in the state during the [[1986 World Series]] led to an article in ''[[The Boston Globe]]'' to coin the phrase "Red Sox Nation".<ref>{{cite news|title=Baseball Border War; In Milford Conn., Geography Brings Sox and Mets Fans|date=October 20, 1986|first=Nathan|last=Cobb|newspaper=Boston Globe|page=8}}</ref>
The [[Hartford Dark Blues]] joined the [[National League]] for one season in 1876, making them the state's only [[major league baseball]] franchise, before moving to [[Brooklyn, New York]] and then disbanding one season later.
 
 
Connecticut is a battleground between fans of the [[New York Yankees]], [[Boston Red Sox]], and [[New York Mets]].<ref>{{cite news | url = http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/18/sports/baseball/18fans.html?ei=5088&en=6f3f651e40bd2179&ex=1313553600&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&pagewanted=print | work=The New York Times | title=Where Do Rivals Draw the Line? | first=John | last =Branch | date =August 18, 2006 | accessdate=April 30, 2010}}</ref> For the Mets and Red Sox, split allegiances among fans of both teams in the state during the [[1986 World Series]] led to an article in ''[[The Boston Globe]]'' to coin the phrase "Red Sox Nation."<ref>{{cite news|title=Baseball Border War; In Milford Conn., Geography Brings Sox and Mets Fans|date = October 20, 1986|first=Nathan|last=Cobb|newspaper=Boston Globe|page= 8}}</ref>
 
   
 
====NFL====
 
====NFL====
In 1926, Hartford had a franchise in the [[National Football League]] known as the [[Hartford Blues]]. The NFL would return to Connecticut from 1973 to 1974 when New Haven hosted the [[New York Giants]] at [[Yale Bowl]] while [[Giants Stadium]] was under construction.<ref name="HistoryNYG">{{Citation | url = http://www.sportsecyclopedia.com/nfl/nyg/nygiants.html | contribution = History of the New York Giants | title = Sports ecyclopedia | accessdate = September 12, 2006}}.</ref>
+
In 1926, Hartford had a franchise in the [[National Football League]] known as the [[Hartford Blues]]. The NFL would return to Connecticut from 1973–1974 when New Haven hosted the [[New York Giants]] at [[Yale Bowl]] while [[Giants Stadium]] was under construction.<ref name="HistoryNYG">[http://www.sportsecyclopedia.com/nfl/nyg/nygiants.html History of the New York Giants], www.sportsecyclopedia.com. Retrieved September 12, 2006.</ref>
   
 
====NBA====
 
====NBA====
 
From 1975 to 1995, the [[Boston Celtics]] of the [[National Basketball Association]] played a number of home games at the Hartford Civic Center.
 
From 1975 to 1995, the [[Boston Celtics]] of the [[National Basketball Association]] played a number of home games at the Hartford Civic Center.
[[File:Yale-Harvard-Game.jpg|285px|right|thumb|Yale Bowl during "[[Harvard-Yale football games (The Game)|The Game]]" between Yale and Harvard. The Bowl was also the home of the [[NFL]]'s [[New York Giants]] in 1973–74.]]
+
[[File:Yale-Harvard-Game.jpg|285px|right|thumb|Yale Bowl during "[[Harvard-Yale football games (The Game)|The Game]]" between Yale and Harvard. The Bowl was also the home of the [[NFL]]'s [[New York Giants]] in 1973–1974.]]
   
 
====PGA====
 
====PGA====
The state hosts several major sporting events. Since 1952, a [[PGA Tour]] golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area. Originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open," the event is now known as the [[Travelers Championship]]. The [[Pilot Pen Tennis]] tournament is held annually in the [[Cullman-Heyman Tennis Center]] at Yale University in New Haven.
+
The state hosts several major sporting events. Since 1952, a [[PGA Tour]] golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area. Originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open", the event is now known as the [[Travelers Championship]]. The [[Pilot Pen Tennis]] tournament is held annually in the [[Cullman-Heyman Tennis Center]] at Yale University in New Haven. [[Lime Rock Park]] is a motorsport track home of [[American Le Mans Series]], Grand-Am [[Rolex Sports Car Series]] and [[NASCAR Camping World East Series]] races.
 
====Motorsports====
 
[[Lime Rock Park]] in Salisbury is a 1.5-mile road racing course, home to [[American Le Mans Series]], Grand-Am [[Rolex Sports Car Series]], [[SCCA]] and [[NASCAR Camping World East Series]] races. [[Thompson International Speedway]], [[Stafford Motor Speedway]] and [[Waterford Speedbowl]] are oval tracks holding weekly races for NASCAR Modifieds and other classes, including the NASCAR Whelen Modified Tour.
 
   
 
====WNBA====
 
====WNBA====
 
The [[Connecticut Sun]] of the [[WNBA]] currently play at the [[Mohegan Sun Arena]] in [[Uncasville]]. From 1996 to 1998, Connecticut was home to another professional woman's basketball team, [[American Basketball League (1996–1998)|American Basketball League]] franchise the [[New England Blizzard]], who played at the [[XL Center]].
 
The [[Connecticut Sun]] of the [[WNBA]] currently play at the [[Mohegan Sun Arena]] in [[Uncasville]]. From 1996 to 1998, Connecticut was home to another professional woman's basketball team, [[American Basketball League (1996–1998)|American Basketball League]] franchise the [[New England Blizzard]], who played at the [[XL Center]].
   
===Non-professional sports===
+
===Non-Professional Sports===
   
====High school====
+
====High School====
 
The [[Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference (CIAC)]] is the state's sanctioning body for high school sports.
 
The [[Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference (CIAC)]] is the state's sanctioning body for high school sports.
   
====College sports====
+
====College Sports====
The [[UConn Huskies]] play [[Division I (NCAA)|NCAA Division I]] sports and are popular in the state. Both the [[Connecticut Huskies men's basketball|men's basketball]] and [[Connecticut Huskies women's basketball|women's basketball teams]] have won multiple national championships, including in 2004, when UConn became the first school in NCAA Division I history to have its men's and women's basketball programs win the national title in the same year.{{citation needed|date=May 2014}} In 2014, UConn repeated its feat of being the only school in NCAA Division I to win men's and women's basketball tournaments in the same year.{{citation needed|date=May 2014}} The UConn [[Connecticut Huskies women's basketball|women's basketball team]] holds the record for the longest consecutive winning streak in NCAA college basketball at 90 games, a streak that ended in 2008.{{citation needed|date=May 2014}} The [[UConn Huskies football team]] has played in the [[Football Bowl Subdivision]] since 2002, and has played in four bowl games since. Other Connecticut universities which feature Division I sports teams are [[Yale Bulldogs|Yale University]], [[Quinnipiac Bobcats|Quinnipiac University]], [[Fairfield Stags|Fairfield University]], [[Central Connecticut State University]], [[Sacred Heart University]], and the [[Hartford Hawks|University of Hartford]].
+
The [[UConn Huskies]] play [[NCAA Division I]] sports and are popular in the state. Both the [[Connecticut Huskies men's basketball|men's basketball]] and [[Connecticut Huskies women's basketball|women's basketball teams]] have won multiple national championships, including in 2004, when UConn became the first school in NCAA Division I history to have its men's and women's basketball programs win the national title in the same year. The [[UConn Huskies football team]] has played in the [[Football Bowl Subdivision]] since 2002, and has played in four bowl games since. Other Connecticut universities which feature Division I sports teams are [[Yale Bulldogs|Yale University]], [[Quinnipiac Bobcats|Quinnipiac University]], [[Fairfield Stags|Fairfield University]], [[Central Connecticut State University]], [[Sacred Heart University]], and the [[Hartford Hawks|University of Hartford]].
   
 
====Yale v. Harvard====
 
====Yale v. Harvard====
New Haven biennially hosts "[[Harvard-Yale football games (The Game)|The Game]]" between Yale and Harvard, the country's second-oldest college football rivalry. Yale alum [[Walter Camp]], deemed the "Father of American Football," helped develop modern football while living in New Haven.<ref>{{Citation | url = http://www.collegefootball.org/famer_selected.php?id=88004 | publisher = College Football | title = Hall of Fame | contribution = Famer Search}}.</ref>
+
New Haven biennially hosts "[[Harvard-Yale football games (The Game)|The Game]]" between Yale and Harvard, the country's second-oldest college football rivalry. Yale alum [[Walter Camp]], deemed the "Father of American Football", helped develop modern football while living in New Haven.<ref>[http://www.collegefootball.org/famer_selected.php?id=88004 College Football Hall of Fame || Famer Search<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
   
 
====Arena Football====
 
====Arena Football====
Hartford has hosted two [[Arena Football League]] franchises, in the [[Connecticut Coyotes]] from 1995 to 1996 and the [[New England Sea Wolves]] from 1999 to 2000, both playing at the Civic Center. Hartford was home to the [[Hartford Colonials]] of the [[United Football League (2009)|United Football League]] for one season in 2010.
+
Hartford has hosted two [[Arena Football League]] franchises, in the [[Connecticut Coyotes]] from 1995–1996 and the [[New England Sea Wolves]] from 1999–2000, both playing at the Civic Center. Hartford was home to the [[Hartford Colonials]] of the [[United Football League (2009)|United Football League]] for one season in 2010.
   
 
===Current professional sports teams===
 
===Current professional sports teams===
{| class="wikitable sortable"
+
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
 
!Club
 
!Club
Line 822: Line 685:
 
|[[American Hockey League]]
 
|[[American Hockey League]]
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Hartford Wolf Pack]]
+
|[[Connecticut Whale]]
 
|[[Ice hockey]]
 
|[[Ice hockey]]
 
|[[American Hockey League]]
 
|[[American Hockey League]]
Line 832: Line 695:
 
|[[New Britain Rock Cats]]
 
|[[New Britain Rock Cats]]
 
|Baseball
 
|Baseball
|[[Eastern League (baseball)|Eastern League]] (AA)
+
|[[Eastern League]] (AA)
 
|-
 
|-
 
|[[Connecticut Tigers]]
 
|[[Connecticut Tigers]]
Line 845: Line 708:
 
|Basketball
 
|Basketball
 
|[[Women's National Basketball Association]]
 
|[[Women's National Basketball Association]]
|-
 
| [[AC Connecticut]]
 
| Soccer
 
| [[USL PDL]]
 
 
|}
 
|}
   
 
==Etymology and symbols==
 
==Etymology and symbols==
 
{{Infobox U.S. state symbols
 
{{Infobox U.S. state symbols
  +
|Boxwidth = 25em
 
|Flag = Flag of Connecticut.svg
 
|Flag = Flag of Connecticut.svg
|Seal = Seal of Connecticut.svg
 
 
|Name = Connecticut
 
|Name = Connecticut
|Bird = [[American robin]]
+
|Bird = [[American Robin]]
 
|Fish = [[American shad]]
 
|Fish = [[American shad]]
 
|Flower = [[Kalmia latifolia|Mountain Laurel]]
 
|Flower = [[Kalmia latifolia|Mountain Laurel]]
|Insect = [[European mantis]]
+
|Insect = [[European Mantis]]
 
|Mammal = [[Sperm whale]]
 
|Mammal = [[Sperm whale]]
|Tree = [[Charter Oak|Charter]] [[White oak]]
+
|Tree = [[Charter oak|Charter]] [[White oak]]
 
|Dance = [[Square dance]]
 
|Dance = [[Square dance]]
 
|Fossil = [[Trace fossil|Dinosaur tracks]]
 
|Fossil = [[Trace fossil|Dinosaur tracks]]
 
|Mineral = [[Garnet]]
 
|Mineral = [[Garnet]]
|Motto = ''[[Qui transtulit sustinet]]''<br />[[Latin]]: "He who transplanted sustains"
 
 
|Shell = [[Eastern Oyster]]
 
|Shell = [[Eastern Oyster]]
 
|Ships = ''[[USS Nautilus (SSN-571)]]'', ''[[Freedom Schooner Amistad]]''
 
|Ships = ''[[USS Nautilus (SSN-571)]]'', ''[[Freedom Schooner Amistad]]''
 
|Slogan = ''Full of Surprises''
 
|Slogan = ''Full of Surprises''
|Song = "[[Yankee Doodle]]",<br />"[[Nutmegger|The Nutmeg]]"
+
|Song = ''[[Yankee Doodle]]'',<br />''[[The Nutmeg]]''
 
|Tartan = [http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=885&q=246526 Connecticut State Tartan]
 
|Tartan = [http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=885&q=246526 Connecticut State Tartan]
|Route Marker = Connecticut Highway 15.svg
+
|Route Marker = Connecticut Highway 16.svg
 
|Quarter = 1999 CT Proof.png
 
|Quarter = 1999 CT Proof.png
 
|QuarterReleaseDate = 1999
 
|QuarterReleaseDate = 1999
 
}}
 
}}
  +
The name "Connecticut" originates from the [[Mohegan]] word ''quonehtacut'', meaning "place of long tidal river".<ref name="AboutCT">{{cite web | url = http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=246434 | title = CT.gov: About Connecticut | accessdate =December 18, 2005}}</ref> Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–1639 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world.<ref name=SOTS>{{cite web|url=http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/cwp/view.asp?A=3188&QUESTION_ID=392608|title=SOTS: Sites, Seals & Symbols|accessdate=June 12, 2008}}</ref> Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as ''"The [[Nutmeg]] State"''.<ref name=SOTS/> The origins of the nutmeg connection to Connecticut are unknown. It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice). It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers. It is also facetiously said to come from [[Yankee]] peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.cslib.org/nicknamesCT.htm |title=Nicknames for the State of Connecticut |publisher=Connecticut State Library |accessdate=September 15, 2011}}</ref> [[George Washington]] gave Connecticut the title of ''"The Provisions State"''<ref name=SOTS/> because of the material aid the state rendered to the [[American Revolutionary War]] effort. Connecticut is also known as ''"The Land of Steady Habits"''.<ref name=SOTS/>
 
The name "Connecticut" originates from the [[Mohegan]] word ''quonehtacut'', meaning "place of long tidal river."<ref name ="AboutCT">{{cite web | url = http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=246434 | title = About Connecticut | publisher = The Government of Connecticut | accessdate =December 18, 2005}}</ref> Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–39 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world.<ref name=SOTS>{{cite web|url=http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/cwp/view.asp?A=3188&QUESTION_ID=392608 | publisher = The Government of Connecticut | work = SOTS | title = Sites, Seals & Symbols | accessdate = June 12, 2008}}</ref> Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as ''"The [[Nutmeg]] State."''<ref name = SOTS/> The origins of the nutmeg connection to Connecticut are unknown. It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice). It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers. It is also facetiously said to come from [[Yankee]] peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers.<ref name = "cslib" /> [[George Washington]] gave Connecticut the title of ''"The Provisions State"''<ref name=SOTS/> because of the material aid the state rendered to the [[American Revolutionary War]] effort. Connecticut is also known as ''"The Land of Steady Habits."''<ref name=SOTS />
 
 
[[File:Charter Oak in Hartford CT.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Charter Oak]]]]
 
[[File:Charter Oak in Hartford CT.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Charter Oak]]]]
 
[[File:SS-571-Nautilus-trials.gif|thumb|right|The [[USS Nautilus (SSN-571)|USS ''Nautilus'' (SSN-571)]]]]
 
[[File:SS-571-Nautilus-trials.gif|thumb|right|The [[USS Nautilus (SSN-571)|USS ''Nautilus'' (SSN-571)]]]]
   
According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter." There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "Connecticotian" – [[Cotton Mather]] in 1702. "Connecticutensian" – [[Samuel Peters]] in 1781. "[[Nutmegger]]" is sometimes used,<ref name = "cslib">{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/nicknamesCT.htm| title= Connecticut's Nicknames| publisher= Connecticut State Library | accessdate=September 15, 2011}}</ref> as is "[[Yankee]]" (the official state song is "[[Yankee Doodle]]"), though this usually refers someone from the wider [[New England]] region (and in the Southern United States, to anyone who lives north of the [[Mason-Dixon Line]]). Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn.;" the official [[United States postal abbreviations|postal abbreviation]] is CT.
+
According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter". There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "Connecticotian" – [[Cotton Mather]] in 1702. "Connecticutensian" – [[Samuel Peters]] in 1781. "[[Nutmegger]]" is sometimes used,<ref name=cslib>{{cite web| url=http://www.cslib.org/nicknamesCT.htm| title=Connecticut's Nicknames| publisher=Connecticut State Library}}</ref> as is "Yankee" (the official state song is "[[Yankee Doodle]]"), though this usually refers someone from the wider [[New England]] region (and in the Southern United States, to anyone who lives north of the [[Mason-Dixon Line]]).<ref>See [[Yankee]] main article.</ref> Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn."; the official [[United States postal abbreviations|postal abbreviation]] is CT.
   
 
[[Commemorative stamp]]s issued by the [[United States Postal Service]] with Connecticut themes include [[Nathan Hale]], [[Eugene O'Neill]], [[Josiah Willard Gibbs]], [[Noah Webster]], [[Eli Whitney]], the [[whaling]] ship the [[Charles W. Morgan (ship)|Charles W. Morgan]] which is docked in [[Mystic Seaport]], and a [[decoy]] of a broadbill [[duck]].
 
[[Commemorative stamp]]s issued by the [[United States Postal Service]] with Connecticut themes include [[Nathan Hale]], [[Eugene O'Neill]], [[Josiah Willard Gibbs]], [[Noah Webster]], [[Eli Whitney]], the [[whaling]] ship the [[Charles W. Morgan (ship)|Charles W. Morgan]] which is docked in [[Mystic Seaport]], and a [[decoy]] of a broadbill [[duck]].
   
 
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto"
|+ Connecticut state insignia and historical figures<ref name=SOTS/><br /><sup> except where noted</sup>
+
|+ Connecticut state insignia and historical figures<ref name=SOTS/><sup> except where noted</sup>
|-
 
|State aircraft || [[Vought F4U Corsair]]<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/cwp/view.asp?a=3188&q=392608 |title=Connecticut Secretary of the State - Sites, Seals & Symbols - State Aircraft |author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> |date= |website=http://www.sots.ct.gov |publisher=State of Connecticut |accessdate=June 17, 2014}}</ref>
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|State hero || [[Nathan Hale]]
 
|State hero || [[Nathan Hale]]
Line 895: Line 750:
 
|State composer || [[Charles Edward Ives]]
 
|State composer || [[Charles Edward Ives]]
 
|-
 
|-
|State statues in [[National Statuary Hall Collection#Collection|Statuary Hall]] || [[Roger Sherman]] and [[Jonathan Trumbull]]
+
|State statues in [[National Statuary Hall Collection|Statuary Hall]] || [[Roger Sherman]] and [[Jonathan Trumbull]]<ref>See [[National Statuary Hall Collection#Collection|National Statuary Hall Collection]]</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
<!-- STATE PEOPLE, HONORARY POSTS-->
 
<!-- STATE PEOPLE, HONORARY POSTS-->
 
|[[State poet laureate]] || [[Dick Allen (poet)|Dick Allen]]
 
|[[State poet laureate]] || [[Dick Allen (poet)|Dick Allen]]
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Connecticut State Troubadour]] || Kristen Graves<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.ct.gov/cct/cwp/view.asp?a=2162&q=293748 |title=Connecticut State Troubadour |publisher=State of Connecticut |accessdate=June 29, 2013}}</ref>
+
|[[Connecticut State Troubadour]] || Chuck E. Costa<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.kids.ct.gov/kids/cwp/view.asp?a=2731&q=314202 |title=State Symbols: The State Troubador – Chuck E. Costa |work=ConneCTKids |publisher=State of Connecticut |date=March 15, 2011 |accessdate=September 15, 2011}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
|State composer laureate || [[Jacob Druckman]]
 
|State composer laureate || [[Jacob Druckman]]
Line 906: Line 761:
   
 
==Famous residents==
 
==Famous residents==
{{example farm|date=June 2013}}
 
 
{{Main|List of people from Connecticut}}
 
{{Main|List of people from Connecticut}}
  +
* [[George H.W. Bush]], the 41st president of the United States, who grew up in Greenwich<ref>http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/george-bush "George Bush," History.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref> a member of the [[Bush political family]], with roots in the state extending three generations.
 
* [[George W. Bush]], the 43rd president of the United States, was born in [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]].<ref>http://www.biography.com/people/george-w-bush-9232768#awesm=~oEDUgKqTHQe2ZZ "George W. Bush Biography," Biography.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
+
* [[George Walker Bush]], the 43rd President of the United States, was born in Connecticut. He is a member of the [[Bush political family]], with roots in the state extending three generations.
  +
* [[Charles Dow]], founder of the Wall Street Journal and Dow Jones.<ref>http://www.anb.org/articles/16/16-03537.html "Dow, Charles Henry," American National Biography Online. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
  +
* American author [[Mark Twain]] resided in his innovative [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] home from 1871 until 1891, during which time he published ''The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'' and '' The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn''. He lived in [[Redding, Connecticut|Redding]] from 1908 until his death in 1910.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.marktwainlibrary.org/9samuelclemens-folder/samuel-clemens-and-the-mark-twain-library.htm |title=Samuel Clemens and the Mark Twain Library |publisher=Mark Twain Library |accessdate=September 15, 2011}}</ref>
* [[Katharine Hepburn]], named by the American Film Institute as the greatest female star in Hollywood history.<ref>http://www.biography.com/people/katharine-hepburn-9335828#awesm=~oEDV3oZXwvgJaB "Katharine Hepburn Biography," Biography.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
  +
* [[J.P. Morgan]], financier and philanthropist who dominated a period of industrial consolidation and intervened in multiple economic panics during his time.<ref>http://www.biography.com/people/jp-morgan-9414735#awesm=~oEDVgccyvH9m1C "J.P. Morgan Biography," Biography.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
  +
* [[Gideon Welles]] was born in [[Glastonbury]], and was called 'the father of the modern Navy. As Secretary of the Navy, he was a proponent of funding the first steel warship.
* [[Jackie Robinson]], who broke baseball's "color line," contributing significantly to the [[Civil Rights Movement]].<ref>http://www.biography.com/people/jackie-robinson-9460813#awesm=~oEDVDeW7JBvyzD "Jackie Robinson Biography," Biography.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
  +
* [[Igor Sikorsky]], who created and flew the first practical helicopter.<ref>http://www.biography.com/people/igor-sikorsky-9483585#awesm=~oEDVMz4yePtkxu "Igor Sikorsky Biography," Biography.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
  +
* [[Noah Webster]] was born in Hartford in an area that is now part of [[West Hartford]] and was the author of the "Blue Backed Speller," now known as Webster's Dictionary. The Speller was used to teach spelling to five generations of Americans.
* [[Harriet Beecher Stowe]], whose novel ''Uncle Tom's Cabin'' (1852) energized anti-slavery forces in the American North.<ref>https://www.harrietbeecherstowecenter.org/hbs/ "Harriet Beecher Stowe's Life," Harriet Beecher Stowe Center. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
  +
* [[Meryl Streep]], who holds the record for the most [[Academy Awards]] nominations for acting.<ref>http://www.connecticutmag.com/Blog/Arts-Entertainment/February-2014/Meryl-Streep-Oscars-Stars-Other-Celebs-Live-in-Connecticut-We-Map-Them/ "Meryl Streep, Oscars' Stars and Other Celebs in Connecticut (We Map Them)," Connecticut Magazine, February 27, 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
  +
* Many music stars, radio and television personalities, and athletes have made temporary homes in the wealthy suburbs of [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]]. Singer [[Gene Pitney]] was born in Hartford and grew up in [[Rockville, Connecticut|Rockville]]. Actor [[Dylan McDermott]] was born and raised in Waterbury. [[Meg Ryan]] lived in [[Fairfield, Connecticut|Fairfield]] while growing up. Animator and creator of ''[[Family Guy]]'', [[Seth MacFarlane]] was born in [[Kent, Connecticut]].
* [[Mark Twain]] resided in his innovative [[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]] home from 1871 until 1891, during which time he published ''The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'' and '' The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn''. He lived in [[Redding, Connecticut|Redding]] from 1908 until his death in 1910.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.marktwainlibrary.org/9samuelclemens-folder/samuel-clemens-and-the-mark-twain-library.htm |title=Samuel Clemens and the Mark Twain Library |publisher=Mark Twain Library |accessdate=September 15, 2011}}</ref>
 
  +
* [[Noah Webster]] was born in Hartford in an area that is now part of [[West Hartford]] and was the author of the ''Blue Backed Speller'', now known as ''Webster's Dictionary''. The ''Speller'' was used to teach spelling to five generations of Americans.<ref>http://www.biography.com/people/noah-webster-9526224#awesm=~oEDWPi2TfHJD2B "Noah Webster Biography," Biography.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
  +
* Other notable figures from the state span American political and cultural history, including [[Roger Sherman]], [[Benedict Arnold]], [[Nathan Hale]], [[Eli Whitney, Jr.|Eli Whitney]], [[John Brown (abolitionist)|John Brown]], [[Prudence Crandall]], [[P. T. Barnum]], [[Harriet Beecher Stowe]], [[Florence Griswold]], [[Charles Ives]], [[Wallace Stevens]], [[Eugene O'Neill]], [[Katharine Hepburn]], [[Andy Rooney]], [[Joanne Woodward]], [[Mo Vaughn]], [[Ralph Nader]], [[Jacques Pépin]], [[Christopher Walken]], [[Phil Donahue]], [[Marlo Thomas]], [[Mia Farrow]], [[Jane Curtin]], [[Igor Sikorsky]], [[Charles Smith (basketball, born 1965)|Charles Smith]], [[Patti LuPone]], [[Meryl Streep]], [[Glenn Close]], [[Michael Bolton]], [[50 Cent]], [[William F. Buckley, Jr.]], [[James Blake]], [[John Mayer]], [[Glenn Beck]], and also [[Henry Lee (forensic scientist)|Henry Lee]].
* [[Eli Whitney, Jr.|Eli Whitney]], best known for inventing the [[cotton gin]], which shaped the economy of the [[Antebellum South]]; and promoting the design of interchangeable parts in production, a major development leading to the [[Industrial Revolution]].<ref>http://www.biography.com/people/eli-whitney-9530201#awesm=~oEDX0pOKWHrEmG "Eli Whitney Biography," Biography.com. Retrieved May 18, 2014.</ref>
 
* Other notable figures from the state span American political and cultural history, including [[Dean Acheson]], [[Ethan Allen]], [[Benedict Arnold]], [[P. T. Barnum]], [[Glenn Beck]], [[Michael Bolton]], [[John Brown (abolitionist)|John Brown]], [[William F. Buckley, Jr.]], [[Prudence Crandall]], [[Glenn Close]], [[Samuel Colt]], [[Phil Donahue]], [[Charles Goodyear]], [[Florence Griswold]], [[Nathan Hale]], [[Dorothy Hamill]], [[Charles Ives]], [[Bruce Jenner]], [[Helen Keller]], [[Henry Lee (forensic scientist)|Henry Lee]], [[Ivan Lendl]], [[John Mayer]], [[Ralph Nader]], [[Paul Newman]], [[Eugene O'Neill]], [[Frederick Law Olmsted]], [[Gene Pitney]], [[Roger Sherman]], [[Alfred P. Sloan]], [[John Trumbull]], [[Mo Vaughn]], [[Steve Young]], [[Kevin Navayne]], [[Gideon Welles]], and [[50 Cent]].
 
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
{{portal|Connecticut}}
 
{{portal|Connecticut}}
* [[Index of Connecticut-related articles]]
+
*[[Outline of Connecticut]]
* [[Outline of Connecticut]] – organized list of topics about Connecticut
+
*[[Index of Connecticut-related articles]]
* [[National Register of Historic Places listings in Connecticut]]
+
*[[National Register of Historic Places listings in Connecticut|List of National Register of Historic Places in Connecticut]]
  +
*[[List of people from Connecticut]]
 
{{clear}}
 
{{clear}}
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
  +
{{reflist|2}}
{{Format footnotes|date=February 2015}}
 
{{reflist|30em}}
 
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
{{Sister project links|voy=Connecticut|Connecticut}}
 
{{Sister project links|voy=Connecticut|Connecticut}}
  +
<!--===============================================================================-->
 
  +
;Government
<!--| WIKIPEDIA IS NOT A COLLECTION OF LINKS. Only a limited number of new links |-->
 
  +
* [http://www.ct.gov/ State of Connecticut] – Official state website
<!--| should be added to this article. Consider adding links to the appropriate |-->
 
  +
* [http://wikis.ala.org/godort/index.php/Connecticut Connecticut State Databases] – Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Connecticut state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association.
<!--| category at the Open Directory Project (www.dmoz.org) and link back to that |-->
 
  +
* [http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/cwp/view.asp?a=3188&q=392636&SOTSNav_GID=1849 Connecticut State Register & Manual] – updated annually
<!--| category using the {{dmoz}} template. |-->
 
  +
* [http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=257266 Directory of Web sites of Connecticut towns and cities]
<!--| See [[Wikipedia:External links]] and [[Wikipedia:Spam]] for further details |-->
 
  +
* [http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=CT Energy Data & Statistics for Connecticut- From the U.S. Department of Energy]
<!--===============================================================================-->
 
* [http://www.ct.gov/ State of Connecticut] - Official website
+
* [http://www2.census.gov/census_2000/datasets/demographic_profile/Connecticut/2kh09.pdf 2000 Census of Population and Housing for Connecticut], [[U.S. Census Bureau]]
  +
* [http://www.ctvisit.com/ CTVisit.com] - Official tourism website
 
  +
;General
* [http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/09000.html Connecticut QuickFacts] - U.S Census Bureau
 
* {{dmoz|Regional/North_America/United_States/Connecticut}}
+
*{{Ballotpedia|Connecticut|Connecticut}}
  +
*{{Judgepedia|Connecticut|Connecticut}}
  +
*{{Sunshine|Connecticut|Connecticut}}
  +
*{{dmoz|Regional/North_America/United_States/Connecticut}}
  +
  +
;Tourism
  +
* [http://www.ctvisit.com/ CTVisit.com] – Official state tourism website
  +
* {{osmrelation-inline|165794}}
  +
  +
;History
  +
* [http://www.chs.org/ Connecticut Historical Society]
  +
* [http://www.ctgenealogy.com/ Connecticut Society of Genealogists (Est. 1968)]
  +
* [http://www.ers.usda.gov/StateFacts/CT.htm Connecticut State Facts]
  +
* [http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/09000.html U.S. Census Bureau]
  +
* [http://www.usgs.gov/state/state.asp?State=CT USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Connecticut]
  +
* [http://www.hartfordradiohistory.com/ Connecticut Broadcasting History]
  +
* [http://www.ctradiohistory.org/ Connecticut Radio History]
  +
  +
;Civic and business organizations
  +
* [http://www.cbia.com/ Connecticut Business & Industry Association]
  +
* [http://www.ctjaycees.org/ Connecticut Junior Chamber (Jaycees)]
  +
* [http://www.usnewspapers.org/state/connecticut Connecticut Newspapers]
  +
* [http://www.ctbhof.com/ The Connecticut Business Hall Of Fame]
  +
* [http://www.smallbusinessesforhealthcarereform.org/ Small Businesses for Health Care Reform]
   
 
{{clear}}
 
{{clear}}
Line 952: Line 828:
 
{{13colonies}}
 
{{13colonies}}
 
{{New England}}
 
{{New England}}
{{Northeast US}}
 
 
{{United States political divisions}}
 
{{United States political divisions}}
 
{{United States topics}}
 
{{United States topics}}
Line 959: Line 834:
 
| Northwest =
 
| Northwest =
 
| North = {{flag|Massachusetts}}
 
| North = {{flag|Massachusetts}}
| Northeast =
+
| Northeast =
 
| West = {{flag|New York}}
 
| West = {{flag|New York}}
 
| Centre = '' Connecticut'': [[Outline of Connecticut|Outline]] • [[Index of Connecticut-related articles|Index]]
 
| Centre = '' Connecticut'': [[Outline of Connecticut|Outline]] • [[Index of Connecticut-related articles|Index]]
 
| East = {{flag|Rhode Island}}
 
| East = {{flag|Rhode Island}}
 
| Southwest = {{flag|New York City}}
 
| Southwest = {{flag|New York City}}
| South = [[Long Island Sound]]<br />[[Long Island|Long Island, New York]]
+
| South = [[Long Island Sound]]<br>[[Long Island|Long Island, New York]]
 
| Southeast = Atlantic Ocean
 
| Southeast = Atlantic Ocean
 
}}
 
}}
  +
{{s-start}}
 
  +
{{succession
{{s-bef|before=[[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]]}}
 
  +
| preceded = [[Georgia, U.S.|Georgia]]
{{s-ttl|title=[[List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union]]|years=Ratified [[Constitution of the United States of America|Constitution]] on January 9, 1788 (5th)}}
 
  +
| office = [[List of U.S. states by date of statehood]]
{{s-aft|after=[[Massachusetts]]}}
 
  +
| years = Ratified [[Constitution of the United States of America|Constitution]] on January 9, 1788 (5th)
{{s-end}}
 
  +
| succeeded = [[Massachusetts]]
  +
}}
 
{{Coord|41.6|N|72.7|W|region:US-CT_type:adm1st_scale:1000000|display=title}}
 
{{Coord|41.6|N|72.7|W|region:US-CT_type:adm1st_scale:1000000|display=title}}
{{Use mdy dates|date=November 2014}}
 
   
 
[[Category:Connecticut| ]]
 
[[Category:Connecticut| ]]
[[Category:Former British colonies]]
+
[[Category:States of the United States]]
 
[[Category:New England]]
 
[[Category:New England]]
 
[[Category:Northeastern United States]]
 
[[Category:Northeastern United States]]
[[Category:States and territories established in 1788]]
+
[[Category:Former British colonies]]
[[Category:States of the East Coast of the United States]]
+
[[Category:Settlements in the United States with Italian-American plurality populations]]
[[Category:States of the United States]]
+
[[Category:Established in 1788]]
   
 
{{usedwp|Connecticut}}
 
{{usedwp|Connecticut}}

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