|Birth:||1803, Cornwall, England|
|Baptism:||10/04/1803, Gwinear, Cornwall|
|Death:||26/12/1887, [Guildford], Victoria, Australia|
|Marriage:||20/01/1824, Perranzabuloe, Cornwall|
|2nd Spouse:||Emma Agate|
|2nd Marriage:||06/05/1861, [North Adelaide], South Australia|
From information supplied by Peter Underdown:-
‘Christopher Pollard was born, together with his twin brother, Joseph, in 1803 in Cornwall. Their parents were John & Jane, nee Hand. This has been verified in Cornwall by researchers and the name Helen given on Christopher’s death certificate for his mother was incorrect. The informant was the second husband of Christopher’s daughter Elizabeth, and he was also unable to give Jane’s maiden name. The twins were baptized together in Gwinear on 10.5.1803. Gwinear is a village in the south eastern part of Cornwall near [Hayle] and Gwinear churchtown still exists today. ‘
‘Christopher (1803) lived in the heart of the Cornish tin mining area and like most he became a miner and carried the profession to his grave in Australia in 1887 at the age of 84 years. On the 20th January 1824, in Perranzabuloe, Christopher married Mary Floyd. Perranzabuloe is about 5 miles north east of [Truro], toward [Perranporth].”
On the marriage records, Christopher and Mary were listed as sojourners, which meant they were only visitors in the area that they married. Witness to the wedding was Joseph Pollard, likely to be Christopher’s twin brother.
The first four children were born at Gwinear as shown in the IGI. The remainder of their children were born at Perranzabuloe and they were living there by 1841, when the 1841 census showed them at –oonhavers; Perranzabuloe (misspelling of Goosheaven). At this stage, father Christopher and children James, Jane and Christopher were lead dressers in the local mine.
They are still at Perranzabuloe in the 1851 Census. Peter Underdown continues:- “The information from the census does not include sons James or Christopher. I suspect that James was deceased at that stage and may have been married, whilst Christopher was probably married and living apart from the family with his wife Caroline.”
“In this census report both parents were listed as 48 years of age and born in Gwinear. Christopher, the father, was listed as a miner as were Henry, John & Joseph.’
“There appears to be only four marriages and four baptisms listed in Perranzabuloe in the IGI so I am unsure where most of the children were baptized. John was baptized at Truro’s St Marys Wesleyan Church. Perhaps this indicates a change in religion by the family. The Cornish are renowned for their religious faith, spiritual beliefs and superstitions. An obituary written by Joseph Barnes in 1882 in South Australia on the death of his wife Jane, the eldest daughter of Christopher and Mary, gave an indication of the family’s early life in Cornwall.”
“Jane worked in the East Wheal Rose Mine and lived approximately one mile distant, probably with the family. This must have been around 1832 when Mary, the second daughter was born to Christopher and Mary. Jane was known as ‘Jenny’ and had followed ‘Bryanites’ or Bible Christians since childhood. She became a “co-worker in the prayer meetings with the world renowned Billy Bray, who preached the last sermon in the church previous to her departure for South Australia.” In the mine, “where on account of her honesty and integrity, she was placed in charge of about 100 young women who were engaged in sorting copper”. “She used to go into the assorting rooms and hold prayer meetings at noonday which were carried on with that spiritual life and enthusiasm that has made [Cornwall] so noted.” The whole family was a mining family and probably all worked at the Wheal Rose Mine, which was developed and named after it’s discoverer.”
In 1964 a book was written by HL Douch, called East Wheal Rose. Chapter three called ‘DISASTER’ describes how on the 9.7.1846, a thunderstorm resulted in flooding and mud slides at the mine site, killing 36 men. A James Pollard of Perrranzabuloe is listed amongst the dead. The James Pollard was Christopher and Mary’s eldest son, who was recorded aged 21 at his burial, and listed of 'Gooseheaven' (where the family resided in the 1841 census). He is also listed as deceased in 1860 on his mother’s death certificate in Australia. It is believed this disaster may have been the trigger in the family’s eventual decision to move to Australia. More information on the disaster can be found on the following websites:-
The ship ‘SULTANA’ left Plymouth on the 1.5.1851, arriving in South Australia at [Port Adelaide] on 10.8.1851. The shipping list showed that Christopher was charged an additional amount due to the number of children that came. The families first place of residence in South Australia was in the busy copper mining town of Kapunda, where many Cornish people settled. At least two of the family, Christopher and Henry were to settle in Kapunda for the remainder of their lives.
“In 1852, according to Jane’s obituary, her father left Kapunda, taking the family with him, and settled at [Bowden]. Mary was listed on her death certificate as being in South Australia for 5 years, whilst her husband, Christopher, according to his death certificate, was only here for 1 year. If these times are correct then it is obvious that Christopher and possibly come of the boys left for the goldfields in 1852, leaving Mary and the rest of the family in Parklands, [Bowden] until approximately 1856.”
There is a record of a Christopher and Henry Pollard traveling to [Melbourne] from [Adelaide] on the “Hayilan’ on 18.11.1853.
“On the 22.6.1854 Jane Pollard married Joseph Barnes in the Bible Christian Chapel at [Bowden]. Jane Pollard was reported as the ‘daughter of Christopher Pollard of [Bowden]’ in the Northern Argus on 24.6.1854. This may indicate that Christopher was still a resident of [Bowden] in 1854 or he may have returned from the goldfields for the wedding, perhaps taking the rest of the family back with him, as Mary disappeared from the [Bowden] rate books after 1854. Jane and Joseph Barnes settled in [Bowden], but in 1860 went to [Castlemaine] in Victoria where Jane’s parents had obviously settled to raise the younger children. Their descendents live in and adjacent areas today.”
On 25.4.1857, daughter Elizabeth married John A Sam, a 29 year old miner from [China] in the Church of England at Tarrangower (now known as Maldon). Only about 50 Australian women are known to have married Chinese miners during the gold rush, and it is not known if there were any children from this marriage, or what happened to John Sam. Elizabeth was married to her second husband in 1867.
Robert Floyd Pollard aged 12 years died of Colonial Fever on 22.4.1858 after an illness lasting 20 days. He is buried in the [Castlemaine] Cemetery on Cemetery Road, [Campbell’s Creek]. His brother Joseph died of the same illness just the day before. They were buried together in the Castlemaine Cemetery.
Christoper's wife Mary died on 17/6/1860 at Barker's Creek of ulceration of the bowel. Only one month before, their son Christopher had died at Kapunda. A month later, their son Henry would also die at Kapunda. Mary’s death certificate states that she was 21 at marriage had been in South Australia for 10 years, and 4 years in Victoria. Children not living at her death were James, Christopher, Joseph and Robert. She too was buried in the Castlemaine Cemetery.
Within a year of Mary's death, Christopher married a second time to Emma Agate in North Adelaide, South Australia. Christopher and Emma would have at least 4 children together in Victoria, but it is beleived they separated or divorced approximately 10 years into the marriage.
This is determined by the fact that they eldest two children, Chistina Frances and Christopher William George were admitted to the Destitute Asylum in Adelaide in approximately 1871 as 'neglected' children. Their admittance records that their father was living in Victoria at the time and their mother in Mount Gambier. Son Christopher was eventually adopted out and had a good life in the Barossa Valley but Christina was not so lucky. She was ill treated by one of her foster families and all trace of her disappears after the Destitute Asylum records.
What happened to son Clement is unknown. According to Christopher's death certificate, he was alive in 1887, but some of the information provided on the death certificate was inaccurate.
Christopher died in 1887 at Guildford of enlargement of the heart (1 year), asthma (3 weeks)and congestion of the lungs. He was buried in the Castlemaine Cemetery with first wife Mary and their two sons who had died of colonial fever.
Christopher's will was in favour of his daughter Elizabeth and she was also executor. He left her "all my property in land and houses, situated in Fryers and Templeton Streets, Guidlford, with all my moneys". It was Elizabeth's second husband William Wicks who was the informant for Christopher's death certificate.
|Children of Christopher & Mary Pollard
East Wheal Rose Mine, Cornwall
|Jane (Jenny)||bap 7/5/1826|
Bowden, South Australia
Kapunda, South Australia
Kapunda, South Australia
Kapunda, South Australia
buried Campbell's Creek, Victoria
Bendigo, Victoria, Australia
buried [Campbell's Creek], Victoria
|Children of Christopher & Emma Pollard
|Christopher William George||5/9/1863|
[Tanunda], South Australia
|living in 1887|
- Family research information from Peter Underdown
- International Genealogical Index
- 1841 & 1851 census for Cornwall
- Baptism records
- Births, Deaths & Marriage records
- Obituary of Jane Barnes (nee Pollard)
- East Wheal Rose by HL Douch
- South Australian Passenger lists
- Cemtery Records