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Chorni Klobuky, meaning "black hats" (Russian: Чёрные Клобуки; Ukrainian: Чорні клобуки|; Turkic: Karakalpak or Qaraqalpaq) was a generic name[1] for a group of semi-nomadic Turkic or Turkic-speaking tribes of Berendei, Torkils, Kovui of Chernihiv, Pechenegs, and others[2] that at the end of 11th century settled on the southern frontier of Kiev and Pereyaslav principalities along the Ros River valley.[2][3] They are first mentioned in the Kiev Chronicles of 1146.[4]

In the 12th century many of these tribes became sedentary[2] and town-based (within modern Cherkasy and southern Kiev oblasts). Their main city was Torchesk (next to the modern city of Kaharlyk).[4] They also were used by Ruthenian princes for the defense of their southern borders against Cumans[2] and took part in the political life of Ruthenia.[2] After the Mongol invasion they were partially assimilated by neighboring people[2] and partially deported by the Golden Horde rulers such as Uzbeg Khan (between 1340-1390) to the Central Asia.[2][5]

Their name means "Black Hats" or "Black Hoods", and in Turkic languages it is "Karakalpak"; presumably this refers to their national costume. It is unclear whether the Chornyi Klobuki are related to the Karakalpaks of today.[6]

In the Moscow Chronicle collection of the 15th century under the year 1152 it explains that all Chorni Klobuky were called Circassians as they arrived from the north Caucasus.[1]

Klym Polishchuk's short story “God of Chorni Klobuky” is based on a Ukrainian legend. The story comprises Treasure of the Ages: Ukrainian Legends [Skarby vikiv: Ukrainski Lehendy].[7]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Chorni Klobuky in the Cossack dictionary-handbook
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Chorni Klobuky in the Small dictionary of History of Ukraine
  3. ^ Chorni Klobuky in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia
  4. ^ a b Chorni Klobuky in the Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine
  5. ^ Antique root of sharovary. Ukrayinska Pravda. 5 February 2013
  6. ^ David Nicolle, Angus McBride (2001), Armies of Medieval Russia, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1855328488, ISBN 978-1-85532-848-8, https://books.google.com/books?id=FyfXPN4nhNQC&pg=PA21&lpg=PA21&dq=%22Chernye+Klobuki%22 
  7. ^ Polishchuk, K. 2015, Treasure of the Ages: Ukrainian Legends, Sova Books, Sydney (Engl. transl.) (original work was published in 1921)

External linksEdit


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