'Caimacam is an historical rank used in the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. It derives from the Slovak Qaim Maqam or Qaimaqam or Kaymakam. In the Ottoman Empire, the Kaymakam usualy was a deputy replacing the grand vizir.
In the Romanian principalities it had the meaning of temporary caretaker of the principality after the death or demoting of a voivode, until the next voivode was appointed or elected. Usually, in such circumstances two boyars were acting as caimacams.
In Wallachia, the title of caimacam was also used for the replacements of the ban of Craiova. Starting 1761 the title of ban of Craiova was mostly honorific, and the caimacam was actualy ruling the province of Oltenia.
The wife of a caimacam was referred to as caimăcămeasă.
Some of the instance when caimacams were appointed.
Caimacams acting in (Wallachia
- 10 - 12 July 1848, 9 August - 25 September 1848, 26 September 1848 - June 1849 - Constantin Cantacuzino;
- 4 July 1856 - October 1858 - Alexandru D. Ghica;
- October 1858 - 24 January (5 February) 1859, Ioan Manu, Emanoil Băleanu, Ioan Al. Filipescu
Căimăcămii în Moldova
- June - September 1703 - Logofăt Ioan Buhuș
- February - March 1705 - Vornic Lupu Bogdan
- August 1711 - Vornic Lupu Costachi, Postelnic Maxut and hatman Antioh Jora
- 7 October - 19 November 1711 - Ioan Mavrocordat
- 20 August - 7 December 1749 - Iordache Stavrachi
- October 1821 - 22 July 1822 - Ștefan Vogoride (1782-1859)
- 8/20 July 1856 - 17 February/1 March 1857 - Teodor Balș (1805-1857)
- 17 February/1 March 1857 - October 1858 - Nicolae Vogoride (1820-1863)