|— City —|
|County||Municipality of Bucharest|
|• Mayor||Sorin Oprescu (Independent)|
|• City||228 km2 (88 sq mi)|
|• Urban||285 km2 (110 sq mi)|
|Elevation||60–90 m (197–295 ft)|
|Population (est. January 1, 2009)|
|• Density||8,510/km2 (22,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Area code(s)||+40 x1|
Bucharest (Romanian: București) is the capital city, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country, at , and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River.
Bucharest was first mentioned in documents as early as 1459. Since then it has gone through a variety of changes, becoming the state capital of Romania in 1862 and steadily consolidating its position as the centre of the Romanian mass media, culture and arts. Its eclectic architecture is a mix of historical (neo-classical), interbellum (Bauhaus and Art Deco), Communist-era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of the "Little Paris of the East" (Micul Paris). Although many buildings and districts in the historic centre were damaged or destroyed by war, earthquakes and Nicolae Ceaușescu's program of systematization, many survived. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an economic and cultural boom.
According to January 1, 2009 official estimates, Bucharest proper has a population of 1,944,367. The urban area extends beyond the limits of Bucharest proper and has a population of 2 million people. Adding the satellite towns around the urban area, the metropolitan area of Bucharest has a population of 2.15 million people. According to unofficial data, the population is more than 3 million. Bucharest is the 6th largest city in the European Union by population within city limits.
Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania and is one of the main industrial centres and transportation hubs of Eastern Europe. The city has a broad range of convention facilities, educational facilities, cultural venues, shopping arcades and recreational areas.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Law and government
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Transport
- 8 Culture
- 9 Architecture
- 10 Media
- 11 Education
- 12 Sports
- 13 International relations
- 14 See also
- 15 Notes
- 16 References
- 17 External links
- 18 Born in Bucharest
- 19 Married in Bucharest
- 20 Died in Bucharest
Etymology[edit | edit source]
The name of Bucur has an uncertain origin: tradition connects the founding of Bucharest with the name of Bucur who was either a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, a shepherd, or a hunter, according to different legends. In Romanian the word stem bucur means 'glad', 'joy'.
The official city name in full is The Municipality of Bucharest (Romanian: Municipiul București).
A native or resident of Bucharest is called Bucharester (Romanian: bucureștean).
History[edit | edit source]
Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements of the Antiquity and until its consolidation as capital of Romania late in the 19th century.
First mentioned as "the Citadel of București" in 1459, it became a residence of the Wallachian prince Vlad III the Impaler. The Old Princely Court (Curtea Veche) was built by Mircea Ciobanul, and during following rules, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the court, competing with Târgoviște for the status of capital after an increase in the importance of southern Muntenia brought about by the demands of the suzerain power, the Ottoman Empire.
Burned down by the Ottomans and briefly discarded by princes at the start of the 17th century, Bucharest was restored and continued to grow in size and prosperity. Its centre was around the street "Ulița Mare", which starting 1589 was known as Lipscani. Before the 18th century, it became the most important trade centre of Wallachia and became a permanent location for the Wallachian court after 1698 (starting with the reign of Constantin Brâncoveanu).
Partly destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years, hit by Caragea's plague in 1813–1814, the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals by the Habsburg Monarchy (1716, 1737, 1789) and Imperial Russia (three times between 1768 and 1806). It was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution, and an Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure (remaining in the city until March 1857). Additionally, on March 23, 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings of Bucharest, destroying a third of the city. The social divide between rich and poor was described at the time by Ferdinand Lassalle as making the city "a savage hodgepodge".
In 1861, when Wallachia and Moldavia were united to form the Principality of Romania, Bucharest became the new nation's capital; in 1881, it became the political centre of the newly-proclaimed Kingdom of Romania. During the second half of the 19th century, due to its new status, the city's population increased dramatically, and a new period of urban development began. The extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of "The Paris of the East" (or "Little Paris", Micul Paris), with Calea Victoriei as its main thoroughfare.
Between December 6, 1916 and November 1918, it was occupied by German forces, the legitimate capital being moved to Iași. After World War I, Bucharest became the capital of Greater Romania. In January 1941 it was the place of Legionnaires' rebellion. As the capital of an Axis country, Bucharest suffered heavy losses during World War II, due to Allied bombings, and, on August 23, 1944, saw the royal coup which brought Romania into the anti-German camp, suffering a short but destructive period of Luftwaffe bombings in reprisal.
During Nicolae Ceaușescu's leadership (1965–1989), most of the historic part of the city was destroyed and replaced with Communist-style buildings, particularly high-rise apartment buildings. The best example of this is the development called Centrul Civic (the Civic Centre), including the Palace of the Parliament, where an entire historic quarter was razed to make way for Ceaușescu's megalomaniac constructions. In 1977, a strong 7.2 on the Richter-scale earthquake claimed 1,500 lives and destroyed many old buildings. Nevertheless, some historic neighbourhoods did survive to this day.
The Romanian Revolution of 1989 began with mass anti-Ceaușescu protests in Timișoara in December 1989 and continued in Bucharest, leading to the overthrow of the Communist regime. Dissatisfied with the post-revolutionary leadership of the National Salvation Front, student leagues and opposition groups organized large-scale protests continued in 1990 (the Golaniad), which were violently stopped by the miners of Valea Jiului (the Mineriad). Several other Mineriads followed, the results of which included a government change.
After the year 2000, due to the advent of significant economic growth in Romania, the city has modernized and is currently undergoing a period of urban renewal. Various residential and commercial developments are underway, particularly in the northern districts, while Bucharest's historic centre is currently undergoing restoration.
Treaties signed in Bucharest[edit | edit source]
- Treaty of May 28, 1812, at the end of the Russo-Turkish War
- Treaty of March 3, 1886, at the end of the Serbo-Bulgarian War
- Treaty of August 10, 1913, at the end of the Second Balkan War
- Treaty of August 4, 1916, the treaty of alliance between Romania and the Entente
- Treaty of May 6, 1918, the treaty between Romania and the Central Powers
Geography[edit | edit source]
General information[edit | edit source]
Bucharest is situated on the banks of the Dâmboviţa River, which flows into the Argeş River, a tributary of the Danube. Several lakes – the most important of which are Lake Herăstrău, Lake Floreasca, Lake Tei, and Lake Colentina – stretch across the city, along the Colentina River, a tributary of the Dâmbovița. In addition, in the centre of the capital there is a small artificial lake – Lake Cișmigiu – surrounded by the Cișmigiu Gardens. The Cișmigiu Gardens have a rich history, being frequented by famous poets and writers. Opened in 1847 and based on the plans of German architect Carl F.W. Meyer, the gardens are currently the main recreational facility in the city centre.
Besides Cișmigiu, Bucharest contains several other large parks and gardens, including Herăstrău Park and the Botanical Garden. Herăstrău is a large public park located in the north of the city, around Lake Herăstrău, and the site of the Village Museum, while the Bucharest's botanical garden is the largest in Romania and contains over 10,000 species of plants, many of them exotic; it was once a pleasure park for the royal family.
Bucharest is situated in the south eastern corner of the Romanian Plain, in an area once covered by the Vlăsiei forest, which, after it was cleared, gave way to a fertile flatland. As with many cities, Bucharest is traditionally considered to have seven hills, similar to the seven hills of Rome. Bucharest's seven hills are: Mihai Vodă, Dealul Mitropoliei, Radu Vodă, Cotroceni, Spirei, Văcărești and Sf. Gheorghe Nou.
The city has a total area of 226 square kilometres (87 sq mi). The altitude varies from 55.8 metres (183.1 ft) at the Dâmbovița bridge in Cățelu, south-eastern Bucharest and 91.5 m (300.2 ft) at the Militari church. The city has a relatively round shape, with the centre situated approximately in the cross-way of the main north-south/east-west axes at the University Square. The milestone for Romanian's Kilometre Zero is placed just south of University Square in front of the New St. George Church (Sfântul Gheorghe Nou) at St. George Square (Piaţa Sfântul Gheorghe). Bucharest's radius, from University Square to the city limits in all directions, varies from about 10 to 12 km (6.25–7.5 mi).
Until recently, the regions surrounding Bucharest were largely rural, but after 1989, new suburbs started to be built around Bucharest, in the surrounding Ilfov county. Further urban consolidation is expected to take place from 2006, when the Bucharest metropolitan area was formed, which will incorporate various communes and the cities of Ilfov and surrounding counties.
Climate[edit | edit source]
Bucharest has a humid continental climate ( (Köppen climate classification Dfa). Due to its position on the Romanian Plain, the city's winters can get windy, even though some of the winds are mitigated due to urbanization. Winter temperatures often dip below 0 °C (32 °F), sometimes even dropping below −15 °C (5 °F)or also -20 C. In summer, the average temperature is approximately 23 °C (73 °F) (the average for July and August), despite the fact that temperatures many times reach 35 °C (95 °F) to 40 °C (104 °F) in mid-summer in the city centre. Although average precipitation and humidity during summer is low, there are infrequent yet heavy and often violent storms. During spring and autumn, average daytime temperatures vary between 17 °C (63 °F) to 22 °C (72 °F), and precipitation during this time tends to be higher than in summer, with more frequent yet milder periods of rain.
|Climate data for Bucharest|
|Record high °C (°F)||16
|Average high °C (°F)||1.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−32
|Precipitation mm (inches)||40
|Avg. precipitation days||6||6||6||7||6||6||7||6||5||5||6||6||72|
|Avg. snowy days||6||3||4||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||2||4||19|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||61||85||155||180||248||270||341||310||240||155||60||62||2,167|
|Source: World Meteorological Organisation |
Law and government[edit | edit source]
Administration[edit | edit source]
Bucharest has a unique status in Romanian administration, since it is the only municipality that is not part of a county. Its population, however, is larger than that of any Romanian county, and hence the power of the Bucharest General City Hall (Primăria Generală), which is the city's local government body, is about the same as, if not greater than, that of Romanian county councils.
The city government is headed by a General Mayor (Primar General), currently (as of 2010) Sorin Oprescu. Decisions are approved and discussed by the General Council (Consiliu General) made up of 55 elected councilors. Furthermore, the city is divided into six administrative sectors (sectoare), each of which has their own 27-seat sectoral council, town hall and mayor. The powers of local government over a certain area are therefore shared by the Bucharest City Hall and the local sectoral councils with little or no overlapping of authority. The general rule is that the main City Hall is responsible for citywide utilities such as the water system, the transport system and the main boulevards, while sector halls manage the contact between individuals and the local government, secondary streets, parks, schools and cleaning services.
The six sectors are numbered from one to six and are disposed radially so that each one has under its administration an area of the city centre. They are numbered clockwise and are further divided into neighborhoods (cartiere), which are not an official administrative division:
- Sector 1 (population 227,717): Dorobanţi, Băneasa, Aviaţiei, Pipera, Aviatorilor, Primăverii, Romană, Victoriei, Herăstrău Park, Bucureștii Noi, Dămăroaia, Străuleşti, Griviţa, 1 Mai, Băneasa Forest, Pajura, Domenii and a small part of Giulești which includes Giulești Stadium
- Sector 2 (population 357,338): Pantelimon, Colentina, Iancului, Tei, Floreasca, Moşilor, Obor, Vatra Luminoasă, Fundeni, Plumbuita, Ștefan cel Mare, Baicului
- Sector 3 (population 399,231): Vitan, Dudești, Titan, Centrul Civic, Dristor, Lipscani, [[wikipedia:Muncii|Muncii], Unirii
- Sector 4 (population 300,331): Berceni, Olteniței, Giurgiului, Progresul, Văcărești, Timpuri Noi, Tineretului
- Sector 5 (population 288,690): Rahova, Ferentari, Giurgiului, Cotroceni, 13 Septembrie, Dealul Spirii
- Sector 6 (population 371,060): Giuleşti, Crângaşi, Drumul Taberei, Militari, Grozăveşti (also known as Regie), Ghencea
Like all other local councils in Romania, the Bucharest sectoral councils, the city's General Council and the mayors are elected every four years by the population. Additionally, Bucharest has a prefect, who is appointed by Romania's central government. The prefect is not allowed to be a member of a political party. The prefect's role is to represent the national government at local level, acting as a liaison and facilitating the implementation of National Development Plans and governing programs at local level. The current prefect of Bucharest (as of 2010) is Mihai Cristian Atanasoaiei.
The Municipality of Bucharest, along with the surrounding Ilfov county, forms the Bucharest development region, which is equivalent to NUTS-II regions in the European Union and is used by the European Union and the Romanian Government for statistical analysis and regional development. The Bucharest development region is not, however, an administrative entity.
Justice system[edit | edit source]
Bucharest's judicial system is similar to that of the Romanian counties. Each of the six sectors has its own local first instance court (judecătorie), while appeals from these courts' verdicts, and more serious cases, are directed to the Bucharest Tribunal, the city's municipal court. The Bucharest Court of Appeal judges appeals against decisions taken by tribunals in Bucharest and in five surrounding counties (Teleorman, Ialomiţa, Giurgiu, Călăraşi and Ilfov). Bucharest is also home to Romania's supreme court, the High Court of Cassation and Justice, as well as to the Constitutional Court of Romania.
Bucharest has its own municipal police force, the Bucharest Police (Poliția București), which is responsible for policing of crime within the whole city, and operates a number of special divisions. The Bucharest Police are headquartered on Ştefan cel Mare Blvd in the city centre, and has a number of precincts throughout the city. From 2004 onwards, each sector City Hall also has under its administration a Community Police force (Poliţia Comunitară), dealing with local community issues. Bucharest also houses the General Inspectorates of the Gendarmerie and the National Police.
Crime[edit | edit source]
Bucharest's crime rate is rather low in comparison to other European capital cities, with the number of total offenses declining by 51% between 2000 and 2004. The violent crime rate in Bucharest remains very low, with 11 murders and 983 other violent offenses taking place in 2007. Although there have been a number of recent police crackdowns on organized crime gangs, such as the Cămătaru clan, organized crime generally has little impact on public life. Petty crime, however, is more common, particularly in the form of pickpocketing, which occurs mainly on the city's public transport network. Confidence tricks were sometimes common in the 1990s, especially in regards to tourists, but the frequency of these tricks has declined in recent years. Levels of crime are higher in the southern districts of the city, particularly in Ferentari, a socially-disadvantaged area.
Although the presence of wikipedia:street childrenstreet children was a problem in Bucharest in the 1990s, their numbers have declined significantly in recent years, currently lying at or below the average of major European capital cities. A documentary Children Underground, depicted life of Romania street kids in 2001. The same is true for beggars and homeless people, many of them gypsies. However, there are still an estimated 1,000 street children in the city, many of whom engage in petty crime and begging. There has been speculation that the street children are recruited by professional underground networks for criminal purposes. From 2000 onwards, Bucharest has seen an increase in illegal road races which occur mainly at night in the city's outskirts or on industrial sites.
Stray dogs[edit | edit source]
When Centrul Civic was built, approximately 40,000 families and 3,000 pet dogs were dispossessed of their homes. Most of these dogs became strays, and rapid breeding led to a population of over 250,000 stray dogs by 2001. Mayor Traian Băsescu had initially planned to euthanize as many stray dogs as possible, but international outcry — led by actress Brigitte Bardot — resulted in the substitution of a spay-and-release program instead.
Quality of Life[edit | edit source]
As stated by the Mercer international surveys for quality of life in cities around the world, Bucharest occupied the 94th place in 2001  and slipped lower, to the 108th place in 2009. Vienna occupied #1 worldwide in 2009 .
Demographics[edit | edit source]
|December 29, 1930 census||633,355|
|January 25, 1948 census||1,025,180|
|February 21, 1956 census||1,177,661|
|March 15, 1966 census||1,366,684|
|January 5, 1977 census||1,807,239|
|July 1, 1990 estimate||2,127,194|
|January 7, 1992 census||2,067,545|
|March 18, 2002 census||1,926,334|
|July 1, 2005 estimate||1,924,959|
|July 1, 2007 estimate||1,931,838|
|January 1, 2009 estimate||1,944,367|
The city's population, according to the 2002 census, is 1,926,334 inhabitants, or 8.9% of the total population of Romania. Additionally, due to the recent process of gentrification there are now more than 200,000 people commuting to the city every day, mainly from the surrounding Ilfov county.
Bucharest's population experienced two phases of rapid growth, the first in the late 19th century, when the city grew in importance and size, and the second during the Communist period, when a massive urbanization campaign was launched and many people migrated from rural areas to the capital. At this time, due to Ceauşescu's ban on abortion and contraception, natural increase was also significant.
Approximately 96.9% of the population of Bucharest are Romanians. The second largest ethnic group being are Gypsies, which make up 1.4% of the population. Other significant ethnic groups are Hungarians (0.3%), Jews (0.1%), Turks (0,1%), [wikipedia:[Chinese people|Chinese]] (0,1) and Germans (0,1%). A relatively small number of Bucharesters are of Greek, North American, French, Armenian, Lippovan and Italian descent. The Greeks and the Armenians used to play significant roles in the life of the city at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. One of the predominantly Greek neighborhoods was [[[wikipedia:Vitan|Vitan]] - where a [[[wikipedia:Jew|Jew]]ish population also lived; the latter was more present in Văcărești and areas around Unirii Square.
In terms of religion, 96.1% of the population are Romanian Orthodox, 1.2% are Roman Catholic, 0.5% are Muslim and 0.4% are Romanian Greek Catholic. Despite this, only 18% of the population, of any religion, attend a place of worship once a week or more. The life expectancy of residents of Bucharest in 2003–2005 was 74.14 years, around 2 years higher than the Romanian average. Female life expectancy was 77.41 years, in comparison to 70.57 years for males.
Economy[edit | edit source]
Bucharest is the centre of the Romanian economy and industry, accounting for around 14.6% of the country's GDP and about one-quarter of its industrial production, while being inhabited by only 9% of the country's population. Almost one third of national taxes is paid by Bucharest's citizens and companies. In 2007, at purchasing power parity, Bucharest had a per-capita GDP of €20,057, or 92.2% that of the European Union average and more than twice the Romanian average. The city's strong economic growth has revitalized infrastructure and led to the development of many shopping malls and modern residential towers and high-rise office buildings. In September 2005, Bucharest had an unemployment rate of 2.6%, significantly lower than the national unemployment rate of 5.7%.
Bucharest's economy is mainly centred on industry and services, with services particularly growing in importance in the last ten years. The headquarters of 186,000 firms, including nearly all large Romanian companies are located in Bucharest. An important source of growth since 2000 has been the city's rapidly expanding property and construction sector. Bucharest is also Romania's largest centre for information technology and communications and is home to several software companies operating offshore delivery centres.
There are a number of major international supermarket chains such as Carrefour, Cora and METRO. At the moment, the city is undergoing a retail boom, with a large number of supermarkets, and hypermarkets, constructed every year. For more information, see supermarkets in Romania. A few of the largest and most modern shopping centres in Bucharest are AFI Cotroceni, Sun Plaza, Băneasa Shopping City, Bucharest Mall, Plaza Romania, City Mall, Jolie Ville Galleria, Liberty Center and Unirea Shopping Center. There are also a large number of traditional retail arcades and markets; the one at Obor covers about a dozen city blocks and numerous large stores that are not officially part of the market effectively add up to a market district almost twice that size.
Transport[edit | edit source]
Public transport[edit | edit source]
Bucharest's extensive public transport system is the largest in Romania and one of the largest in Europe. It is made up of the Bucharest Metro, as well as a surface transport system run by RATB (Regia Autonomă de Transport București), which consists of buses, trams, trolleybuses, and light rail. In addition, there is a private minibus system. As of 2007, there is a limit of 10,000 taxicab licenses, down from 25,000 in the 1990s, and the even higher demand is supplied by taxis registered in Ilfov county.
Railways[edit | edit source]
Bucharest is the hub of Romania's national railway network, run by Căile Ferate Române. The main railway station is Gara de Nord, or North Railway Station, which provides connections to all major cities in Romania as well as international destinations :
- Belgrade (Serbia)
- Budapest (Hungary)
- Sofia, Varna (Bulgaria)
- Chișinău (Republic of Moldova)
- Kyiv, Chernivtsi, Lviv (Ukraine)
- Thessaloniki (Greece)
- Vienna (Austria)
- Istanbul (Turkey)
- Moscow (Russia)
The city also has five other railway stations run by CFR, most important are Basarab (in proximity of North Station), Obor, Băneasa, Progresu, which are in the process of being integrated in a commuter railway serving Bucharest and the surrounding Ilfov county. 7 main lines radiate out of Bucharest.
Air[edit | edit source]
Bucharest has two international airports:
- Henri Coandă International Airport, located north of the Bucharest metropolitan area, in the town of Otopeni, Ilfov. Currently the airport has one terminal divided into three inter-connected buildings (International Departures Hall, International Arrivals Hall and the Domestic Flights Hall - at the ground level of the Arrivals Hall - ). The International Departures Hall consists of 36 check-in desks, one finger with 10 gates (5 equipped with jetways), while the Domestic Hall has an extra four gates. Today's International Arrivals Hall is actually the old Otopeni terminal, while the new Departures Hall, including the finger and the airbridges was built and inaugurated in 1997. A second finger with 7 jetways is under construction and a new building terminal on the east side is in project phase. The airport received 5,064,230 passengers in 2008, however traffic growth has dampened due to economic slowdown.
- Aurel Vlaicu International Airport is situated only 8 km north of the Bucharest city center and is accessible by RATB buses 131, 335, 301, tramway 5 and Airport Express 783 and taxi. An extension of Line M2 of the Bucharest Metro to Aurel Vlaicu International, which will link it to the Main Train Station and the larger Henri Coandă International Airport, was approved in June 2006 and is currently in its planning stage.
Roads[edit | edit source]
Bucharest is also a major intersection of Romania's national road network. A few of the busiest national roads and motorways, link the city to all of Romania's major cities as well as to neighbouring countries such as Hungary, Bulgaria and Ukraine. The A1 to Pitesti and the A2 Sun Motorway to the Dobrogea region and Constanta both start from Bucharest. The future A3 and A5 motorways will radiate from Voluntari, a town in the city's northern outskirts.
Infrastructure[edit | edit source]
The city's municipal road network is centred around a series of high-capacity boulevards, which generally radiate out from the city centre to the outskirts. The main axes, which run north-south, east-west and northwest-southeast, as well as one internal and one external ring road, support the bulk of the traffic. The city's roads are usually very crowded during rush hours, due to an increase in car ownership in recent years. Every day, there are more than one million vehicles travelling within the city. This results in occasional wear and potholes appearing on busy roads, particularly secondary roads, this being identified as one of Bucharest's main infrastructural problems. In recent years, there has been a comprehensive effort on behalf of the City Hall to boost road infrastructure and according to the general development plan, 2,000 roads have been repaired by 2008.
Culture[edit | edit source]
Bucharest has a diverse and growing cultural scene, with cultural life exhibited in a number of various fields, including the visual arts, performing arts and nightlife. Unlike other parts of Romania, such as the Black Sea coast or Transylvania, Bucharest's cultural scene is much more eclectic, without a defined style, and instead incorporates various elements of Romanian and international culture. Bucharest has an eclectic mixture of elements from traditionally Romanian buildings to buildings that are influenced by French architects.
Landmarks[edit | edit source]
Bucharest has a large number of landmark buildings and monuments. Perhaps the most prominent of these is the Palace of the Parliament, built in the 1980s during the reign of Communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu. Currently the largest building in Europe and the second-largest in the world, the Palace houses the Romanian Parliament (the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate), as well as the National Museum of Contemporary Art. The building also boasts one of the largest convention centres in the world.
Another well-known landmark in Bucharest is Arcul de Triumf (The Triumphal Arch), it was built in its current form in 1935 and modeled after the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. A newer landmark of the city is the Memorial of Rebirth, a stylized marble pillar unveiled in 2005 to commemorate the victims of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which overthrew Communism. The abstract monument sparked a great deal of controversy when it was unveiled, being dubbed with names such as "the olive in the toothpick", ("măslina-n scobitoare"), as many argued that it does not fit in its surroundings and believed that its choice was based on political reasons.
Other cultural venues include the National Museum of Art of Romania, Museum of Natural History "Grigore Antipa", Museum of the Romanian Peasant (Muzeul Ţăranului Român), National History Museum, and the Military Museum.
Visual arts[edit | edit source]
In terms of visual arts, the city contains a number of museums featuring both classical and contemporary Romanian art, as well as selected international works. The National Museum of Art of Romania is perhaps the best-known of Bucharest museums. It is located in the former royal palace and features extensive collections of medieval and modern Romanian art, including works by renowned sculptor Constantin Brâncuși, as well as a prominent international collection assembled by the former Romanian royal family.
Other, smaller museums, contain more specialised collections of works. The Zambaccian Museum, which is situated in the former home of Armenian-Romanian art collector Krikor H. Zambaccian contains works by many well-known Romanian artists as well as international artists such as Paul Cézanne, Eugène Delacroix, Henri Matisse, Camille Pissarro and Pablo Picasso.
The Gheorghe Tattarescu Museum contains portraits of Romanian revolutionaries in exile such as Gheorghe Magheru, Ștefan Golescu, Nicolae Bălcescu and allegorical compositions with revolutionary (Romania's rebirth, 1849) and patriotic (The Principalities' Unification, 1857) themes. The Theodor Pallady Museum is situated in one of the oldest surviving merchant houses in Bucharest and includes many works by Romanian painter Theodor Pallady as well as a number of European and Oriental furniture pieces. The Museum of Art Collections contains the collections of a number of well-known Romanian art aficionados.
Despite the extensive classical art galleries and museums in the city, there is also a contemporary arts scene that has become increasingly prominent in recent times. The National Museum of Contemporary Art (MNAC), situated in a wing of the Palace of the Parliament, was opened in 2004 and contains a widespread collection of Romanian and international contemporary art, in a number of expressive forms. The MNAC also manages the Kalinderu MediaLab, which caters specifically to multimedia and experimental art. There is also a range of smaller, private art galleries throughout the city centre.
The palace of the National Bank of Romania houses the national numismatic collection. Exhibits include banknotes, coinss, documents, photographs, maps, silver and gold bullion bars, bullion coins, dies and moulds. The building itself was constructed between 1884 and 1890. The thesaurus room contains notable marble decorations.
Performing arts[edit | edit source]
Performing arts are one of the strongest cultural elements of Bucharest, and the city has a number of world-renowned facilities and institutions. The most famous symphony orchestra is National Radio Orchestra of Romania. One of the most prominent buildings is the neoclassical Romanian Athenaeum, which was founded in 1852, and hosts classical music concerts, the George Enescu Festival, and is home to the "George Enescu" Philharmonic. Bucharest is also home to the Romanian National Opera, as well as the I.L. Caragiale National Theatre. Another well-known theatre in Bucharest is the State Jewish Theatre, which has gained increasing prominence in recent years due partly to the fact that it features plays starring world-renowned Romanian-Jewish actress Maia Morgenstern. There is also a large number of smaller theatres throughout the city that cater to specific genres, such as the Comedy Theatre, the Nottara Theatre, the Bulandra Theatre, the Odeon Theatre, and the Constantin Tănase Revue Theatre.
Music and nightlife[edit | edit source]
Bucharest is home to Romania's largest recording labels, and is often the residence of Romanian musicians. The city's music scene is eclectic. Many Romanian rock bands of the 1970s and 1980s, such as Iris and Holograf, continue to be popular, particularly with the middle-aged, while since the beginning of the 1990s the hip hop/rap scene has developed a unique sound and style indigenous to eastern Bucharest. Hip-hop bands and artists from Bucharest such as B.U.G. Mafia, Paraziţii, Verdikt, La familia and Zale enjoy national and international recognition.
The eclectic pop-rock band Taxi have been gaining international respect, as has Spitalul de Urgenţă's raucous updating of traditional Romanian music. While many neighbourhood discos play manele, an Oriental- and Roma-influenced genre of music that is particularly popular in Bucharest's working class districts, the city has a rich jazz and blues scene, and, to an even larger extent, house music/trance and heavy metal/punk scenes. Bucharest's jazz profile has especially risen since 2002, with the presence of two thriving venues, Green Hours and Art Jazz, as well as an American presence alongside established Romanians. The city's nightlife, particularly its club scene grew significantly in the 1990s, and continues to develop.
There is no central nightlife strip, with many entertainment venues dispersed throughout the city centre, with a cluster in the historical centre. Among the most visited venues are Lăptăria Enache and La Motoare, located on the rooftop of the National Theatre, as well as [[wikipedia:El Grande Comandante}El Grande Comandante]] and Club A. Most clubs and bars are located around the centre of the city, from Unification Square to Roman Square. Also, a large concentration of rock clubs can be found in the Lipscani area, the old part of the city, in the vicinity of Piaţa Unirii. The Regie area, located near Polytechnic University campus, hosts a number of clubs and bars, mainly targeted toward the student population.
The city also hosts some of the best electronic music clubs in Europe such as Studio Martin and wikipedia:Kristal Glam ClubKristal Glam Club. During the summer, Zoom Beach Club is an outdoor club on the shore of a lake and has two separate dance floors. The Office is one of the most exclusive clubs in Bucharest and has a long tradition in clubbing. One of the best cocktail clubs in Bucharest is Deja Vu situated on Bălcescu Boulevard near the Italian church. Some other notable venues are: Gaia, Fratelli, Glamour, Tipsy, Cotton Club, Pat, and Bamboo.
Traditional culture[edit | edit source]
Bucharest's cultural life has, especially since the early 1990s, become colourful and worldly. Traditional Romanian culture, however, continues to have a major influence in arts such as theatre, film and music. Additionally, Bucharest has two internationally-renowned ethnographic museums, the Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the open-air Village Museum. The Village Museum, in Herăstrău Park, contains 272 authentic buildings and peasant farms from all over Romania. The Museum of the Romanian Peasant was declared the European Museum of the Year in 1996, and displays a rich collection of textiles (especially costumes), icons, ceramics, and other artifacts of Romanian peasant life.
The Museum of Romanian History is another important museum in Bucharest, containing a collection of artefacts detailing Romanian history and culture from the prehistoric times, Dacian era, medieval times and the modern era.
Cultural events and festivals[edit | edit source]
There are a number of cultural festivals in Bucharest throughout the year, in various domains, even though most festivals take place in the summer months of June, July and August. The National Opera organises the International Opera Festival every year in May and June, which includes ensembles and orchestras from all over the world. The Romanian Athaeneum Society hosts the George Enescu Festival at various locations throughout the city in September every two years (odd years). Additionally, the Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the Village Museum organise a number of events throughout the year showcasing Romanian folk arts and crafts.
In the first decade of the 21st century, due to the growing prominence of the Chinese community in Bucharest, several Chinese cultural events have taken place. The first officially-organised Chinese festival was the Chinese New Year's Eve Festival of February 2005 which took place in Nichita Stănescu Park and was organised by the Bucharest City Hall. In 2005, Bucharest was the first city in Southeastern Europe to host the international Cowparade, which resulted in dozens of decorated cow sculptures being placed at various points across the city.
Religious life[edit | edit source]
Bucharest is the seat of the Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church, one of the Eastern Orthodox churches in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople, and also of its subdivisons, the Metropolis of Muntenia and Dobrudja and the Archbishopric of Bucharest. Orthodox believers say that Saint Demetrios is the saint patron of the city.
Bucharest is also a center for various other religions and cults in Romania, including the main Romanian-ethnic Catholic organization, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bucharest.
Architecture[edit | edit source]
Bucharest's architecture is highly eclectic due to the many influences on the city throughout its history. The city centre is a mixture of medieval, neoclassical and art nouveau buildings, as well as 'neo-Romanian' buildings dating from the beginning of the 20th century and a remarkable collection of modern buildings from the 20s and 30s. The mostly-utilitarian Communist-era architecture dominates most southern boroughs. Recently built contemporary structures such as skyscrapers and office buildings complete the landscape.
Historical architecture[edit | edit source]
Of the city's medieval architecture, most of what survived into modern times was destroyed by Communist systematization, numerous fires and military incursions. Still, some medieval and renaissance edifices remain, the most notable are in the Lipscani area. This precinct contains notable buildings such as Manuc's Inn and the ruins of the Curtea Veche (the Old Court), during the late Middle Ages this area was the heart of commerce in Bucharest. From the 1970s onwards, the area went through urban decline, and many historical buildings fell into disrepair. In 2005, the Lipscani area was entirely pedestrianised and is currently slowly undergoing restoration.
The city centre has also retained architecture from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly the interwar period, which is often seen as the "golden age" of Bucharest architecture. During this time, the city grew significantly in size and wealth therefore seeking to emulate other large European capitals such as Paris. Much of the architecture of the time belongs to a remarkably strong Modern (rationalist) Architecture current, led by Horia Creangă and Marcel Iancu, which managed to literally change the face of the city.
Two notable buildings from this time are the Creţulescu Palace, currently housing cultural institutions including UNESCO's European Centre for Higher Education, and the Cotroceni Palace, the current residence of the Romanian President. Many large-scale constructions such as Gara de Nord, the busiest railway station in the city, National Bank of Romania's headquarters and the Telephone Palace date from these times. In the first decade of the 21st century, a wide variety of historic buildings in the city centre underwent restoration. In some residential areas of the city, particularly the high-income northern suburbs, there are many turn-of-the-century villas, most of which were restored in the late 1990s.
Communist architecture[edit | edit source]
A major part of Bucharest's architecture is made up of buildings constructed during the Communist era replacing the historical architecture with high density apartment blocks. Significant portions of the historic center of Bucharest were demolished in order to construct one of the largest buildings in the world: the Palace of the Parliament. In Nicolae Ceaușescu's project of systematization many new buildings were built in previously-historical areas, which were razed and then built upon from scratch.
One of the best examples of this type of architecture is Centrul Civic, a development that replaced a major part of Bucharest's historic city centre with giant utilitarian buildings, mainly with marble or travertine façades, inspired by North Korean architecture. Communist-era architecture can also be found in Bucharest's residential districts, mainly in blocuri, which are high-density apartment blocks that house the majority of the city's population.
Contemporary architecture[edit | edit source]
Since the fall of Communism in 1989, several Communist-era buildings have been refurbished, modernised and used for other purposes. Perhaps the best example of this is the conversion of several obsolete retail complexes into shopping malls and commercial centres. These giant circular halls, which were unofficially called hunger circuses due to the food shortages experienced in the 1980s, were constructed during the Ceaușescu era to act as produce markets and refectories, although most were left unfinished at the time of the Revolution.
Modern shopping malls like Unirea Shopping Center, Bucharest Mall, wikipedia:Plaza RomaniaPlaza Romania and City Mall emerged on pre-existent structures of former hunger circuses. Another example is the modernisation and conversion of a large utilitarian construction in Centrul Civic into a Marriott Hotel. This process was accelerated after 2000, when the city underwent a property boom, and many Communist-era buildings in the city centre became prime real estate due to their location. In recent years, many Communist-era apartment blocks have also been refurbished to improve urban appearance.
The newest contribution to Bucharest's architecture took place after the fall of Communism, particularly after 2000, when the city went through a period of urban renewal – and architectural revitalization – on the back of Romania's rapid economic growth. Buildings from this time are mostly made of glass and steel, and often have more than ten storeys. Examples include shopping malls (particularly the Bucharest Mall, a conversion and extension of an abandoned building), office buildings, bank headquarters, the Bucharest World Trade Center and the Chamber of Commerce, which lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița.
As of 2005, there is a significant number of office buildings in construction, particularly in the northern and eastern parts of the city. Additionally, there has been a trend in recent years to add modern wings and façades to historic buildings, the most prominent example of which is the Bucharest Architects' Association Building, which is a modern glass-and-steel construction built inside a historic stone façade.
Aside from buildings used for business and institutions, various new residential developments are currently underway, many of which consist of high-rise buildings with a glass exterior, surrounded by American-style residential communities. These developments are increasingly prominent in the northern suburbs of the city, which are less densely-populated and are home to a significant number of middle- and upper-class Bucharesters due to the process of gentrification.
Media[edit | edit source]
Bucharest is the most important centre of the Romanian media, since it is the headquarters of all the national television networks as well as national newspapers and radio stations. The largest daily newspapers in Bucharest include Evenimentul Zilei, Jurnalul Național, Cotidianul, Jurnalul24, România Liberă, Adevărul, Gardianul and Gândul. During the rush hours, tabloid newspapers Click!, Libertatea and Ziarul are very popular for commuters.
A significant number of newspapers and media publications are based in Casa Presei Libere (The House of the Free Press), a landmark of northern Bucharest, originally named Casa Scânteii after the Communist-era official newspaper Scînteia. Casa Presei Libere is not the only Bucharest landmark that grew out of the media and communications industry. Palatul Telefoanelor ("The Telephone Palace") was the first major modernist building on Calea Victoriei in the city's centre, and the massive, unfinished communist-era Casa Radio looms over a park a block away from the Opera.
English-language newspapers first became available in the early 1930s and reappeared in 1990s, becoming increasingly prominent since then. There are two daily English-language newspapers, Bucharest Daily News and Nine O'Clock, as well as numerous other magazines. A number of publications in other languages are also available, such as the Hungarian-language daily Új Magyar Szó.
Observator Cultural covers the city's arts, and the free weekly magazines Șapte Seri ("Seven Evenings") and B24FUN, list entertainment events of all sorts. The city is also home to the intellectual journal Dilema, the satire magazine Academia Cațavencu, as well as a wide array of commercial magazines.
Bucharest was the host city of the fourth edition of the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2006.
Education[edit | edit source]
There are 16 public universities in Bucharest, the largest of which are the University of Bucharest, the Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, the Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, and the Politehnica University of Bucharest. These are supplemented by 19 private universities, such as the Romanian American University and the Spiru Haret University. Overall, there are 159 faculties in 34 universities. Private universities have a mixed reputation due to irregularities in the educational process as well as perceived corruption. As in the rest of Romania, universities in Bucharest are lower in world rankings compared to their American and Western European counterparts. However, in recent years the city has seen an increasing influx of foreign students who come to study there, primarily from Asia.
The first modern educational institution was the Princely Academy of Bucharest, founded in 1694 and divided in 1864 to form the present-day University of Bucharest and the Saint Sava National College, both of which are amongst the most prestigious of their kind in Romania.
There are around 450 public primary and secondary schools in the city, all of which are administered by the Bucharest Municipal Schooling Inspectorate. Each sector also has its own Schooling Inspectorate, subordinated to the Municipal one.
Sports[edit | edit source]
Football is the most widely-followed sport in Bucharest, with the city having numerous club teams, some of them being known throughout Europe. Four Bucharest-based football teams participate in Liga 1, the first division in Romania: Steaua, Dinamo, Rapid and Sportul Studențesc.
There are also a number of sport clubs for ice hockey, rugby, basketball, handball, water polo and volleyball. The majority of Romanian track and field athletes, boxers, and a great number of gymnasts are affiliated with clubs in Bucharest. The Athletics and many Gymnastics National Championships are held in Bucharest.
The biggest hall in Bucharest is Sala Polivalentă and has a seating capacity of 6,000. It is frequently used for concerts, indoor sports such as volleyball, exhibitions and shows.
Starting in 2007 Bucharest has hosted annual races along a temporary urban track surrounding the Palace of Parliament, called Bucharester Ring. The competition is called the Bucharest City Challenge, and has hosted FIA GT, FIA GT3, British F3, and Logan Cup races in 2007 and 2008. The 2009 and 2010 edition have not been held in Bucharest due to a lawsuit. Bucharest GP, owned by the controversial businessman Nicolae Șerbu, won the lawsuit that it initiated and will host city races around the Parliament starting 2011 with the Auto GP
Every autumn, Bucharest hosts BCR Open Romania international tennis tournament, which is included in the ATP Tour. The outdoors tournament is hosted by the tennis complex BNR Arenas. The ice hockey games are held at the Mihai Flamaropol Arena, which holds 8,000 spectators. The rugby games are held in different locations, but the most modern stadium is Arcul de Triumf Stadium, where also the Romanian national rugby team plays.
International relations[edit | edit source]
Twin towns—Sister cities[edit | edit source]
|Brazil||Rio de Janeiro||2002 |
|Brazil||São Paulo||2000 |
See also[edit | edit source]
- Coat of arms of Bucharest
- List of buildings in Bucharest
- List of Bucharesters
- List of lakes in Bucharest
Notes[edit | edit source]
- ^ a b c d "Populația stabilă la 1.01.2009" (in Romanian). INSSE. May 19, 2009. http://www.insse.ro/cms/rw/resource/populatia%20stabila%20la%201%20ianuarie%202009%20si%2018.xls?download=true. Retrieved May 20, 2009.
- ^ a b c Demographia World Urban Areas & Population Projections
- ^ a b Urban Audit: Bucharest Profile
- ^ Bucharest, the small Paris of the East, on the Museums from Romania web site.
- ^ Bucica, 2000, p.6.
- ^ (English) XIX Meeting of METREX Network, Nürnberg, 15–18 June 2005. ""Bucharest: Few expectations for urban development", page 29" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2008-02-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20080226224134/http://www.metropolregion.nuernberg.de/download/Bukarest_ME.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-07.
- ^ "EVZ". http://www.evz.ro/articole/detalii-articol/834536/Un-chin-ce-nu-se-mai-sfarseste-Bucurestiul-nu-ne-mai-incape. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- ^ "Largest cities of the European Union". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Largest_cities_of_the_European_Union_by_population_within_city_limits#100_Most_populous_cities. Retrieved 2007-03-07.
- ^ PriceWaterhouseCoopers Global Regional Attractiveness Report Romania
- ^ "DEX online - Cautare: bucur". Dexonline.ro. http://dexonline.ro/search.php?cuv=bucur. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- ^ Botanical Garden, onlinegallery.ro. Retrieved 13 October 2006.
- ^ "World Weather Information Service - Bucharest". http://worldweather.wmo.int/183/c00200.htm.
- ^ Bucharest Crime Statistics 2000-2004, Bucharest Directorate-General of Police
- ^ http://b.politiaromana.ro/pdf/Security_Marketing_Projects/PI.12.2007%20en.xls
- ^ a b PDF (20.5 KB), Conrad N. Hilton Humanitarian Prize/Council of Europe
- ^ "Bardot 'saves' Bucharest's dogs". BBC News. March 2, 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1196712.stm.
- ^ a b c d e f g h (English) INS. "Romanian Statistical Yearbook" (PDF). http://www.insse.ro/cms/files/pdf/ro/cap2.pdf. Retrieved 2009-02-12.
- ^ Romania in Cifre-2008 (Romanian)
- ^ Open Society Institute's Survey into Religiosity in Romania ([[[wikipedia:Microsoft Word|Microsoft Word]] document)
- ^ (Romanian) Populația și fenomene demografice pe sectoare administrative ale Municipiului București (Population and demographic phenomena by administrative sectors of the Municipality of Bucharest)
- ^ Joint Inclusion Memorandum of Romania
- ^ GDP per inhabitant in 2006 ranged from 25% of the EU27 average in Nord-est in Romania to 353% in Inner London (Eurostat, 12 February 2008)
- ^ Major economic indicators of Romania in the period 1 January 2005-30 October 2005, National Institute of Statistics of Romania, 9 December 2005 (Romanian)
- ^ Toti bucureștenii vor avea dosar fiscal din 2006, Averea, 15 December 2005
- ^ "Săptămâna Financiară | Anchete | Atacul clonelor in taximetria bucuresteana". Sfin.ro. http://www.sfin.ro/articol_8335/atacul_clonelor_in_taximetria_bucuresteana.html. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- ^ Governing programme of Adriean Videanu, General Mayor of Bucharest
- ^ Rehabilitation of Urban Roads, Phase II, from the site of the General Mayor of Bucharest, Adriean Videanu
- ^ „Memorialul Renasterii“, ce oribilitate! ("The Monument of Rebirth - how horrible!"), Săptămâna Financiară, August 2005 (Romanian)
- ^ Romanian Athenaeum awarded Label of European Heritage, Romania's Permanent Delegation to NATO
- ^ Chinese New Year's Eve celebrated in Bucharest, Bucharest Daily News, 7 February 2005
- ^ "EXCLUSIV Universitățile „Spiru Haret” şi „Petre Andrei” au fost scoase în afara legii. 56.000 de absolvenți, în aer. Andronescu, pentru Gândul: "Aceste diplome nu respectă legea" - Gandul". Gandul.info. 2009-07-11. http://www.gandul.info/scoala/exclusiv-universitatile-spiru-haret-si-petre-andrei-au-fost-scoase-in-afara-legii-56-000-de-absolventi-in-aer-andronescu-pentru-gandul-aceste-diplome-nu-respecta-legea-4629389. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
- ^ "Andrei Marga: „Universităţile din ţară, cele mai corupte din UE“". Adevarul.ro. http://www.adevarul.ro/actualitate/eveniment/Andrei_Marga-_-Universitatile_din_tara-cele_mai_corupte_din_UE_0_190181549.html. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
- ^ Răzvan Florian, Universitățile din România și clasamentul Shanghai, Asociația Ad Astra a cercetătorilor români, Centrul de Cercetări Cognitive și Neuronale (Coneural), Cluj-Napoca, România, p. 7 - 9 
- ^ "Numărul studenţilor străini din România s-a dublat - Cotidianul". Cotidianul.ro. 2008-04-28. http://www.cotidianul.ro/numarul_studentilor_straini_din_romania_s_a_dublat-44485.html. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
- ^ Bucharest GP în iulie 2011
- ^ a b "Academy of Economic Studies - Short History of Bucharest". Ase.edu.ro. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080511034235/http://www.ase.edu.ro/engleza/life_bucharest/history.asp. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
- ^ "Twinning Cities: International Relations" (PDF). Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. http://www.tirana.gov.al/common/images/International%20Relations.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-23.
- ^ http://pt.wikisource.org/wiki/Lei_Municipal_do_Rio_de_Janeiro_3467_de_2002
- ^ Prefeitura.Sp - Descentralized Cooperation
- ^ International Relations - São Paulo City Hall - Official Sister Cities
- ^ "Sister Cities". Beijing Municipal Government. http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/Sister_Cities/Sister_City/. Retrieved 2009-06-23.
- ^ "Sister Cities of Manila". © 2008–2009 City Government of Manila. http://www.manila.gov.ph/localgovt.htm#sistercities. Retrieved 2009-07-02.
References[edit | edit source]
- Modern history of Bucharest, City Hall of Bucharest
- Șerban Cantacuzino, Două Orașe Distincte. Revista Secolul XX 4/6 (1997): 11–40
- Ernie Schoffham, Luminița MacHedon, Șerban Cantacuzino, Romanian Modernism: The Architecture of Bucharest, 1920–1940
- Romania: Arts & Architecture, Romanian Tourist Office
- Tatiana Murzin, Romanian Education, 2005
- Romanian Education Portal, Site for the Ministry of Education containing lists of all educational establishments.
- Bucharest, the small Paris of the East, on the Museums from Romania web site.
- Bucica, Cristina. PDF (39.0 KB), 2000.
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Born in Bucharest[edit | edit source]
Married in Bucharest[edit | edit source]
|Wedding3 year||Birth locality||Joined with-g3|
|Gheorghe I. Cantacuzino (1937)||Bucharest||Cristina Colfescu (c1945)|
|Radu Dudescu (1894-1983)||1,945||Bucharest||Lucie-Angèle Gaillac (c1915-c1995)|
|Amelia Lupescu (1926-2010)||1,950||Bucharest||Iulian Prejbeanu (1920-c1995)|
Died in Bucharest[edit | edit source]
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