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Bryansk Oblast
Брянская область
—  Oblast  —
Flag of Bryansk Oblast.png
Flag
Coat of arms of Bryansk Oblast.jpg
Coat of arms of Bryansk Oblast
Bryansk in Russia.svg
Bryansk Oblast in Russia
Coordinates: 52°57′N 33°24′E / 52.95, 33.4Coordinates: 52°57′N 33°24′E / 52.95, 33.4
Country Russia
Federal subject of Russia Bryansk Oblast
Federal district Central
Economic Region Central
Administrative center Bryansk
Basic law Charter of Bryansk Oblast
Established July 5, 1944
Government
 • Type Legislature
 • Body Oblast Duma
 • Governor Nikolai Vasilyevich Denin
Area
 • Oblast 34,900 km2 (13,500 sq mi)
Area rank 62nd
Population (2010)
 • Oblast 1,278,087
 • Rank 38th
 • Urban 69.1%
 • Rural 30.9%
Time zone MST
ISO 3166 code RU-BRY
Vehicle registration 32
Website http://www.bryanskobl.ru/

Bryansk Oblast (Russian: Бря́нская о́бласть, Bryanskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Bryansk. Population: 1,278,087 (2010 Census preliminary results).[1]

HistoryEdit

The territory of what is now Bryansk Oblast has been inhabited since ancient times by Slavic tribes. In the 9th to 11th centuries they lived along the banks of the Desna and in the forests of the land between the Desna and the Oka River. The city of Bryansk was established in 985.[2]

Bryansk remained poorly attested until the Mongol invasion of Russia. It was the northernmost of the Severian cities in the possession of the Chernigov Rurikids and the principality of Novgorod-Seversky. After Mikhail of Chernigov was murdered by the Mongols and his capital was destroyed, his son moved his seat to Bryansk. In 1310, when the Mongols sacked the town again, it belonged to the principality of Smolensk. After the demise of Chernigov by the Mongols, the Principality of Bryansk was formed. In 1356 Bryansk territory was under the authority of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Great Duchy of Moscow conquered Bryansk following the Battle of Vedrosha in 1503. The town was turned into a fortress which played a major role during the Time of Troubles. In 1618 the Deulino Armistice saw the southern and western area of the Bryansk region temporarily ceded to Poland. Peter the Great incorporated Bryansk into Kiev Governorate, but Catherine the Great deemed it wise to transfer the town to the Oryol Governorate in 1779. She also promulgated the town's coat of arms. Bryansk became the duchy's south-western outpost in the fight against Lithuania, Poland and Crimean Khanate.

After the expulsion of the Poles and reunification with Russia in 1654, all the left bank of the Dnieper (Malorossiya), including the south-western area of Bryansk, was divided into hundreds of administrative regiments. One of the largest was Starodubaka. In 1781, these regiments merged into districts and several territories.

In 1709, part of the Bryansk (Bryansky, Karachevsky, Sevsky, and Trubchevsky Uyezds) belonged to Kiev Governorate. In 1727, Sevsk Province became part of the newly formed Belgorod Governorate.

The 17th and 18th centuries were a period of significant regional economic development. The industrial revolution began in the 18th century, particularly in the eastern part of Bryansk and due to its reserves of sand and saw the growth of the glass industry.

Севск - Киевская ул

Sevsk in 1917

On April 1, 1920, Bryansk Oblast was established but on October 1, 1929 it was incorporated into the Western Oblast. On September 27, 1937 the Central Executive Committee decided to abolish the Western Krai, dividing it into Smolensk and Oryol Oblasts. The current territory of Bryansk Oblast became a part of Oryol Oblast.

In August-October 1941 the region was occupied by Nazi troops. From the first days of occupation, the struggle against the invaders took the character of a popular movement. In the Bryansk there were about 60,000 guerrillas from the guerrilla compounds of SA Kovpak, AF Fedorov and AN Saburov. It resulted in the destruction and burning of many towns and villages, affecting some 111,000 homes and many important industrial enterprises. After the liberation of territory (August-September 1943), extensive restoration work commenced.

The modern Bryansk Oblast was established by the Decree Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on July 5, 1944.

Geography and environmentEdit

Bryansk Oblast lies in western Russia in the western part of the East European Plain, occupying the middle part of the Desna River basin. The area, covering 34,900 km² is bounded to the north with Smolensk Oblast, with Kaluga Oblast and Orel Oblast in the south and southeast and borders Kursk, Chernihiv and Sumy with the Ukraine to the southwest and Gomel and Mogilev in Belarus to the northwest.

Bryansk Prospekt Lenina

Bryansk city

The climate is temperate continental. The average temperature in January is -7 - 9 °C. The average July temperature is between 18 and 20 °C. About a quarter of the total area is covered by forests, mainly coniferous, mixed and deciduous, as well as forest-steppe.

Natural resources include deposits of sand, clay, chalk, marl, and other building materials, as well as phosphorite.

As a result of the Chernobyl disaster on April 26, 1986, part of the territory of Bryansk region has been contaminated with radionuclides (mainly the Klimovsky, Klintsy, Krasnogorsk, Surazh and Novozybkov areas). In 1999, some 226,000 people lived in areas with the contamination level above 5 Curie/km2, representing approximately 16% of the Oblast's population.

EconomyEdit

Bryansk Pblast is a highly developed region with great industrial potential. Companies in the region manufacture products for export throughout Russia, as well as abroad. The most developed industries include woodworking and pulp and paper, building materials, engineering and metalworking, electronics, chemicals, forestry, light industry and textiles. The engineering industry produces cars, diesel locomotives, machine tools, refrigeration units, graders, asphalt spreaders, excavators, road harrows, woodworking equipment, heat generators, marine and other diesel engines, bicycles, and agricultural machinery.[3]

AgricultureEdit

Agriculture. Fertile soils and a long growing period favor the development of agriculture in Bryansk Region, which is one of the leading agricultural regions of the Russian Federation.

More than half of the region's land supply is used for agriculture. Most of this land (72%) is arable land, 27% consists of meadows and pastures, and 1% consists of gardens and berry fields. Livestock breeding, crop cultivation, and market gardening form the basis of the region's diversified agriculture.

Livestock breeding is Bryansk Oblast's leading agricultural sector. It provides most of the agricultural commodities; and provision of food products, the profitability of businesses, and living standards of rural residents depend on the efficient operation of this branch of the economy. Livestock breeding for meat and dairy products, poultry farming, horse breeding, fur farming, and beekeeping are all developed in the region.[4]

Grain is cultivated on more than half the sown area, mainly in southern and central districts with more favorable climatic conditions.

Potatoes are the second most important crop after grain. After Peter the Great brought them to Russia in the early 18th century, they became the country's "second bread". Potatoes are unique in that they are simultaneously an industrial, feed, and food crop. Russia's largest potato granulating mill outfitted with modern equipment is located in Bryansk Oblast.[5]

Other vegetables besides potatoes are also grown, and certain districts are noted for hothouse farming. Potatoes and vegetables are the most profitable of all agricultural products.

HeraldryEdit

The Flag of Bryansk Oblast represents a panel burgundy with a ratio of 1:1,5. In the center of the cloth is placed coat of arms of the Bryansk region. The coat of arms is a blue shield representing Slavic unity between the states of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. In the upper part of the shield is a stylized golden spruce with a three-tiered crown representing the forests of Bryansk. The flag is burgundy in color, representing the color of the banners under which the army and guerrillas fought for the liberation of Bryansk.

Administrative divisionsEdit

Bryansk admin divisions

Administrative divisions of Bryansk Oblast

Bryansk Oblast is divided into 27 districts (raions) and 4 cities. Together they comprise 12 towns, 24 urban-type settlements, and 224 selsoviets.

Urban Okrugs (Circles)

Coat of Arms Name of
Urban okrug
Area
(km²)
Population
(2010).
Population
Rank
I Coat of Arms of Bryansk (1781) Bryansk 230.0 415 600 1
II Coat of Arms of Klintsy (Bryansk oblast) (1985) Klintsy 64.0 63 711 2
III Coat of Arms of Novozybkov (Bryansk oblast) Novozybkov 31.4 41 465 3
IV Coat of Arms of Starodub (Bryansk oblast) (1782) Starodub 22 18 445 4
V Coat of arms of Seltco (Bryansk oblast) Seltso 33.1 18 015 5
VI Fokino1984 city coa n11953 Fokino 24 14 674 6


Rayons (Districts):

Coat of Arms Name of rayon Area
(km²)
Area
rank
Population
'000 (2010)
Population
rank
Аdministrative
center
Population
'000 (2010)
1 Coat of Arms of Brasovsky rayon (Bryansk oblast) Brasovo Rayon 1210 13-14 22,396 12 Lokot 11,977
2 Coat of arms of Bryansk Rayon Bryansk Rayon 1860 3 55,817 2 Bryansk -
3 - Vygonichi Rayon 1028 22 22,393 13 Vygonichi 5,290
4 CoatArmsGordeevskyMR Gordeyevka Rayon 846.5 2 12,243 25 Gordeyevka 3,077
5 Coat of Arms of Dubrovsky rayon (Bryansk oblast) Dubrovka Rayon 1030 21 20,666 15 Dubrovka 8,235
6 Dyatkovo1982 city coa n11946 Dyatkovo Rayon 1420 8 77,695 1 Dyatkovo 31,629
7 Gerb-Zhiryatinski-region Zhiryatino Rayon 750 26 7,181 27 Zhiryatino 2,409
8 Coat of Arms of Zhukovka rayon (Bryansk oblast) Zhukovka Rayon 1114 19 36,975 6 Zhukovka 18,243
9 - Zlynka Rayon 735 27 13,093 23 Zlynka 5,524
10 - Karachev Rayon 1350 9 36,036 7 Karachev 19,539
11 Coat of arms of Kletnya Kletnya Rayon 1580 6 20,350 16 Kletnya 13,402
12 Coat of arms of Klimovo rayon Klimovo Rayon 1530 7 31,013 9 Klimovo 14,147
13 Coat of Arms of Klintsy Raion (Bryansk Oblast) Klintsy Rayon 1291 11 19,342 18 Klintsy -
14 Coat of Arms of Komarichi rayon (Bryansk oblast) Komarichi Rayon 990 23 18,438 19 Komarichi 8.040
15 - Krasnaya Gora Rayon 1120 16-18 14,544 22 Krasnaya Gora 6,174
16 Coat of Arms of Mglin (Bryansk oblast) (1782) Mglin Rayon 1120 16-18 19,952 17 Mglin 8,169
17 Coat of arms of Navlya Navlya Rayon 2030 1 28,206 10 Navlya 14,306
18 Coat of arms of Novozybkov rayon Novozybkov Rayon 989 24 12,794 24 Novozybkov -
19 Coat of Arms of Pogar (Bryansk oblast) Pogar Rayon 1210 13-14 31,580 8 Pogar 10,841
20 Gerb-Pochepski-region Pochep Rayon 1887 2 44,147 3 Pochep 17,260
21 - Rognedino Rayon 1080 20 7,533 26 Rognedino 3,041
22 Coat of Arms of Sevsk (Bryansk oblast) (1781) Sevsk Rayon 1220 12 17,450 20 Sevsk 7,427
23 Coat of Arms of Starodub (Bryansk oblast) (1782) Starodub Rayon 1750 5 22,100 14 Starodub -
24 Coat of arms of Suzemka Suzemka Rayon 1339 10 17,410 21 Suzemka 9,347
25 Coat of Arms of Surazh (Bryansk oblast) (1782) Surazh Rayon 1120 16-18 25,041 11 Surazh 11,741
26 Coat of Arms of Trubchevsk (1781) Trubchevsk Rayon 1843 4 38,455 5 Trubchevsk 14,991
27 Gerb-Unechski-region Unecha Rayon 1130 15 41,011 4 Unecha 26,272

DemographicsEdit

  • Births (2008): 14,319 (11.0 per 1000)
  • Deaths (2008): 23,197 (17.8 per 1000)

Births increased by 7.8% and deaths remained the same in 2008 compared to 2007.[6]

CultureEdit

Y4110092 eine Kirche in Brjansk

The Spaso-Grobovskaya

Bryansk was one of the cultural centers of Rus in the Middle Ages. Painters, architects, carvers, jewelers, smiths, and embroideresses all worked in Bryansk. In each century, they beautified the churches, houses, and streets in their own way. Few of their names are known, but their works are. Bryansk itself is connected with the golden age of Russian national culture.[7]

There are seventeen museums in Bryansk Oblast.[2] The main cities have many major architectural and archeological monuments. In Bryansk is the Svenski monastery, Chashin mound (the birthplace of Bryansk), the ancient Kremlin of Bryansk on Pokrovskaya Mountain, Peter and Paul monastery etc.[2] Main churches include the Voksresenskaya, Vvedenskaya and Spaso-Grobovskaya, Pokrovskaya and Gorne-Nikolskaya.

Klintsy is the second largest city of Bryansk oblast and was one of the Old Believers’ centers, now known for its textile industry and its ancient temples. Trubchevsk is noted for its archeological and architectural monuments, in particular the Trinity Cathedral of the 13th-19th centuries with its tomb.[2] The museum contains some valuable items dated to the 6th-7th centuries.[2]

TransportEdit

Бабинка (пл 109 км)

Railway tracks in Bryansk Oblast

A large railway junction is located in the capital of Bryansk. Most rail lines in the oblast are electrified, using AC power. In connection with the border situation, Bryansk there are several major customs terminals.

The oblast is crossed by the M3 Moscow—Kiev highway and the M13 Bryansk-Novozybkov-Boundary Belarus—(Kobrin), and fourteen kilometers from the administrative center of the oblast is Bryansk International Airport.

ReferencesEdit

SourcesEdit

  • Брянская областная Дума. №7-З 26 января 1996 г. «Устав Брянской области», в ред. Закона №31-З от 4 мая 2009 г. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. #7-Z January 26, 1996 Charter of Bryansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #31-Z of May 4, 2009. ).

External linksEdit

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