|Battle of Oryol River|
|Principality of Volhynia |
Principality of Halych
Grand Principality of Kiev, including the Chorni Klobuky
Principality of Pereyaslavl
Principality of Turov
|Commanders and leaders|
The battle on the river Oryol is a battle which took place in 1184 between the troops of the Russian principalities and the Polovtsians, won by the Russian princes. It happened on the reign of Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich in Kiev, who had used allied Polovtsian troops several years earlier (including under the leadership of the khans Konchak and Kobyak) for approval at the Kiev reign in the fight against their oponents from Smolensk. The battle was the culmination of the first offensive movement of the Russian princes in the Russo-Polovtsian confrontation since 1168 .
The Kiev chronicle dates the battle in 6691, and the Laurentian Chronicle - 6693th. According to the comparative analysis undertaken by N. Berezhkov , the battle took place in 1184, and Konchak's February campaign to Russia, placed in the Kiev chronicle in the article under 6691, and Konchak's defeat in the Battle of the Khorol River (1184) on March 1, placed in the article under 6692 year, are one event, also referring to the year 1184.
The campaign involved troops from the Grand Principality of Kiev (including Chorni Klobuky) and the principalities of Pereyaslavl, Volhynia, Turov and Halych. The Ol'govichi sent a message that they could not go to the lower Dnieper , leaving their lands unprotected in the rear, and that they are were to join the campaign on Sula in the event that Svyatoslav would lead the troops to the steppe through the Principality of Pereyaslavl. But Svyatoslav did not change the original plan, continued to move down the Dnieper on the right, western shore. But the Lukomorye Polovtsians, against which the expedition was sent, dodged the collision, and then on the Forge, Svyatoslav switched to the left (according to the annalson the opposite side of the Dnieper, and there the Lukomorye Polovtsi, together with the Burchevs, decided to clash .
The first clash with the Polovtsians was carried out by leading detachments (in which the Chorni Klobuky traditionally operated), headed by Vladimir Pereyaslavsky, the sons of Svyatoslav's sons Gleb and Mstislav, Mstislav Romanovich and Gleb Dubrovitsky. Having overturned the advanced detachments of the enemy, the Russian avant-garde stopped, and soon underwent a rifle attack of the underlying Polovtsian forces, led by Khan Kobyak. A battle ensued, in which Svyatoslav and Ryurik soon abandoned the main Russian forces. The Polovtsians suffered huge losses killed and captured. Among the khans, Kobyak himself was captured, and soon, as the author of the "Lay of Igor's Host" expressed , " fell in the city of Kiev, in Gridnitsa Svyatoslavova . "
As a result of the battle, one of the two main Polovtsian groupings of the Black Sea steppes was routed, its head was taken prisoner. The battle on the Oryol River was the last major battle of the Russo-Polovtsian wars. After 1185 the main struggle was conducted in the border Porosye by secondary forces. The Polovtsians continued to penetrate deep into Russia and participate in battles only together with the troops of one of the opposing groups of Russian princes.
Learning about the successful campaign of the allied forces, Igor Svyatoslavich with his brother [[Vsevolodpp and nephew Svyatoslav in the same year conducted a campaign on the Polovtsian nomadic near the Merle River, and also intercepted the Polovtsian detachment of 400 people, who was about to raid the Russian lands.
List of Russian princes participating in the battle
- Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich of Kiev
- Ryurik Rostislavich
- Gleb Svyatoslavich
- Mstislav Svyatoslavich
- Vladimir Glebovich
- Vsevolod Yaroslavich Lutsky
- Mstislav Yaroslavich the Mute
- Mstislav Romanovich
- Izyaslav Davydovich
- Mstislav Vsevolodovich Gorodensky
- Yaroslav Pinsky
- Gleb Yuryevich
- Mstislav Vladimirovich
List of captive and killed Polovtsian khans
- Danilo Kobyakovych
- ? Kobyakovych
- Izay Bilyukovich
- ? Toglyevich
- Sdwak Kolobich
- Koryaz Kolotanovich †
- Thorsuk †
- Battle of Rostovtz (1176)
- Battle of the Khorol River (1184)