- Grandson of Noah
- Progenitor of Assyrian Peoples
Ashur (אַשּׁוּר) was the second son of Shem, the son of Noah. Ashur's brothers were Elam, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram.
Prior to the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, there was contention in academic circles regarding whether Ashur or Nimrod built the Assyrian cities of Nineveh, Resen, Rehoboth-Ir and Calah, since the name Ashur can refer to both the person and the country (compare Genesis 10:8–12 AV and Genesis 10:8–12 ESV). Sir Walter Raleigh devoted several pages in his History of the World (c. 1616) to reciting past scholarship regarding the question of whether it had been Nimrod or Ashur who built the cities in Assyria.
Dead Seas Scrolls
The Ge'ez version of the Book of Jubilees, affirmed by the 15 Jubilees scrolls found amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls, affirms that the contested lands in Genesis 10:8-12 were apportioned to Ashur. Jubilees 9:3 states, "And for Ashur came forth the second Portion, all the land of Ashur and Nineveh and Shinar and to the border of India, and it ascends and skirts the river." The Greek Septuagint; which is a Greek translation of the Hebrew version, the Geneva Bible, and both the 1611 and New King James Versions, further affirm that the language accredits Ashur as being the founder of the cities of Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calah, and Resen. The 1st century Judaeo-Roman historian Flavius Josephus gives the following statement: "Ashur lived at the city of Nineveh; and named his subjects Assyrians, who became the most fortunate nation, beyond others" (Antiquities, i, vi, 4). Ashur was an elder to Nimrod, and first cousins with his father Cush.
22 The children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram.
Genesis 10:22 - KJV Translation
- Ashur II - Another Ashur, the father of Tekoa, is mentioned in 1 Chronicles 4 among the Judahite descendants and five children.