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Aleksandr Yaroslavich Nevsky, Prince of Novgorod, Prince of Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, Grand Prince of Kiev, Grand Prince of Vladimir, was born 30 May 1220 in Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia to Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich of Vladimir (1191-1246) and Rostislava Mstislavna of Smolensk (c1202-1244) and died 14 November 1263 in Gorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia of unspecified causes. He married Aleksandra Bryachislavna of Polotsk (c1221-c1265) 1239 JL . Notable ancestors include Charlemagne (747-814), Alfred the Great (849-899). Ancestors are from Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, Sweden, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Belgium, the Byzantine Empire.
Saint Alexander Nevsky
Святой Александр Невский
Alexander Newski.jpg
Icon of Alexander Nevsky
Venerated in Eastern Orthodox Church
Canonized 1547 by Metropolite Macarius
Major shrine Vladimir; Pereslavl-Zalessky, Saint Petersburg
Feast 23 November (Repose)
2 May (Synaxis of the Saints of Rosand Yaroslavl
30 August (Translation of relics)
Attributes Robed as a Russian Great Prince, often wearing armor
Patronage Saint Petersburg, soldiers, borders of Russia

Aleksandr Yaroslavich Nevsky (Russian: Алекса́ндр Яросла́вич Не́вский; pronounced [ɐlʲɪˈksandr jɪrɐˈsɫavʲɪtɕ ˈnʲɛfskʲɪj] (Speaker Icon.svg listen); 13 May 1221-14 November 1263) served as Prince of Novgorod (1236–52), Grand Prince of Kiev (1236–52) and Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal (1252–63) during some of the most difficult times in Kievan Rus' history.

Commonly regarded as a key figure of medieval Rus', Aleksandr Nevsky – the grandson of Vsevolod Yuryevich – rose to legendary status on account of his military victories over German and Swedish invaders while agreeing to pay tribute to the powerful Golden Horde. He was canonized as a saint of the Russian Orthodox Church by Metropolite Macarius in 1547.[1]

Childhood and youth

From Tales of the Life and Courage of the Pious and Great Prince Alexander found in the Second Pskovian Chronicle, circa 1260–1280, comes one of the first known references to the Great Prince:

"By the will of God, prince Alexander was born from the charitable, people-loving, and meek the Great Prince Yaroslav, and his mother was Theodosia. As it was told by the prophet Isaiah: 'Thus sayeth the Lord: I appoint the princes because they are sacred and I direct them.'

"... He was taller than others and his voice reached the people as a trumpet, and his face was like the face of Joseph, whom the Egyptian Pharaoh placed as next to the king after him of Egypt. His power was a part of the power of Samson and God gave him the wisdom of Solomon ... this Prince Alexander: he used to defeat but was never defeated ..."[2]

Born in Pereslavl-Zalessky, Aleksandr was the second son of Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich and of Rostislava Mstislavna, daughter of the Kievan Rus' Prince Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold (died 1228). Alexander seemed to have no chance of claiming the throne of Vladimir. In 1236, however, the Novgorodians summoned him to become knyaz (or prince) of Novgorod and, as their military leader, to defend their northwest lands from Swedish and German invaders.

According to the Novgorod Chronicle written in the 14th century (more than a century after the events it recorded), the Swedish army had landed at the confluence of the rivers Izhora and Neva, Aleksandr and his small army suddenly attacked the Swedes on 15 July 1240 and defeated them. The battle of the Neva in 1240 saved Novgorod from a full-scale invasion from the West. Because of this battle, 19-year-old Aleksandr gained the nickname "Nevsky" (which means of Neva). This victory, coming just three years after the disastrous Mongol invasion of the Rus' lands of the North West, strengthened Aleksandr's political influence, but at the same time it worsened his relations with the boyars. He would soon have to leave Novgorod because of this conflict.

No non-Russian contemporary source mentions this supposed battle. The Chronicle identifies the alleged Swedish commander as "Spiridon", which is an Orthodox, not a Scandinavian name. Furthermore, Sweden had stood on the brink of war with Norway ever since the Norwegians' infamous Värmland expedition in 1225.[3] Relations improved only after the Treaty of Lödöse in 1249, which was forged by the new Swedish strongman Birger Jarl.[4] Before the treaty, Norway remained an ally of the Folkungs, giving them refuge and providing men and arms. In this situation, it seems unlikely that Sweden could have been able to organize a major expedition against Novgorod. Swedes are not known to have carried out any other military campaigns between 1222 and 1249, making the claims about their forceful appearance at the Neva with Norwegians as their allies in 1240 seem questionable.

After the Germans and Estonians invaded Pskov, the Novgorod authorities sent for Aleksandr. In spring of 1241 he returned from exile, gathered an army, and drove out the invaders. Aleksandr and his men faced the Livonian heavy cavalry led by the bishop of Dorpat (Hermann, brother of Albert of Buxhoeveden). The Rus' force met the enemy on the ice of Lake Peipus and defeated the German knights and the Estonian infantry during the Battle on the Ice on 5 April 1242.

Aleksandr's victory marked a significant event in the history of Russia. Foot soldiers of Novgorod had surrounded and defeated an army of knights, mounted on horseback and clad in thick armour. Nevsky's great victory against the Livonian Order apparently involved only a few knights killed rather than the hundreds claimed by the Russian chroniclers; decisive medieval and early-modern battles were won and lost by smaller margins than those seen in contemporary mass conflicts. Tactical military considerations aside, Aleksandr's victory was an important milestone in the development of Muscovite Russia.

Politician

After the Livonian invasion, Nevsky continued to strengthen Russia’s Northwest. He sent his envoys to Norway and, as a result, they signed a first peace treaty between Russia and Norway in 1251. Aleksandr led his army to Finland and successfully routed the Swedes, who had made another attempt to block the Baltic Sea from the Russians in 1256.[5]
Alexander Nevskiy receiving papal legates by Siemiradzki (litography)

The envoys of the Roman Pope attend Aleksandr Nevsky

Nevsky proved to be a cautious and far-sighted politician. He dismissed the Roman Curia’s attempts to cause war between Russia and the Golden Horde, because he understood the uselessness of such war with the Tatars at a time when they were still a powerful force. Historians seem to be unsure about Aleksandr’s behavior when it came to his relations with Mongols. He may have thought that Catholicism presented a more tangible threat to Russian national identity, than paying a tribute to the Khan, who had little interest in Slav religion and culture. It is also argued that he intentionally kept the North Slav principalities and city states as vassals to the Mongols in order to preserve his own status and counted on the befriended Horde in case someone challenged his authority (he forced the citizens of Novgorod to pay tribute). Aleksandr tried to strengthen his authority at the expense of the boyars and at the same time suppress any anti-Mongol uprisings in the country (Novgorod Uprising of 1259).

According to one interpretation, Aleksandr’s intentions were to protect scattered principalities of what would become Muscovy from repeated invasions by the Mongol army. He is known to have gone to the Horde himself and achieved success in exempting Russians from fighting beside the Tatar army in its wars with other peoples.

Some historians see Aleksandr's choice of subordination to the Golden Horde and refusal of cooperation with western countries and church as an important reaffirmation of East Slavs' Orthodox orientation (begun under Duke Vladimir of Kiev and his Mother Olga)[6]

Grand Prince of Vladimir

Thanks to his friendship with Sartak Khan, Aleksandr was installed as the Grand Prince of Vladimir (i.e., the supreme Russian ruler) in 1252. A decade later, Aleksandr died in the town of Gorodets-on-the-Volga on his way back from Sarai, the capital of the Golden Horde. Prior to his death, he took monastic vows and was given the religious name of Alexis.

Henryk Siemiradzki 012

Burial of Aleksandr Nevsky

From the Second Pskovian Chronicle:

"Returning from the Golden Horde, the Grand Prince Aleksandr, reached the city of Nizhny Novgorod, and remained there for several days in good health, but when he reached the city of Gorodets he fell ill ...

Grand Prince Aleksandr, who was always firm in his faith in God, gave up this worldly kingdom ... And then he gave up his soul to God and died in peace on 12 November [1263], on the day when the Holy Apostle Philip is remembered ...

At this burial Metropolitan Archbishop Cyril said, 'My children, you should know that the sun of the Suzdalian land has set. There will never be another prince like him in the Suzdalian land.'

And the priests and deacons and monks, the poor and the wealthy, and all the people said: 'It is our end.' "[2]

Though he died in Gorodets Aleksandr was laid to rest in the city of Vladimir, in the church of the Monastery of the Nativity of the Holy Mother of God.

Marriage and children

According to the Novgorod First Chronicle, Aleksandr married Aleksandra a daughter of Bryachislav Vasilkovich, Prince of Polotsk, in 1239. Her name is not given in the chronicle. Genealogies name her as Paraskeviya or Aleksandra (possibly birth and marital names respectively). They had five children:

Some historians consider that he married a second wife, Vassa or Vasilisa shortly before his death. [7] This is not certain and it is more likely that his wife Aleksandra, took Vassa or Vasilisa as her monastic name.

Legacy

File:Nevsk.jpg
Sasha Nevsky

Soviet order of Alexander Nevsky

Some of Alexander's policies on the Western border were continued by his grandson-in-law, Daumantas of Pskov, who was also beatified in the 16th century.

In the late 13th century, a chronicle was compiled called the Life of Alexander Nevsky (Житие Александра Невского), in which he is depicted as an ideal prince-soldier and defender of Russia.

Veneration of St. Alexander Nevsky as a saint began soon after his death. The remains of the prince were uncovered in response to a vision, before the Battle of Kulikovo in the year 1380, and found to be incorrupt. He was glorified (canonized) by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1547. His principal feast day is 23 November. By order of Peter the Great, St. Alexander Nevsky’s relics were transported to the Alexander Nevsky Lavra in St. Petersburg where they remain to this day. A second feast day was instituted on 30 August in commemoration of this event. He is also commemorated in common with other saints of Rostov and Yaroslavl on 23 May.

On 21 May 1725, the empress Catherine I introduced the Imperial Order of St. Alexander Nevsky as one of the highest decorations in the land. During the Great Patriotic War, on 29 July 1942, the Soviet authorities introduced an Order of Alexander Nevsky to revive the memory of Alexander's struggle with the Germans. There was also a Bulgarian Order dedicated to Saint Alexander which was founded on 25 December 1881 and then ceased to exist when a People's Republic was declared on 16 September 1946.

In 1938, Sergei Eisenstein made one of his most acclaimed films, Aleksandr Nevsky, on Aleksandr's victory over the Teutonic Knights. The soundtrack for the film was written by Sergei Prokofiev, who also reworked the score into a concert cantata. Today, the film is renowned for its extraordinary battle on ice sequence, which has served as inspiration for countless other films. In the picture, Nevsky used a number of Russian proverbs, tying Nevsky firmly to Russian tradition[8]

AlexanderNevskyCathedral-Sofia-6

Aleksandr Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia

Aleksandr's proverbial phrase (paraphrasing Matthew 26:52), "Whoever will come to us with a sword, from a sword will perish," has become a slogan of Russian patriots. There is a long tradition of Russian naval vessels bearing Nevsky's name, such as the 19th-century propellor frigate Aleksandr Nevsky and a strategic ballistic missile nuclear submarine recently built for the Russian Navy.

Saint Aleksandr Nevsky's fame has spread beyond the borders of Russia, and numerous cathedrals and churches are dedicated to him, including the Patriarchal Cathedral in Sofia, Bulgaria; the Cathedral church in Tallinn, Estonia.

On 24 September 2008, Saint Aleksandr Nevsky was declared the main hero of Russia’s history by popular vote, as reported by the Kommersant newspaper.

In December 2008, he was voted the greatest Russian in the Name of Russia television poll.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Faithful Saint Prince Alexandr Nevsky" (Russian), article read on 4.11.2010
  2. ^ a b Begunov, K., translator, Second Pskovian Chronicle, ("Isbornik", Moscow, 1955) pp.11–15.
  3. ^ Värmland expedition by the Svenskt Militärhistoriskt Bibliotek.
  4. ^ Treaty of Lödöse.
  5. ^ The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016-1471 - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. 2004-11-28. https://books.google.com/books?id=piIJAAAAIAAJ&q=1256+narova&dq=1256+narova&pgis=1. Retrieved 2014-04-24. 
  6. ^ Tarkiainen, Kari (2008) (in Swedish). Sveriges Österland. Från forntiden till Gustav Vasa. Helsingfors: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-951-583-162-0. 
  7. ^ Н. М. Карамзин. История государства Российского. Том 4. Глава 2 Существование второй жены Александра у историков вызывает сомнения. Некоторые полагают, что Васса — монашеское имя Александры Брячиславовны. Подробнее по этому вопросу см. А. Карпов, Александр Невский (ЖЗЛ), М.: Молодая гвардия, 2010. С. 89 ISBN 978-5-235-03312-2
  8. ^ Kevin McKenna. 2009. "Proverbs and the Folk Tale in the Russian Cinema: The Case of Sergei Eisenstein’s Film Classic Aleksandr Nevsky." The Proverbial «Pied Piper» A Festschrift Volume of Essays in Honor of Wolfgang Mieder on the Occasion of His Sixty-Fifth Birthday, ed. by Kevin McKenna, pp. 277-292. New York, Bern: Peter Lang.
  9. ^ "Stalin voted third-best Russian". BBC. 28 December 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7802485.stm. 

Further reading

  • Isoaho, Mari. The Image of Aleksandr Nevskiy in Medieval Russia: Warrior and Saint (The Northern World; 21). Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 90-04-15101-X).
  • "Tale of the Life and Courage of the Pious and Great Prince Alexander [Nevsky]" in Medieval Russia's Epics, Chronicles, and Tales, ed. Serge Zenkovsky, 224-235 (New York: Meridian, 1974)

External links

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Aleksandr Yaroslavich Nevsky
Born: 1220 Died: 1263
Preceded by
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich
Prince of Novgorod

12281229
With: Fyodor Yaroslavich
Succeeded by
Mikhail Vsevolodovich
Preceded by
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich
Prince of Novgorod
12361240
Succeeded by
Andrei Yaroslavich
Preceded by
Andrei Yaroslavich
Prince of Novgorod
12411252
Succeeded by
Vasili Aleksandrovich
Preceded by
Vasili Aleksandrovich
Prince of Novgorod
12571259
Succeeded by
Dmitri Aleksandrovich
Preceded by
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich
Prince of Pereyaslavl-Zalessky
12461263
Succeeded by
Dmitri Aleksandrovich
Preceded by
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich
Grand Prince of Kiev
12491263
Succeeded by
Yaroslav Yaroslavich
Preceded by
Andrei Yaroslavich
Grand Prince of Vladimir
12661267
Succeeded by
Yaroslav Yaroslavich



Children


Offspring of Aleksandr Nevsky and Aleksandra Bryachislavna of Polotsk (c1221-c1265)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Vasili Aleksandrovich of Novgorod (c1240-1271) 1240 1271
Yevdokiya Aleksandrovna (c1245-c1290) 1245 1290 Konstantin Rostislavich Bezruky of Smolensk (c1240-c1295)

Dmitri Aleksandrovich of Pereyaslavl (c1250-1294) 1250 Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia 1294 Volokolamsk, Volokolamsk Rayon, Moscow Oblast, Russia
Andrei Aleksandrovich of Gorodets (c1255-1304) 1255 27 July 1304 Vasilisa Dmitriyevna of Rostov (c1281-c1350)

Daniil Aleksandrovich of Moscow (1261-1303) 1261 Vladimir, Vladimir Oblast, Russia 4 March 1303 Mariya Glebovna of Beloozero (c1264-c1300)

Siblings


Offspring of Yaroslav II of Vladimir and Rostislava Mstislavna of Smolensk (c1202-1244)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Andrei II Yaroslavich of Vladimir (c1222-1264) 1222 1264 Ustyniya Daniilovna of Halych (c1232-c1279)

Vasili Yaroslavich of Kostroma (1241-1276) 1241 Vladimir, Russia 1276 Kostroma
Afanasi Yaroslavich (1239-1239) 1239 1239
Mikhail Yaroslavich Khorobrit (1226-1248) 1226 Pereslavl-Zalessky, Russia 15 January 1248 Serpukhov, Russia
Daniil Yaroslavich (1227-1256) 1227 1256
Yevdokiya Yaroslavna (1243-1243) 1243 1243
Yaroslav Yaroslavich of Tver (1230-1272) 1230 16 September 1272 Natalya (c1230-1252)
Kseniya Yuryevna of Tarusa (c1246-1312)

Aleksandr Nevsky (1220-1263) 30 May 1220 Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia 14 November 1263 Gorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia Aleksandra Bryachislavna of Polotsk (c1221-c1265)

Mariya Yaroslavna (1240-1240) 1240 1240
Konstantin Yaroslavich of Galich-Dmitrov (c1225-1255) 1225 1255 Vladimir, Vladimir Oblast, Russia
Fyodor Yaroslavich (1219-1233)


Residences

Namesakes of Aleksandr Nevsky (1220-1263)

 Birth placeDeath placeFatherMotherJoined with
Aleksandr Borisovich (Mamot) of Shumorovo (c1420-c1460)Yaroslavl Oblast, RussiaYaroslavl Oblast, RussiaBoris Glebovich of Shumorovo (c1395-c1450)
Aleksandr Danilovich (c1283-1308)Daniil Aleksandrovich of Moscow (1261-1303)Mariya Glebovna of Beloozero (c1264-c1300)
Aleksandr Dmitriyevich of Rostov (1286-1320)Dmitri Borisovich of Rostov (1253-1294)
Aleksandr Fyodorovich of Mikulin (c1392-1435)Mikulin, Moscow Oblast, RussiaMikulin, Moscow Oblast, RussiaFyodor Mikhailovich of Mikulin (c1370-1409)Anna Fyodorovna Koshkina (?-1407)Maria Ivanovna of Yaroslavl (c1395-1435)
Aleksandr Fyodorovich of Yaroslavl (c1410-1471)Yaroslavl, Yaroslavl Oblast, RussiaYaroslavl, Yaroslavl Oblast, RussiaFyodor Vasilyevich of Yaroslavl (c1370-1434)
Aleksandr Glebovich of Smolensk (c1255-1313)Gleb Rostislavich of Smolensk (c1228-1278)
Aleksandr Glebovich of Dubrovitsa (c1180-1223)Gleb Yuryevich of Turov (c1155-1195)
Aleksandr Glebovich (c1255-1313)Gleb Rostislavich of Smolensk (c1230-1278)
Aleksandr Ivanovich of Yaroslavl (c1387-1455)Yaroslavl, Yaroslavl Oblast, RussiaYaroslavl, Yaroslavl Oblast, RussiaIvan Vasilyevich of Yaroslavl (c1365-1426)Anna Ivanovna of Rostov (c1370-c1426)
Aleksandr Ivanovich of Tver (c1379-1425)Tver, Tver Oblast, RussiaTver, Tver Oblast, RussiaIvan Mikhailovich of Tver (1357-1425)Maria of LithuaniaAnna Fyodorovna of Mologa (c1380-c1440)
Aleksandr Konstantinovich of Uglich (1286-c1306)Konstantin Borisovich of Rostov (1255-1307)
Aleksandr Mikhailovich of Tver (1301-1339)Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver (1271-1318)Anna Dmitriyevna of Kashin (c1280-1368)Anastasia Yuryevna of Halych (c1293-c1364)
Aleksandr Mikhailovich of Mologa (c1342-c1360)Mologa, Yaroslavl Oblast, RussiaMologa, Yaroslavl Oblast, RussiaMikhail Davidovich of Mologa (c1315-1362)
Aleksandr Nevsky (1220-1263)Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, Yaroslavl Oblast, RussiaGorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, RussiaYaroslav II Vsevolodovich of Vladimir (1191-1246)Rostislava Mstislavna of Smolensk (c1202-1244)Aleksandra Bryachislavna of Polotsk (c1221-c1265)



Footnotes (including sources)

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