|Centuries:||9th century · 10th century · 11th century|
|Decades:||900s 910s 920s 930s 940s|
950s 960s 970s 980s 990s
|Categories:||Births – Deaths |
Establishments – Disestablishments
Overview[edit | edit source]
The tenth century is usually regarded as a low point in European history. In China it was also a period of political upheaval. In the Muslim World, however, it was a cultural zenith, especially in Spain. Also it was the zenith for the Byzantine and Bulgarian Empires.
Medievalist and historian of technology Lynn White said that "to the modern eye, it is very nearly the darkest of the Dark Ages", but concluded that ". . . if it was dark, it was the darkness of the womb." Similarly, Helen Waddell wrote that the tenth century was that which "in the textbooks disputes with the seventh the bad eminence, the nadir of the human intellect." Even in the fifteenth century, Lorenzo Valla described it as the Century of Lead and Iron.
Events[edit | edit source]
- The beginning of the Medieval Warm Period
- Viking groups settle in northern France — Norse become Normans
- Foundation of Cluny, first federated monastic order
- In 917 the Bulgarians destroyed the Byzantine army in the battle of Anchialus, one of the bloodiest battles in the Middle Ages
- 927, official recognition of the first independent national Church in Europe, the Bulgarian Patriarchate
- Incursions of Magyar (Hungarian) cavalry throughout Western Europe (47 expeditions in Germany, Italy and France, 899–970)
- Mieszko I, first duke of Poland, baptised a Christian in 966
- Khazar kingdom is attacked and defeated by Kievan Rus (965)
- Vladimir I, Prince of Kievan Rus, baptised a Christian in 988
- Collapse of the central lowland Maya civilization. End of Classic Maya period, begin Post-Classic May.
- Rise of the Toltecs in Mexico
- Golden age of the Ancestral Puebloans (Pueblo II)
- Collapse of Great Moravia
- Buddhist temple construction commences at Bagan, Myanmar
- In 932, the first use of gunpowder in battle occurred with the Chinese Battle of Lang-shan Jiang (Wolf Mountain River), where the naval fleet of the Wen-Mu King was defeated by Qian Yuan-guan because he had used 'fire oil' (huo yóu, 火油) of gunpowder-fuse ignited flamethrowers to burn his fleet.
- Laguna Copperplate Inscription, Kavi script, inscribed in Luzon, Philippines, dated Saka year 822 (AD 900)
- In 910 Parantaka I of the Chola Dynasty drove out the Pandayas from southern India into Sri Lanka, which he also eventually conquered.
- The medieval Croatian state becomes a unified kingdom under Tomislav
- Twentieth century Belgian astronomer Jean Meeus asserts that the positions of the eight planets and Pluto were within the same 90° arc of the solar system on 1 February, 949. The next time it is thought this will occur is on 6 May, 1492.
- Coastal cities on the Malay Peninsula are the seed for the first recorded Malay kingdoms
- The Fatimid dynasty arises in eastern Algeria
- Swedish influence extends to the Black Sea
- The Christian Nubian kingdom reaches its peak of prosperity and military power (Early history of Sudan)
- The Mississippian culture begins in present day Southern USA
- The Byzantine empire reaches the height of its military and economic strength
- Baile Átha Cliath (Dublin) was founded (988)
- Reindeer become extinct in Scotland
- Lions become extinct Europe by this date, with the last dying in Caucasus.
- 980s - Al-Azhar University is established in Cairo by Fatimid dynasty.
- 993 — the Arab maritime captain Abu Himyarite from Yemen toured Guangzhou port, and was an avid visitor to China
Significant people[edit | edit source]
- Tomislav, king of Croatia,united the medieval Croatian state into the Kingdom of Croatia , crowned in 925
- Topiltzin Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl, semi-legendaric Toltec ruler, (exact years of his life are unknown)
- Abd-ar-rahman III of Cordoba
- Adikavi Pampa an early Kannada language poet (born in 902)
- Simeon the Great, Emperor of Bulgaria (reigned 893–927)
- Nicephorus II, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire (lived 912–969, reigned 963–969)
- Otto I the Great, Holy Roman Emperor (lived 912–973, reigned 936–973)
- King Edmund I of England (lived 921–946, reigned 939–946)
- John I Tzimisces, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire (lived 925–976, reigned 969–976)
- Ranna, an early Kannada language poet from India, (born in 949)
- Hugh Capet (lived 938–996), first Capetian King of France
- Huyan Zan, Chinese general (died in 1000)
- Géza of Hungary, ruler of the Magyars (lived 940–997, reigned 970–997)
- Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor (lived 955–983, reigned 973–983)
- Li Cheng, Chinese landscape painter
- Theophanu, wife of Otto II, mother and Regent of Otto III, (lived 956–991, reigned 983–991)
- Tailapa II, re-established the Western Chalukya Empire of India (reigned 973-997)
- Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria (lived 958–1014, reigned 976–1014)
- Zhang Sixun, Chinese astronomer and mechanical engineer
- Vladimir I, Prince of Kievan Rus (lived 958–1015)
- Basil II, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, (lived 958–1025, reigned 976–1025)
- Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor (lived 980–1002, reigned 983–1002)
- Ferdowsi Persian poet
- Li Fang, Chinese scholar and encyclopedist (925-996)
- Erik the Red Viking Explorer, founded Greenland
- Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, founder of the Fatamid dynasty of Egypt in 909
- Emperor Taizu of Song, founder of the Chinese Song Dynasty (lived March 21, 927–November 14, 976, reigned 960-976)
- Parantaka I, ruler of the Chola Dynasty of India (reigned 907-950)
Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit | edit source]
- Hop first mentioned in connection with beer brewing
- Zhang Sixun of China uses for the first time liquid mercury instead of water to power the escapement mechanism rotating an armillary sphere, since liquid mercury does not freeze easily like water during winter, and doesn't rust metal parts
- Fire Arrows are invented by the Chinese, along with the use of the first blackpowder impregnated fuses for igniting the blast of double-piston flamethrowers which employed Greek Fire, an imported good from Arabia in the early part of the century.
- Construction begins on the Brihadeeswarar Temple of India, during the reign of Rajaraja Chola I
- The first pound lock is invented by the Chinese engineer Qiao Weiyo, improving the canal lock system.
- Three of the Four Great Books of Song are published (the last one in 1013), which were enormous Chinese encyclopedias having millions of written Chinese characters each.
Decades and years[edit | edit source]
Notes[edit | edit source]
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Heinrich Fichtenau: Living in the Tenth Century: Mentalities and Social Orders (transl. Patrick J. Geary; Chicago cool London: 1991).
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