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Bellevue, Nebraska
—  City  —
Sarpy County Nebraska Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Bellevue Highlighted.svg
Location of Bellevue, Nebraska
Coordinates: 41°9′31″N 95°56′3″W / 41.15861, -95.93417Coordinates: 41°9′31″N 95°56′3″W / 41.15861, -95.93417
Country United States
State Nebraska
County Sarpy
Government
 • Mayor Rita Sanders
Area
 • Total 16.02 sq mi (41.5 km2)
 • Land 15.85 sq mi (41.06 km2)
 • Water 0.17 sq mi (0.44 km2)
Elevation 1,033 ft (315 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 50,137
 • Density 3,162.8/sq mi (1,221.2/km2)
Time zone Central (CST) (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
Area code(s) 402
FIPS code 31-03950[1]
GNIS feature ID 0827304[2]

Bellevue (French for "beautiful view") is a city in Sarpy County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 50,137 at the 2010 census. Eight miles south of Omaha, Bellevue is part of the Omaha-Council Bluffs metropolitan area. Originally settled in the 1830s, Bellevue was incorporated in 1855 and is the oldest continuous town in Nebraska. The Nebraska State Legislature has credited the town as being the second oldest settlement in Nebraska. It was once the seat of government in Nebraska.[3]

GeographyEdit

Bellevue is located at an elevation of 1159  ft (353 m). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.02 square miles (41.5 km²), of which, 15.85 square miles (41.06 km²) of it is land and 0.17 square miles (0.44 km²) is water. It is bounded on the east by the Missouri River.

The Sarpy County Courthouse is located in nearby Papillion, Nebraska.

DemographicsEdit

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1900 527
1910 596 13.1%
1920 695 16.6%
1930 1,017 46.3%
1940 1,184 16.4%
1950 3,858 225.8%
1960 8,831 128.9%
1970 21,953 148.6%
1980 21,813 −0.6%
1990 39,240 79.9%
2000 44,382 13.1%
2010 50,137 13.0%

As of the census[4] of 2010, there were 50,137 people, 19,142 households, and 13,371 families residing in the city. The population density was 3162.8 people per square mile (1221.2/km²). There were 20,591 housing units at an average density of 1299 per square mile (501.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 81.5% White, 6.0% African American, 0.7% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 0.2Pacific Islander, 5.4% from other races, and 3.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.9% of the population.

There were 19,142 households out of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 30.1% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.11.

The median age in the city was 34.8 years. 26.4% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.8% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.7% were from 25 to 44; 25.6% were from 45 to 64; and 11.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.2% male and 50.8% female.

As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $47,201, and the median income for a family was $54,422. Males had a median income of $33,819 versus $25,783 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,903. About 4.1% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.9% of those under age 18 and 3.8% of those age 65 or over.

HistoryEdit

Fur countryEdit

Pawnee01

Tribal territory of the Otoe

Settlement of what became Bellevue began when a fur trading post was built in 1822 by Joshua Pilcher,[5] then president of the Missouri Fur Company based in St. Louis. The post was later known as Fontenelle's Post after being run by Lucien Fontenelle, a fur trader who purchased it in 1828 to represent the American Fur Company. The Post served as a central trading point with local Omaha, Otoe, Missouri and Pawnee tribes. Early French Canadian trappers named the area Belle Vue because of the beauty of the view from the bluffs overlooking the Missouri River.

With the decline in the fur trade, in 1832 Fontenelle sold the post to the US government to be used for the Missouri River Indian Agency (also called the Bellevue Agency). When Baptist missionaries Moses and Eliza Merrill arrived in 1833, the US Indian agent let them stay temporarily at the post.

In 1835 the Merrills moved with the Otoe about eight miles to the west, where they established what was known as the Otoe or Moses Merrill Mission. Fontenelle's Post was abandoned about 1839-1842.[6] In 1839 the Steamboat Pirate sank on the Missouri near Bellevue. In the 1830s a log cabin was built at present-day 805 Hancock Street, that still stands today.

Colonel Peter Sarpy, a French Creole fur trader who also was based in St. Louis, established a trading post across the river from Bellevue in what became Iowa. It chiefly supplied the expeditions of European and United States settlers bound for Oregon and later, California's Gold Rush. About 1846, Sarpy also set up a ferry between Bellevue and St. Mary's, Iowa. By the 1850s, one of his ferries ran by steam. Bellevue was also a location of Mormon settlement around 1850.[7]

As a prominent businessman, Sarpy was active in community affairs in Bellevue. He helped plat and organize the town. In addition, he platted Decatur. The Nebraska legislature named Sarpy County after him in appreciation.

Ideally situated on the Missouri River with access to the Platte River Valley, Bellevue continued to grow. The community became a hub for transfer of manufactured goods from the East and furs from the West. From the 1840s until the 1850s, Bellevue prospered.

With the decline of the fur trade, Bellevue changed during the decade of the 1850s to a more mixed economy. As eastern Nebraska was opened to European-American settlement in 1854 after the US gained cession of the Omaha people's lands in the Treaty of 1854, Bellevue experienced a building boom. The First Presbyterian Church, a bank, a hotel, and dozens of private homes were among the new structures built. The boom was short-lived, however. The expansion accompanied a belief that the city was to be selected as the capital of the Nebraska Territory. Since the city was the oldest and most widely known settlement in the territory, Bellevue residents were optimistic. The new territorial governor, Francis Burt, had already moved into a residence in Bellevue. Shortly after arriving, Governor Burt died.

His successor T.B. Cuming selected a new upstart community as the territorial capital — Omaha, to the north on the Missouri River. This became the center of economic development.

DeclineEdit

The second half of the century witnessed Bellevue's slip into relative obscurity. While Omaha grew from a few hundred in population in 1855 to 104,000 in 1890, Bellevue's numbers continued to slide until the city was near extinction. In 1876, the county seat was transferred to Papillion, 10 miles (16 km) to the west.

In the 1890s, the city's offer of inexpensive land brought Fort Crook to the Bellevue area. The fort provided impetus to Bellevue's population growth in the future. In 1966, Bellevue College (now Bellevue University) was established.[8]

From the 1880s to 1940, Bellevue's population grew minimally, from around 500 to not more than 1200 in 1940. The small growth was primarily due to the improved transportation access to Omaha, which allowed for easier commuting for workers.

Offutt Air Force BaseEdit

Offutt AFB at 1000 ft

Aerial view of Offutt Air Force Base with Bellevue in foreground

Fort Crook, later named and redesigned as Offutt Air Force Base, spurred Bellevue's largest growth. Offutt became home to the huge Martin bomber plant during World War II and, shortly after the war, housed the headquarters of the Strategic Air Command. It attracted thousands of workers, both civilian and military, who made Bellevue their home. Bellevue's population grew from less than 1200 in 1940 to almost 4000 in 1950 and then almost 9000 ten years later. A decade later, Bellevue's population again more than doubled, to more than 20,000.

The Martin Bomber Plant was the site of manufacture for the historically significant Enola Gay and Bockscar, the planes used by the US to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, respectively, ending the Pacific war.

Offutt Air Force Base is the location of the 55th Wing, United States Strategic Command and the Air Force Weather Agency.

The first divided highway in Nebraska was built from the south Omaha city limits to Offutt Air Force Base. Today known as Fort Crook Road, it was finished December 8, 1941, the day after the attacks at Pearl Harbor.[9]

TodayEdit

Bellevue's growth today is primarily due to an expanding economy in the civilian sector. The Kennedy Freeway, a limited-access highway linked to the Interstate Highway System, has stimulated a new building boom. Commercial, industrial, and residential construction are all expanding. During the 1990s, the city's population grew by 47.5%. Economic and population growth has continued since the turn of the 20th to 21st century.

Bellevue is the site of Fontenelle Forest, 1,400 acres (5.7 km2) of privately owned forestland with 19 miles (31 km) of hiking trails, with views of the Missouri River and the surrounding area.[10] It includes the site of Fontenelle's Post. Haworth Park at the Missouri River is also a popular tourist attraction, featuring the start of a walking trail that stretches many miles across Bellevue.

The eagerly anticipated Bellevue Medical Center[11] opened on May 17, 2010. The hospital is located at the corner of Highway 370 and 25th Street.

Bellevue's current mayor is Rita Sanders.[12][13]

Notable peopleEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit

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